Monza is a city and comune on the River Lambro, a tributary of the Po in the Lombardy region of Italy, about 15 kilometres north-northeast of Milan. It is the capital of the Province of Brianza. Monza is best known for its Grand Prix motor racing circuit, the Autodromo Nazionale Monza, which hosts the Formula One Italian Grand Prix with a massive Italian support tifosi for the Ferrari team. On 11 June 2004 Monza was designated the capital of the new province of Brianza; the new administrative arrangement came into effect in summer 2009. Monza is the third-largest city of Lombardy and is the most important economic and administrative centre of the Brianza area, supporting a textile industry and a publishing trade. Monza hosts a Department of the University of Milan Bicocca, a Court of Justice and several offices of regional administration. Monza Park is one of the largest urban parks in Europe. Monza is located in the high plains of Lombardy, between Brianza and Milan, at an altitude of 162 metres above sea level.
It is 15 kilometres from the centre of the region's capital, although when considering the cities borders, they are separated by less than 5 km. Monza is about 40 km from Como. Monza shares its position with Milan in the same metro area, is a big part of its new province. Monza is crossed from north to south by the River Lambro; the river enters Monza from the north, between Via Via Zanzi streets. This is an artificial fork of the river, created for defensive purposes in the early decades of the 14th century; the fork is known as Lambretto and it rejoins the main course of the Lambro as it exits to the south, leaving Monza through the now demolished ancient circle of medieval walls. Another artificial stream is the Canale Villoresi, constructed in the late 19th century. Monza has a typical submediterranean climate of the Po valley, with cool, short winters and warm summers. Precipitation is abundant, with most occurring in the least in winter and summer. Funerary urns found in the late 19th century show that humans were in the area dating at the least to the Bronze Age, when people would have lived in pile dwelling settlements raised above the rivers and marshes.
During the Roman Empire, Monza was known as Modicia. During the 3rd century BCE, the Romans subdued the Insubres, a Gaul tribe that had crossed the Alps and settled around Mediolanum. A Gallo-Celtic tribe the Insubres themselves, founded a village on the Lambro; the ruins of a Roman bridge named. Theodelinda, daughter of Garibald I of Bavaria and wife of the Lombard king Authari, chose Monza as her summer residence. Here in 595 she founded an oraculum dedicated to St. John the Baptist. According to the legend, asleep while her husband was hunting, saw a dove in a dream that told her: modo indicating that she should build the oraculum in that place, the queen answered etiam, meaning "yes". According to this legend, the medieval name of Monza, "Modoetia", is derived from these two words, she had a palace built here. Berengar I of Italy located his headquarters in Monza. A fortified castrum was constructed to resist the incursions of the Hungarians. Under Berengar's reign, Monza enjoyed a certain degree of independence: it had its own system of weights and measures, could seize property and mark the deeds with their signatures.
Berengar was generous evident by the donation of numerous works to the Monza Cathedral, including the famous cross, by giving large benefits to its 32 canons and other churches. In 980 Monza hosted Emperor Otto II inside the walled city; the Glossary of Monza, one of the earliest examples of the evolution of Italian language dates to the early 10th century. In 1000 Emperor Otto III became the protector of Monza and its possessions: Bulciago, Lurago and Garlate. In 1018, Lord of Monza, was consecrated bishop of Milan, resulting in the city losing its independence from its rival; these years saw a power struggle between the emperor Conrad II, Aribert. When the emperor died, he left important donations to the church of Monza. In the 12th century, it is estimated. Agriculture was the main occupation. In 1128 Conrad III of Hohenstaufen was crowned King of Italy in the Church of San Michele at Monza. In 1136 emperor Lothair III guaranteed the independence of the clergy of Monza from Milan. Monza subsequently regained its autonomy, not limited to the feudal government of lands and goods.
This autonomy was never absolute, as the church of Monza was not able to cut its ties from the bishop of Milan. Frederick I Barbarossa visited Monza twice. In this period the city again regained its independence from a city hostile to the emperor. Frederick declared that Monza was his property and gave the Curraria, a right granted only to royal seats. During the period of the struggle against Milan and other cities of the Lombard League, Monza was prim
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
1955 Le Mans disaster
The 1955 Le Mans disaster occurred during the 24 Hours of Le Mans motor race at Circuit de la Sarthe in Le Mans, France on 11 June 1955. A major crash caused large fragments of debris to fly into the crowd, killing 83 spectators and French driver Pierre Bouillin and injuring nearly 180 more, it was the most catastrophic crash in motorsport history, it prompted Mercedes-Benz to retire from motor racing until 1989. The crash started when Jaguar driver Mike Hawthorn cut in front of Austin-Healey driver Lance Macklin to reach his pit stop, prompting Macklin to swerve into the path of Levegh, passing on the left in his much faster Elektron magnesium-alloy bodied Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR. Levegh rear ended Macklin at high speed, overriding Macklin's car and launching his own car through the air. Levegh struck a protective dirt berm at 200 km/h, disintegrating and igniting his car, throwing him onto the track where he was killed, sending large pieces of flaming debris cartwheeling over the berm and into the packed grandstand—including the engine block and hood.
There was much debate over blame. The official inquiry held none of the drivers responsible and criticised the layout of the 30 year-old track, which had not been designed for cars of this speed. There was great anticipation for the race, as Ferrari and Mercedes-Benz had all won the race and they all arrived with new and improved cars; the Ferraris, current champions at the time, were fast, but fragile. Jaguar concentrated their racing exclusively on Le Mans and had a experienced driver line-up including Formula 1 Ferrari driver, Mike Hawthorn. After conquering F1, Mercedes-Benz had debuted its new 300 SLR in that year's World Championship, including a record-setting win at the Mille Miglia for Stirling Moss; the 300 SLR featured. The car lacked the more effective state-of-the-art disc brakes featured on the rival Jaguar D-Type, instead incorporating a large air brake behind the driver that could be raised to increase drag and slow the car. Team manager Alfred Neubauer assembled a multi-national team for the race: pairing his two best drivers Juan Manuel Fangio and Stirling Moss in the lead car, 1952 race-winner Karl Kling with Frenchman André Simon and American John Fitch with one of the elder statesmen of French motor-racing Pierre Levegh.
It had been Levegh's unprecedented solo drive in the 1952 race that failed in the last hour, which allowed Mercedes-Benz their first Le Mans victory. Safety measures nearly universal by the year 2000 were unknown in 1955. Aside from two layout changes to make the circuit shorter, the Le Mans circuit was unaltered since the inception of the race in 1923, when top speeds of cars were in the region of 100 km/h. By 1955, top speeds for the leading cars were over 270 km/h; that said, the circuit had been widened post-war. The pits and grandstands had been reconstructed, but there were no barriers between the pit lane and the racing line, only a 4 ft earthen bank between the track and the spectators; the cars had no seat belts. The 1955 race began at 4 pm on Saturday, and, as predicted, the lead cars of Eugenio Castellotti and Fangio were at the head of the field in the first hour; the other team cars were being kept on tighter leashes to conserve the cars, but still racing in the top ten. Going into the second hour, Castellotti started dropping back, but Hawthorn and Fangio continued the duel, swapping the lead and dropping the lap record further and further, lapping most of the field.
The accident happened at 6:26 pm, at the end of lap 35, when the first pit stops for the leading cars were starting. On lap 35, Hawthorn and Fangio were racing as hard as ever. In his biography, Hawthorn said he was "momentarily mesmerized by the legend of the Mercedes superiority... I came to my senses and thought ‘Damn it, why should a German car beat a British car.'" The lap before, Hawthorn's pit crew had signaled for him to come in the next lap. He had just was determined to keep Fangio at bay as long as possible. Coming out of the Maison Blanche portion of the course, he caught Lance Macklin in his Austin Healey 100S, who had seen him and moved over to the right to let him pass. Putting another lap on Macklin coming up to the main straight, Hawthorn raised his hand to indicate he was pitting and pulled across to the right. What caught Macklin out though was that Hawthorn, using his advanced disc brakes, braked hard to be able to slow the Jaguar from such a speed in time. There are two key points to the track layout here – first, there was no designated deceleration lane for cars coming into the pits, second, that just before the main straight, there was the slightest right-hand kink in the road just after where Hawthorn started braking.
Macklin, who braked hard, ran off the right-hand edge of the track, throwing up dust. Macklin tried to avoid Hawthorn, whether it was an instinctive swerve from surprise, or a loss of control from going onto the change of road-surface, or his car's disc brakes operating unevenly; as a result, Macklin's car veered across to the centre of the track briefly out of control. This however put him into the path of Levegh's Mercedes-Benz, closing at over 200 km/h, intent on doing another lap and in front of Fangio, patiently waiting to pass. Levegh did no
Piero Taruffi, was a racing driver from Italy. He is the father of a daughter, Prisca Taruffi, a rally driver. Taruffi began his motorsport career racing motorcycles, he won the 1932 500cc European Championship on a Norton and in 1937 set the motorcycle land speed record at 279.503 km/h. Taruffi drove a newly introduced 2-litre, 4-cylinder Ferrari, which placed third in the 360 kilometre race Grand Prix de Bari at Bari, Italy, in September 1951, he finished behind Juan Manuel Fangio and Froilán González with a time of 2 hours 58 minutes 40 3/5 seconds. Taruffi and Alberto Ascari participated in the Carrera Panamericana in the mountains of Mexico in November 1951, they placed first and third over the course from Mexico City to León, Guanajuato, a 267-mile leg. Taruffi led second-placed Troy Ruttman by more than four minutes. Taruffi trimmed 15 minutes on the Mexico City-Leon leg and another 21 minutes between Leon and Durango. In the process he climbed from 12th to third overall. Taruffi won the race on 25 November, with a time of 21:57:52, over mountains and plains of the southeastern tip of Mexico.
He had an average speed of 87.6 mph. Taruffi set a world record for 50 miles in an auto of 22 cubic centimetre displacement in January 1952, he attempted a 100-mile record but his motor burned out after 98 miles. Taruffi was in a two-litre Ferrari for the running of the third Grand Prix de France, in Paris in May 1952, he captured first place with a time of three hours over a distance of 285 miles. His average speed was 95 mph. Taruffi placed second to Fangio in the 1953 Carrera Panamericana, with a time of 18:18:51 in a Lancia, his time was better than the previous year. In March 1954, Taruffi lost the Florida International Grand Prix with an hour to go, after having led the first three hours, when his Lancia stopped, he pushed it to the pits and team mechanics began working on it with diligence. Taruffi was still out of the car when the O. S. C. A. Shared by Stirling Moss and Bill Lloyd crossed the finish line. Taruffi had averaged 81.1 miles per hour. Taruffi won the 1,080-kilometre Tour of Sicily in April 1954.
His time of 10 hours 24 minutes 37 seconds established a record for an event which opened Italy's sports car racing season. It was 14 years old at the time, he averaged 64.4 miles per hour in a Lancia 3300. Taruffi and Harry Schell placed fifth overall in the 1955 Florida Grand Prix. Taruffi claimed first place in a Ferrari, at the 1955 Tour of Sicily, with an overall time of 10 hours 11 minutes 19.4 seconds, with an average speed of 105.998 kilometres per hour. Taruffi dropped out of the 1955 Mille Miglia, when he encountered a broken oil pump on the course north of Rome, he and eventual winner, Stirling Moss, were vying for the lead in the early stages of the race. Cesare Perdisa won by 22 seconds in the 1955 Grand Prix of Imola. Taruffi spun his car into a straw bale at the edge of the track on the first lap, he was uninjured, though his car was damaged, he was forced to retire from the race. Jean Behra and Taruffi teamed to secure a fifth-place finish in a Maserati at the 1956 12 Hours of Sebring.
Taruffi established a world record for Class E cars in June 1956. He raced 100 miles in 46 minutes 27.2 seconds, an average of 129.9 miles per hour. At Monza, Taruffi broke the one-hour mark of 212.543 kilometres per hour. A third record he performed was for 200 kilometres, his time was 53 minutes 14.5 seconds. In the 17th running of the Tour of Sicily, in 1957, Taruffi had a small crash while in pursuit of leader Olivier Gendebien, he continued in his Maserati. Gendebien won in a Ferrari; the event was marred by the death of J. Olivari, burned to death when his Maserati hit a wall in one of the course's 11,000 curves. Taruffi's final triumph was at the 1957 Mille Miglia, the last competitive edition of the famous Italian race. At this tragic race, Alfonso de Portago crashed his car with great loss of life. Taruffi won in a Ferrari 315S. Following the race he pledged to his wife, that he would never race again, he was 50 years of age. Taruffi was the author of The Technique of Motor Racing. In November 1957 the Saturday Evening Post published Taruffi's article, Stop us before we kill again.
The former racer discussed the 1955 Le Mans and 1957 Mille Miglia races in which drivers and numerous spectators died. In August 1952 Taruffi protected a racing car design under patent 2,608, 264; the patent had three torpedo-shaped parallel bodies joined together. Independent twin motors and wheels were in the two larger bodies, at right; the driver and the passengers sit in the car's central part. The central portion is both smaller than the others. Taruffi commented on low centre of gravity of his design, he participated in 18 World Championship Grands Prix, debuting on 3 September 1950. He scored a total of 41 championship points, he participated in numerous non-championship Formula One races. Taruffi drove a Ferrari to victory in the May 1952 Swiss Grand Prix, he led with the Ferrari of Rudolf Fischer coming in second. The Piero Taruffi museum is in Bagnoregio, a small town between Viterbo and Orvieto in Central Italy, it has vintage motorbikes of his era. Taruffi drove a Ford stock car owned by Floyd Clymer of Los Angeles in the 2,000-mile Pan-American race held in November 1954.
* Indicates shared drive with Juan Manuel Fa
In motorsport the pole position is the position at the inside of the front row at the start of a racing event. This position is given to the vehicle and driver with the best qualifying time in the trials before the race; this number-one qualifying driver is referred to as the pole sitter. Grid position is determined by a qualifying session prior to the race, where race participants compete to ascend to the number 1 grid slot, the driver, pilot, or rider having recorded fastest qualification time awarded the advantage of the number 1 grid slot ahead of all other vehicles for the start of the race; the fastest qualifier was not the designated pole-sitter. Different sanctioning bodies in motor sport employ different qualifying formats in designating who starts from pole position. A starting grid is derived either by current rank in the championship, or based on finishing position of a previous race. In important events where multiple qualification attempts spanned several days, the qualification result was segmented or staggered, by which session a driver qualified, or by which particular day a driver set his qualification time, only drivers having qualified on the initial day eligible for pole position.
In a phenomenon known as race rigging, where race promoters or sanctioning bodies invert their starting grid for the purpose of entertainment value, the slowest qualifier would be designated as pole-sitter. In contrast to contemporary motorsport, where only a race participant is designated pole-sitter, prior to World War II, the pace car was designated as official pole-sitter for the Indianapolis 500; the term has its origins in horse racing, in which the fastest qualifying horse would be placed on the inside part of the course, next to the pole. In Grand Prix racing, grid positions, including pole, were determined by lottery among the drivers. Prior to the inception of the Formula One World Championship, the first instance of grid positions being determined by qualifying times was at the 1933 Monaco Grand Prix. Since the FIA have introduced many different qualifying systems to Formula One. From the long-standing system of one session on each of Friday and Saturday, to the current knockout-style qualifying leaving 10 out of 20 drivers to battle for pole, there have been many changes to qualifying systems.
Between 1996 and 2006, the FIA made 6 significant changes to the qualifying procedure, each with the intention of making the battle for pole more interesting to viewers at home. Traditionally, pole was always occupied by the fastest driver due to low-fuel qualifying; the race-fuel qualifying era between 2003 and 2009 changed this. Despite the changing formats, drivers attempting pole were required between 2003 and 2009 to do qualifying laps with the fuel they would use to start the race the next day. An underfuelled slower car and driver would therefore be able to take pole ahead of a better but heavier-fueled car. In this situation, pole was not always advantageous to have in the race as the under-fueled driver would have to pit for more fuel before their rivals. With the race refueling ban introduced, low-fuel qualifying returned and these strategy decisions are no longer in play; when Formula One enforced the 107% rule between 1996 and 2002, a driver's pole time might affect slower cars posting times for qualifying, as cars that could not get within 107% of the pole time were not allowed start the race unless the stewards decided otherwise.
Since the reintroduction of the rule in 2011, this only applies to the quickest first session time, not the pole time. From 2014 to 2017, the FIA awarded a trophy to the driver who won the most pole positions in a season without sponsorship. From 2018, the FIA Pole Trophy has been renamed the Pirelli Pole Position Award, with the polesitter at each race winning a Pirelli wind tunnel tyre with the name of the polesitter and their time; the driver with the most pole positions at the end of the season wins a full-size engraved Formula 1 tyre. indicates that the driver won the World Championship in the same season. IndyCar uses four formats for qualifying: one for most oval tracks, one for Iowa Speedway, one for the Indianapolis 500, another for road and street circuits. Oval qualifying is like the Indianapolis 500, with two laps, instead of four, averaged together with one attempt, although with just one session. At Iowa, each car takes one qualifying lap, the top six cars advance to the feature race for the pole position.
Positions from 7th onward are assigned to their races, based on time, with cars in the odd-numbered finishing order starting in one race, cars in the even-numbered finishing order starting in the second race. The finishing order for the odd-numbered race starts on the inside, starting in Row 6, even-numbered race on the outside based on finishing position, again from Row 6, except for the top two in each race, which start in the inside and outside of the race for the pole position; the result of the feature race determines positions 1–10. All three races are 50 laps. On road and street courses, cars are drawn randomly into two qualifying groups. After each group has one twenty-minute session, the top six cars from each group qualify for a second session; the cars that finished seventh or worse are lined up by their times, with the best of these times starting 13th. The twelve remaining cars run a 15-minute session, after which the top six cars move on to a final 10-minute session to determine positions one through six on the grid.
The Iowa format was instituted in 2012 with major modifications (times set based on open qualifying session in second pract
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Karl Kling was a motor racing driver and manager from Germany. He participated in 11 Formula One Grands Prix, debuting on 4 July 1954, he achieved 2 podiums, scored a total of 17 championship points. It is said, that he was born too early. Too late to be in the successful Mercedes team of the 1930s and too early to have a real chance in 1954 and 1955. Unusually, Kling found his way into motorsport via his first job as a reception clerk at Daimler-Benz in the mid-1930s, competing in hillclimb and trials events in production machinery in his spare time. During the Second World War he gained mechanical experience servicing Luftwaffe aircraft, after the cessation of hostilities he resumed his motorsport involvement in a BMW 328. Kling was instrumental in developing Mercedes' return to international competition in the early 1950s, his win in the 1952 Carrera Panamericana road race, driving the then-experimental Mercedes-Benz 300SL was a defining point in assuring the Daimler-Benz management that motorsport had a place in Mercedes' future.
Called up to the revived Mercedes Grand Prix squad in 1954 he finished less than one second behind the legendary Juan Manuel Fangio on his Formula One debut, taking second place in the 1954 French Grand Prix at the fast Reims-Gueux circuit. This promising start was not to last, with the arrival of Stirling Moss at Mercedes in 1955 Kling was demoted to third driver. However, away from the World Championship, Kling took impressive victories in both the Berlin Grand Prix and the Swedish Grand Prix, he left the Formula One team at the end of the season, to succeed Alfred Neubauer as head of Mercedes motorsport. He was in this post during their successful rallying campaigns of the 1960s taking the wheel himself. On one such occasion he drove a Mercedes-Benz 220SE to victory in the mighty 1961 Algiers-Cape Town trans-African rally, he died in 2003 at the age of 92. * Shared drive with Stirling Moss and Hans Herrmann. "DRIVERS: KARL KLING". GrandPrix.com. Retrieved 2007-04-11. "Mercedes Racing Driver Karl Kling Dies".
Automobile. Retrieved 2007-04-11. Karl Kling, G. Molter, Pursuit of Victory