France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Lancia is an Italian automobile manufacturer founded in 1906 by Vincenzo Lancia as Lancia & C.. It became part of the Fiat Group in 1969; the company has a strong rally heritage and is noted for using letters of the Greek alphabet for its model names. Lancia vehicles are no longer sold outside Italy and comprise only the Ypsilon supermini range, as the late Fiat CEO Sergio Marchionne foreshadowed in January 2014 until his death in 2018. Lancia & C. Fabbrica Automobili was founded on 29 November 1906 in Turin by Fiat racing drivers, Vincenzo Lancia and his friend, Claudio Fogolin; the first car manufactured by Lancia was the "Tipo 51" or "12 HP", which remained in production from 1907 to 1908. It had a small four-cylinder engine with a power output of 28 PS. In 1910, Lancia components were exported to the United States where they were assembled and sold as SGVs by the SGV Company. In 1915, Lancia manufactured its first truck, the Jota that continued as a dedicated series. In 1937, Vincenzo died of a heart attack and both his wife, Adele Miglietti Lancia, his son, Gianni Lancia, took over control of the company.
They persuaded Vittorio Jano to join as an engineer. Jano had made a name for himself by designing various Alfa Romeo models, including some of its most successful race cars such as the 6C, P2 and P3. Lancia is renowned in the automotive world for introducing cars with numerous innovations; these include the Theta of 1913, the first European production car to feature a complete electrical system as standard equipment. Lancia's first car adopting a monocoque chassis – the Lambda produced from 1922 to 1931 - featured'Sliding Pillar' independent front suspension that incorporated the spring and hydraulic damper into a single unit. 1948 saw the first 5 speed gearbox to be fitted to a production car. Lancia premiered the first full-production V6 engine, in the 1950 Aurelia, after earlier industry-leading experiments with V8 and V12 engine configurations, it was the first manufacturer to produce a V4 engine. Other innovations involved the use of independent suspension in production cars and rear transaxles, which were first fitted to the Aurelia and Flaminia range.
This drive for innovation, constant quest for excellence, fixation of quality, complex construction processes and antiqued production machinery meant that all cars had to be hand-made. With little commonality between the various models, the cost of production continued to increase extensively, while no increase in demand affecting Lancia's viability. Gianni Lancia, a graduate engineer, was president of Lancia from 1947 to 1955. In 1956 the Pesenti family took over control of Lancia with Carlo Pesenti in charge of the company. Fiat launched a take-over bid in October 1969, accepted by Lancia as the company was losing significant sums of money, with losses in 1969 being GB£20m; this was not the end of the distinctive Lancia marque, new models in the 1970s such as the Stratos and Beta served to prove that Fiat wished to preserve the image of the brand it had acquired. During the 1970s and 1980s, Lancia had great success in rallying, winning many World Rally Championships. During the 1980s, the company cooperated with Saab Automobile, with the Lancia Delta being sold as the Saab 600 in Sweden.
The 1985 Lancia Thema shared a platform with the Saab 9000, Fiat Croma and the Alfa Romeo 164. During the 1990s, all models were related to other Fiat models. Starting from 1 February 2007, Fiat's automotive operations were reorganised. Fiat Auto became Fiat Group Automobiles S.p. A. Fiat S.p. A.'s branch handling mainstream automotive production. The current company, Lancia Automobiles S.p. A. was created from the pre-existing brand, controlled 100% by FGA. In 2011, Lancia moved in a new direction and added new models manufactured by Chrysler and sold under the Lancia badge in many European markets. Conversely, Lancia built models began to be sold in right-hand drive markets under the Chrysler badge. In 2015 Lancia's parent company Fiat Group Automobiles S.p. A. became FCA Italy S.p. A. reflecting the earlier incorporation of Fiat S.p. A. into Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. 1907From 1907 to 1910 Lancia cars didn't bear a true badge, but rather a brass plaque identifying the manufacturer and chassis code.
1911The original Lancia logo was designed by Count Carlo Biscaretti di Ruffia. In 1910 Vincenzo Lancia asked Biscaretti di Ruffia to design a badge for the company. Vincenzo Lancia chose a round one, composed by a blue lance and flag bearing a Lancia script in gold, over a four-spoke steering wheel, with a hand throttle detail on the right spoke; the first car to bear the Lancia logo was the Gamma 20 HP in 1911. 1929In 1929 the logo acquired its final layout: the previous round badge was superimposed on a blue shield in the shape of a Reuleaux triangle. Though first applied on the 1929 Dikappa, this badge was only used consintently starting with the 1936 Aprilia. 1957Beginning with the 1957 Flaminia, Lancia cars switched from the traditional vertical split grille to an horizontal, full-width one. The logo was therefore moved inside the grille opening, changed to a more stylized chromed metal open-work design.
Sir Stirling Craufurd Moss, is a British former Formula One racing driver. An inductee into the International Motorsports Hall of Fame, he won 212 of the 529 races he entered across several categories of competition and has been described as "the greatest driver never to win the World Championship". In a seven-year span between 1955 and 1961 Moss finished as championship runner-up four times and third the other three. Moss was born in London, son of Alfred Moss, a dentist of Bray and Aileen, he was brought up at Long White Cloud house on the right bank of the River Thames. His father was an amateur racing driver who had placed 16th at the 1924 Indianapolis 500. Aileen Moss had been involved in motorsport, entering prewar hillclimbs at the wheel of a Singer Nine. Stirling was a gifted horse rider as was his younger sister, Pat Moss, who became a successful rally driver and married Erik Carlsson. Moss was educated at several independent schools: Shrewsbury House School in Surbiton, Clewer Manor Junior School, the linked senior school and Imperial Service College, located at Hertford Heath, near Hertford.
Moss raced from 1948 to 1962, winning 212 of the 529 races he entered, including 16 Formula One Grands Prix. He would compete in as many as 62 races in a single year and drove 84 different makes of car over the course of his racing career, including Cooper 500, ERA, Lister Cars, Maserati, Mercedes-Benz and Vanwall single-seaters, Aston Martin, Ferrari and Mercedes-Benz sports cars, Jaguar saloons. Like many drivers of the era, he competed in several formulae on the same day, he preferred to race British cars, stating, "Better to lose honourably in a British car than win in a foreign one". At Vanwall, he was instrumental in breaking the German/Italian stranglehold on F1 racing, he remained the English driver with the most Formula One victories until 1991 when Nigel Mansell overtook him after competing in more races. Moss began his career at the wheel of his father Alfred's 328 Frazer Nash, DPX 653. Moss was one of the Cooper Car Company's first customers, using winnings from competing in horse-riding events to pay the deposit on a Cooper 500 racing car in 1948.
He persuaded his father, who opposed his racing and wanted him to be a dentist, to let him buy it. He soon demonstrated his ability with numerous wins at national and international levels, continued to compete in Formula Three, with Coopers and Kiefts, after he had progressed to more senior categories, his first major international race victory came on the eve of his 21st birthday at the wheel of a borrowed Jaguar XK120 in the 1950 RAC Tourist Trophy on the Dundrod circuit in Northern Ireland. He went on to win the race six more times, in 1951, 1955, 1958 and 1959, 1960 and 1961. A competent rally driver, he is one of three people to have won a Coupe d'Or for three consecutive penalty-free runs on the Alpine Rally, he finished second in the 1952 Monte Carlo Rally driving a Sunbeam-Talbot 90 with Desmond Scannell and Autocar magazine editor John Cooper as co-drivers. In 1954, he became the first non-American to win the 12 Hours of Sebring, sharing the Cunningham team's 1.5-liter O. S. C. A. MT4 with American Bill Lloyd.
In 1953 Mercedes-Benz racing boss Alfred Neubauer had spoken to Moss's manager, Ken Gregory, about the possibility of Moss's joining the Mercedes Grand Prix team. Having seen him do well in a uncompetitive car, wanting to see how he would perform in a better one, Neubauer suggested Moss buy a Maserati for the 1954 season, he bought a Maserati 250F, although the car's unreliability prevented his scoring high points in the 1954 Drivers' Championship he qualified alongside the Mercedes front runners several times and performed well in the races. He achieved his first Formula 1 victory when he won the non-Championship International Gold Cup in the Maserati. In the Italian Grand Prix at Monza he passed both drivers who were regarded as the best in Formula One at the time—Juan Manuel Fangio in a Mercedes and Alberto Ascari in a Ferrari—and took the lead. Ascari retired with engine problems, Moss led until lap 68 when his engine failed. Fangio took the victory, Moss pushed his Maserati to the finish line.
Neubauer impressed when Moss had tested a Mercedes-Benz W196 at Hockenheim, promptly signed him for 1955. Moss's first World Championship victory was in the 1955 British Grand Prix at Aintree, a race he was the first British driver to win. Leading a 1–2–3–4 finish for Mercedes, it was the first time he beat Fangio, his teammate and arch rival, his friend and mentor, it has been suggested. Moss himself asked Fangio and Fangio always replied: "No. You were just better than me that day." The same year, Moss won the RAC Tourist Trophy, the Targa Florio, the Mille Miglia. In 1955 Moss won Italy's thousand-mile Mille Miglia road race, an achievement Doug Nye described as the "most iconic single day's drive in motor racing history." Motor Trend headlined it as "The Most Epic Drive. Ever."Moss 25 years old, drove one of four factory-entered Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR sports-racing cars. Based on the W196 Grand Prix car, they had spaceframe chassis and magnesium-alloy bodies, their modified W196 engines ran on a mixture of petrol and alcohol.
The team's main race rivals were the factory-entered Ferraris of Piero Taruffi, Eugenio Castellotti, Umberto Maglioli, Paolo Marzotto. Journalist Denis Jenkinson was Moss's navigator, he had intended to go with John Fitch
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Hans Herrmann is a retired Formula One and sports car racing driver from Stuttgart, Germany. In F1, he participated in 19 World Championship Grands Prix, debuting on 2 August 1953, he achieved 1 podium, scored a total of 10 championship points. In sports car racing, he scored the first overall win at the 24 Hours of Le Mans for Porsche in 1970, in a Porsche 917; the racing career of Herrmann, a baker by trade, spans from cooperation with pre-war legends like Alfred Neubauer to the beginning of the dominance of Porsche at the 24 Hours of Le Mans. He took part in now legendary road races like Mille Miglia, Targa Florio and Carrera Panamericana and is one of the few remaining witnesses of this era. Hans im Glück escaped from accidents. Herrmann had a remarkable Mille Miglia race in 1954, when the gates of a railroad crossing were lowered in the last moment before the fast train to Rome passed. Driving a low Porsche 550 Spyder, Herrmann decided it was too late for a brake attempt anyway, knocked on the back of the helmet of his navigator Herbert Linge to make him duck, they passed below the gates and before the train, to the surprise of the spectators.
From 1954 to 1955, he was part of the Mercedes-Benz factory team, as a junior driver behind Juan Manuel Fangio, Karl Kling, Hermann Lang and Stirling Moss. When the Silver Arrows came back for the 1954 French Grand Prix to score a 1–2 win, Herrmann drove the fastest lap but had to retire. A podium finish at the 1954 Swiss Grand Prix was his best result in that year as he had to use older versions of the Mercedes-Benz W196, or the least reliable car. In the 1955 Argentine Grand Prix his teammates Kling and Moss had to abandon early due to the hot conditions on the southern hemisphere in January. Herrmann was called in to share his car with them for a 4th-place finish, giving one point each. Fangio won with two laps more. Hans was quick in the 1955 Mille Miglia with the Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR, comparably or faster than Moss, but was less lucky than in 1954, as he had to abandon the race. A crash in practise for the 1955 Monaco Grand Prix put Herrmann out for the ill-fated 1955 season though a comeback in the Targa Florio was intended.
The next years saw Herrmann racing for many marques, in F1 for Cooper, Maserati and BRM. In Berlin's AVUS during the 1959 German Grand Prix the brakes of his BRM failed, he crashed in a spectacular way, being thrown out of the car and sliding along the track with the car somersaulting in the air. With different versions of the Porsche 718 being used as a sportscar and as a Formula Two car, Herrmann scored some wins for Porsche both the 1960 12 Hours of Sebring and Targa Florio; when the open wheeled single seater version of the Porsche 718 became eligible for Formula One in 1961 due to the rule changes, the results in F1 were disappointing. Herrmann finished 15th in the 1961 Dutch Grand Prix, one of only two races in F1 history to have no retirements, he left Porsche at the beginning of the 1962 season feeling that he as a local from Stuttgart was No Prophet In His Own Land compared to Californian Dan Gurney and 1959 GP-winner Jo Bonnier from Sweden. Gurney scored two F1 wins with the new Porsche 804, but Porsche retired from F1 anyway at the end of 1962.
With the small cars of the Italian Abarth marque Herrmann spent 1962 to 1965 driving in minor races and hillclimbing events. He only took outright wins in lesser sports car racing events, such as at AVUS or the 500 km Nürburgring; the Abarths were hard to beat in their classes from 850cc to 1600cc, though. Being the only pro in a small team Hermann learned a lot about testing and developing, which helped him later. However, being dissatisfied with the preparation of his car for the 1965 Schauinsland practice, Hans went home to witness the birth of his son, Dino. At the end of the year he left Abarth for good to return to the manufacturer closer to his home. In 1966 he returned to Porsche for a comeback in the World Sportscar Championship, as Porsche started a serious effort there. Following several podium finishes with the still underpowered two liter Porsche 906 and models, he won the 1968 24 Hours of Daytona in a 907 as well as the Sebring 12 Hours again, now together with Swiss Jo Siffert.
The overall win of the 1000km Nürburgring always eluded him though Herrmann had taken part in each of these races at the Nürburgring since they were introduced in 1953, had finished second three times in a row from 1968 to 1970, behind teammates Jo Siffert and/or Vic Elford. Herrmann missed the win in the 1969 24 Hours of Le Mans with a Porsche 908 by only 120 meters, but it was he who scored the long-awaited first overall victory at the Le Mans 24 Hours for Porsche in 1970, he was assigned to Porsche Salzburg, the Austria-based factory-backed team owned by the Porsche family, which entered cars painted red and white, the Austrian colors. In heavy rain, he and his teammate Richard Attwood survived with their Porsche 917K #23 as the best of only seven finishers. Half jokingly, Herrmann had promised to his wife before the Le Mans race that he would retire in case of a win there. Having witnessed fatal accidents of colleagues too many times, e.g. before the 1969 German Grand Prix when his teammate and neighbor Gerhard Mitter died, the 42-year-old announced his retirement on TV, after having driven the winning car in a parade through Stuttgart from the factory to the town hall.
To get out of his contract with Porsche Salzburg, Herrmann had to recommend a replacement driver to Luise Piech. Using his contacts, Herrmann built a successful company for automotive supplies, he was kept in a car trunk for many hours before escaping. Herrmann has r
Karl Kling was a motor racing driver and manager from Germany. He participated in 11 Formula One Grands Prix, debuting on 4 July 1954, he achieved 2 podiums, scored a total of 17 championship points. It is said, that he was born too early. Too late to be in the successful Mercedes team of the 1930s and too early to have a real chance in 1954 and 1955. Unusually, Kling found his way into motorsport via his first job as a reception clerk at Daimler-Benz in the mid-1930s, competing in hillclimb and trials events in production machinery in his spare time. During the Second World War he gained mechanical experience servicing Luftwaffe aircraft, after the cessation of hostilities he resumed his motorsport involvement in a BMW 328. Kling was instrumental in developing Mercedes' return to international competition in the early 1950s, his win in the 1952 Carrera Panamericana road race, driving the then-experimental Mercedes-Benz 300SL was a defining point in assuring the Daimler-Benz management that motorsport had a place in Mercedes' future.
Called up to the revived Mercedes Grand Prix squad in 1954 he finished less than one second behind the legendary Juan Manuel Fangio on his Formula One debut, taking second place in the 1954 French Grand Prix at the fast Reims-Gueux circuit. This promising start was not to last, with the arrival of Stirling Moss at Mercedes in 1955 Kling was demoted to third driver. However, away from the World Championship, Kling took impressive victories in both the Berlin Grand Prix and the Swedish Grand Prix, he left the Formula One team at the end of the season, to succeed Alfred Neubauer as head of Mercedes motorsport. He was in this post during their successful rallying campaigns of the 1960s taking the wheel himself. On one such occasion he drove a Mercedes-Benz 220SE to victory in the mighty 1961 Algiers-Cape Town trans-African rally, he died in 2003 at the age of 92. * Shared drive with Stirling Moss and Hans Herrmann. "DRIVERS: KARL KLING". GrandPrix.com. Retrieved 2007-04-11. "Mercedes Racing Driver Karl Kling Dies".
Automobile. Retrieved 2007-04-11. Karl Kling, G. Molter, Pursuit of Victory
Maserati in motorsport
Throughout its history, the Italian auto manufacturer Maserati has participated in various forms of motorsports including Formula One, sportscar racing and touring car racing, both as a works team and through private entrants. One of the first Maseratis the Tipo 26 driven by Alfieri Maserati with Guerino Bertocchi acting as riding mechanic won the Targa Florio 1,500 cc class in 1926, finishing in ninth place in overall. Maserati was successful in pre-war Grand Prix racing using a variety of cars with 4, 6, 8 and 16 cylinders. Other notable pre-war successes include winning the Indianapolis 500 twice, both times with Wilbur Shaw at the wheel of a 8CTF. Maserati won the Targa Florio in 1937, 1938, 1939 and 1940; the first two wins were achieved by Giovanni Rocco with a Maserati 6CM and the last two by Luigi Villoresi with a 6CM in 1939 and a 4CL in 1940. Maserati's post-war factory effort in sports car racing began in 1954 for the second season of the World Sportscar Championship; the factory raced as Officine Alfieri Maserati.
Maserati scored points in all but one year of the first era of the World Sports Car Championship from 1953 to 1961. Both factory-entered and privately-entered cars were eligible to score points for the manufacturer. At the end of 1957 Maserati retired the factory team from racing though they continued to build cars for privateers. In the 1953 World Sportscar Championship Maserati placed thirteenth. In the 1954 World Sportscar Championship Maserati placed fifth. In the 1955 World Sportscar Championship Maserati placed fourth. In the 1956 World Sportscar Championship Maserati placed second including a win at the 1000 km Buenos Aires and the 1000 km at the Nürburgring; the win at 1956 1000 km Buenos Aires was a Maserati 300S sports car driven by Stirling Moss and Carlos Menditéguy. In the 1957 World Sportscar Championship Maserati again placed second; this time with wins at Sebring and Rabelöfsbanan In the 1959 World Sportscar Championship Maserati placed fourth. In the 1960 World Sportscar Championship Maserati placed third.
With a win at the ADAC 1000 km Nürburgring for a Maserati Tipo 61 driven by Stirling Moss and Dan Gurney. In the 1961 World Sportscar Championship Maserati placed second. With a repeat win at the ADAC 1000 km Nürburgring for a Maserati Tipo 61 this time driven by Lloyd Casner and Masten Gregory. Maserati returned to sportscar racing in 2004, entering the Maserati MC12 in the FIA GT Championship. Since 2005 the MC12 fieleded by Vitaphone Racing Team won five teams' championships and four drivers' championships in a row. Michael Bartels and Andrea Bertolini won the inaugural GT1 World Championship for Drivers in the 2010 FIA GT1 World Championship driving a Maserati MC12 for the Vitaphone Racing Team; the Vitaphone Racing Team won the GT1 World Championship for Teams. Maserati A6GCS Sports Car Maserati 350S Sports Car. Maserati 300S Sports Car. Maserati 250S Sports Car. Maserati 200S Sports Car. Maserati 150S Sports Car. Maserati 450S Sports Car. Maserati Tipo 60 Sports Car Maserati Tipo 61 the "Birdcage" Sports Car Maserati Tipo 63 Maserati Tipo 64 Maserati Tipo 65 Maserati Tipo 151 Maserati Tipo 152 Maserati Tipo 154 the "Racing Van" Maserati Barchetta Sports Car Maserati Ghibli II Open Cup gt Car Maserati Trofeo series gt Car.
Maserati Trofeo Light GT3 Racing Car Maserati MC12 GT1 Racing Car Gran Turismo GT4 Gran Turismo GT3 The Maserati Biturbo Group A racing car competed unsuccessfully in the British Touring Car Championship in the late 1980s, the European Touring Car Championship and the World Touring Car Championship. The cars for the 1987 World Touring Car Championship season were entered by Pro Team Italia/Imberti; the car was in Group A Division 3 competing against the Ford Sierra RS Cosworth and in the season Ford Sierra RS 500. The car was driven by Bruno Giacomelli, Armin Hahne, Marcello Gunella, Mario Hytten, Nicola Tesini and Kevin Bartlett. For the British Touring Car Championship the cars were entered by Trident Motorsport; this was for the 1989 seasons. The car was driven by John Lepp and Vic Lee. A former 1987 WTCC car was bought by Adriano Dece who converted it for used on road rallies and the company manufactured the Maserati Biturbo Group A Rally car. Maserati participated in Formula One motor racing during the 1950s and 1960s.
Its works Formula One programme was broadly successful, providing a total of 9 Grand Prix wins for the factory team. In addition, Juan Manuel Fangio won the 1957 World Championship of Drivers with a Maserati 250F. Maserati designed two Formula One cars: the Maserati 4CLT and the Maserati 250F, the pre-World War II Maserati 4CL was used with some success. In addition, the Maserati A6GCM, designed as a Formula Two car, was used in F1. Due to financial difficulties in the late 1950s the team had to withdraw from Formula One in 1958 despite the 250F still being successful. Privateers continued to use the 250F until 1960. In the 1960s, Maserati supplied engines to British Formula One team Cooper; the most successful car of that collaboration was the Cooper-Maserati T81, which had a Maserati V12 engine. It won the 1966 Mexican Grand Prix and the 1967 South African Grand Prix, driven by John Surtees and Pedro Rodríguez respectively; the 1948 Maserati 4CLT was one of the first cars built to the new Formula One regulations, introduced in 1946, was developed from the 1938 Maserati 4CL voiturette car.
The older design was still competitive despite the hiatus of World War II and was entered into Formula One races when racing resumed after the war. Its success encouraged Maserati to develop the car's design and these refinements were brought together as the 4CLT. Maseraticorse.com