1955 Atlantic hurricane season
The 1955 Atlantic hurricane season was, at the time, the costliest season recorded. The hurricane season began on June 15, 1955, ended on November 15, 1955, it was above average, with 13 recorded tropical cyclones. The first storm, had persisted since December 30, 1954. Alice caused minor impact as it tracked through the Lesser Antilles and eastern Caribbean Sea in early January. Tropical Storm Brenda caused two deaths and minor damage along the Gulf Coast of the United States in early August; the quick succession of Hurricanes Connie and Diane caused significant flooding in the Northeastern United States, with nearly $1 billion in losses and at least 232 fatalities. The next three storms – Hurricanes Edith and Flora and Tropical Storm Five – caused minor or no impact. In early August, Hurricane Gladys caused severe localized flooding in Mexico in Mexico City. Additionally, an offshoot of Gladys inflicted minor impact in Texas. Hurricane Hilda struck the Greater Antilles and Mexico, it was attributed to $120 million in losses.
In mid-September, Hurricane Ione struck eastern North Carolina and contributed the flooding from Connie and Diane, resulting in seven fatalities and $88 million in damage. That month, Hurricane Janet, which peaked as a Category 5 hurricane, lashed several countries adjacent to the Caribbean Sea, as well as Mexico and British Honduras. Janet resulted in $53.8 million in at least 716 deaths. An unnamed tropical storm in the month of October did not impact land. Hurricane Katie, the final storm, caused minor damage in a sparsely populated area of Hispaniola, totaling to at least $200,000. Collectively, the storms caused 1518 deaths and $1.2 billion in losses, making it the costliest season at the time. A record number of names – four – were retired following the season, tied by the 1995, 2004, 2017 seasons, trailing only the 2005 season, when five names were retired. On April 11, 1955, prior to the start of the season, Gordon Dunn was promoted to the chief meteorologist of the Miami Hurricane Warning Office.
Dunn was replacing Grady Norton, who died from a stroke while forecasting Hurricane Hazel of the previous season. In early June, the Hurricane Hunters received new reconnaissance aircraft, which contained the latest radar and electronic equipment, at the time; that month, shortly before the start of the 1955 season, a bill was proposed in the United States Senate to provide funding for 55 new radar stations along the East Coast of the United States. After the United States House of Representatives passed a bill allotting $5 million, the Senate disputed about increasing the funding two-fold to $10 million; the radars were installed, starting in July 1955. After the devastating storms of the season Connie and Diane, a United States Government organization with the purpose of monitoring tropical cyclones was established in 1956 with $500,000 in funding; the Atlantic hurricane season began on June 15, 1955. It was an above average season. In a typical season, about nine tropical storms develop, of which five strengthen to hurricane strength.
All thirteen depressions attained tropical storm status, eleven of these attained hurricane status. Six hurricanes further intensified into major hurricanes; the season was above average most because of a strong, ongoing La Niña. Hurricane Alice developed in late December 1954, but persisted into January 1955, was operationally analysed to have developed in the latter. Within the official hurricane season bounds, tropical cyclogenesis did not occur until July 31, with the development of Tropical Storm Brenda. However, during the month of August, four tropical cyclones formed – including Connie, Edith, an unnamed tropical storm. Five additional tropical cyclones – Flora, Hilda and Janet – all developed in September. Tropical cyclogenesis halted until an unnamed tropical storm formed on October 10; the final storm of the season, dissipated on October 19 a month before the official end of hurricane season on November 15. Eight hurricanes and two tropical storms made landfall during the season and caused 1,603 deaths and $1.1 billion in damage.
The season's activity was reflected with an accumulated cyclone energy rating of 199, above the 1950-2000 average of 96.1. ACE is, broadly speaking, a measure of the power of the hurricane multiplied by the length of time it existed, so storms that last a long time, as well as strong hurricanes, have high ACEs, it is only calculated for full advisories on tropical cyclones with winds exceeding 39 mph, tropical storm strength. Tropical Storm Brenda developed in the north-central Gulf of Mexico at 0600 UTC on July 31. During the next 24 hours, the storm strengthened and attained its maximum sustain wind speed of 70 mph early on August 1; that day, Brenda made landfall east of New Orleans, Louisiana, at the same intensity. The storm weakened inland and by August 2, it was downgraded to a tropical depression. Early on August 3, Brenda dissipated. Between Pensacola and Lake Charles, rainfall totals were about 4 inches. Tropical storm force winds were reported, peaking at 50 mph at Shell Beach, Louisiana, on the south shore of Lake Borgne.
At the same location, tides between 5 and 6 feet above normal were measured. Four people were rescued
Tatum, New Mexico
Tatum is a town in Lea County, New Mexico, United States. The population was 683 at the 2000 census. Tatum is located at 33°15′19″N 103°18′58″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.2 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 683 people, 267 households, 194 families residing in the town; the population density was 578.8 people per square mile. There were 391 housing units at an average density of 331.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 65.45% White, 1.02% African American, 0.59% Native American, 0.15% Pacific Islander, 30.31% from other races, 2.49% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 37.34% of the population. There were 267 households out of which 31.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.0% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.3% were non-families. 25.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.08. In the town, the population was spread out with 28.1% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 25.5% from 25 to 44, 23.7% from 45 to 64, 15.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $28,833, the median income for a family was $33,393. Males had a median income of $31,111 versus $19,750 for females; the per capita income for the town was $11,728. About 16.6% of families and 18.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.8% of those under age 18 and 21.6% of those age 65 or over. Tatum Airport is a town owned, public use airport located three nautical miles east of the central business district of Tatum
The pascal is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength. It is defined as one newton per square metre, it is named after the French polymath Blaise Pascal. Common multiple units of the pascal are the hectopascal, equal to one millibar, the kilopascal, equal to one centibar; the unit of measurement called. Meteorological reports in the United States state atmospheric pressure in millibars. In Canada these reports are given in kilopascals; the unit is named after Blaise Pascal, noted for his contributions to hydrodynamics and hydrostatics, experiments with a barometer. The name pascal was adopted for the SI unit newton per square metre by the 14th General Conference on Weights and Measures in 1971; the pascal can be expressed using SI derived units, or alternatively SI base units, as: 1 P a = 1 N m 2 = 1 k g m ⋅ s 2 = 1 J m 3 where N is the newton, m is the metre, kg is the kilogram, s is the second, J is the joule. One pascal is the pressure exerted by a force of magnitude one newton perpendicularly upon an area of one square metre.
The unit of measurement called a standard atmosphere is 101325 Pa.. This value is used as a reference pressure and specified as such in some national and international standards, such as the International Organization for Standardization's ISO 2787, ISO 2533 and ISO 5024. In contrast, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry recommends the use of 100 kPa as a standard pressure when reporting the properties of substances. Unicode has dedicated code-points U+33A9 ㎩ SQUARE PA and U+33AA ㎪ SQUARE KPA in the CJK Compatibility block, but these exist only for backward-compatibility with some older ideographic character-sets and are therefore deprecated; the pascal or kilopascal as a unit of pressure measurement is used throughout the world and has replaced the pounds per square inch unit, except in some countries that still use the imperial measurement system or the US customary system, including the United States. Geophysicists use the gigapascal in measuring or calculating tectonic stresses and pressures within the Earth.
Medical elastography measures tissue stiffness non-invasively with ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging, displays the Young's modulus or shear modulus of tissue in kilopascals. In materials science and engineering, the pascal measures the stiffness, tensile strength and compressive strength of materials. In engineering use, because the pascal represents a small quantity, the megapascal is the preferred unit for these uses; the pascal is equivalent to the SI unit of energy density, J/m3. This applies not only to the thermodynamics of pressurised gases, but to the energy density of electric and gravitational fields. In measurements of sound pressure or loudness of sound, one pascal is equal to 94 decibels SPL; the quietest sound a human can hear, known as the threshold of hearing, is 20 µPa. The airtightness of buildings is measured at 50 Pa; the units of atmospheric pressure used in meteorology were the bar, close to the average air pressure on Earth, the millibar. Since the introduction of SI units, meteorologists measure pressures in hectopascals unit, equal to 100 pascals or 1 millibar.
Exceptions include Canada. In many other fields of science, the SI is preferred. Many countries use the millibars. In all other fields, the kilopascal is used instead. Atmospheric pressure which gives the usage of the hbar end the mbar Centimetre of water Meteorology Metric prefix Orders of magnitude Pascal's law Pressure measurement
Gulf of California
The Gulf of California is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean that separates the Baja California Peninsula from the Mexican mainland. It is bordered by the states of Baja California, Baja California Sur and Sinaloa with a coastline of 4,000 km. Rivers which flow into the Gulf of California include the Colorado, Mayo, Sinaloa and the Yaqui; the gulf's surface area is about 160,000 km2. Depths range from fording at the estuary near Yuma, Arizona, to in excess of 3,000 meters in the deepest parts; the Gulf is thought to be one of the most diverse seas on the planet, is home to more than 5,000 species of micro-invertebrates. Home to over a million people, Baja California is the second-longest peninsula in the world, after the Malay Peninsula in Southeast Asia. Parts of the Gulf of California are a UNESCO World Heritage Site. AreaThe International Hydrographic Organization defines the southern limit of the Gulf of California as: "A line joining Piastla Point in Mexico, the southern extreme of Lower California".
The Gulf of California is 1,126 km long and 48–241 km wide, with an area of 177,000 km2, a mean depth of 818.08 m, a volume of 145,000 km3. The Gulf of California includes three faunal regions: the Northern Gulf of California the Central Gulf of California the Southern Gulf of CaliforniaOne recognized transition zone is termed the Southwestern Baja California Peninsula. Transition zones exist between faunal regions, they vary for each individual species. Geology Geologic evidence is interpreted by geologists as indicating the Gulf of California came into being around 5.3 million years ago as tectonic forces rifted the Baja California Peninsula off the North American Plate. As part of this process, the East Pacific Rise propagated up the middle of the Gulf along the seabed; this extension of the East Pacific Rise is referred to as the Gulf of California Rift Zone. The Gulf would extend as far as Indio, except for the tremendous delta created by the Colorado River; this delta blocks the sea from flooding the Imperial Valleys.
Volcanism dominates the East Pacific Rise. The island of Isla Tortuga is one example of this ongoing volcanic activity. Furthermore, hydrothermal vents due to extension tectonic regime, related to the opening of the Gulf of California, are found in the Bahía de Concepción, Baja California Sur. Islands The Gulf of California contains 37 major islands – the two largest being Isla Ángel de la Guarda and Tiburón Island. Most of the islands are found on the peninsular side of the gulf. In fact, many of the islands of the Sea of Cortez are the result of volcanic explosions that occurred during the early history of Baja California; the islands of Islas Marías, Islas San Francisco, Isla Partida are thought to be the result of such explosions. The formations of the islands, are not dependent on each other, they were each formed as a result of an individual structural occurrence. Several islands, including Isla Coronados, are home to volcanoes; the gulf has islands which together total about 420 hectares.
All of them as a whole were enacted as "Area Reserve and Migratory Bird Refuge and Wildlife" on August 2, 1978. In June 2000, the islands were given a new category "Protection Area Wildlife". In addition to this effort by the Mexican government, for its importance and recognition worldwide, all islands in the Gulf of California are part of the international program "Man and Biosphere" and are part of the World Reserve Network UNESCO Biosphere as Special Biosphere Reserve. Due to the vast expanse covered by this federal protected area conservation and management is carried out through a system of four regional directorates by way of co-direction. There is a regional directorate in the states of Baja California, Baja California Sur and Sinaloa. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the work of direct and indirect conservation is done in the islands is governed by a single Management Program, published in 2000, complemented by local and specific management programs archipelagos; the Directorate of Protection Area Wildlife California Gulf Islands in Baja California is responsible for 56 islands located off the coast of the state.
These are grouped into four archipelagos: San Luis Gonzaga or Enchanted, Guardian Angel, Bahia de los Angeles and San Lorenzo. Shores and tidesThe three general types of shores found in the Gulf of California include rocky shore, sandy beach, tidal flat; some of the rich biodiversity and high endemism that characterize the Gulf of California and make it such a hotspot for fishing can be attributed to insignificant factors, such as the types of rocks that make up a shore. Beaches with softer, more porous rocks have a higher species richness than those with harder, smoother rocks. Porous rocks will have more cracks and crevices in them, making them ideal living spaces for many animals; the rocks themselves, however need to be stable on the shore for a habitat to be stable. Additionally, the color of the rocks can affect the organisms living on a shore. For example, darker rocks will be warmer than lighter ones, can deter animals that do not have a high tolerance for heat. The
A tropical cyclone is a rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. "Cyclone" refers to their winds moving in a circle, whirling round their central clear eye, with their winds blowing counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. The opposite direction of circulation is due to the Coriolis effect. Tropical cyclones form over large bodies of warm water, they derive their energy through the evaporation of water from the ocean surface, which recondenses into clouds and rain when moist air rises and cools to saturation.
This energy source differs from that of mid-latitude cyclonic storms, such as nor'easters and European windstorms, which are fueled by horizontal temperature contrasts. Tropical cyclones are between 100 and 2,000 km in diameter; the strong rotating winds of a tropical cyclone are a result of the conservation of angular momentum imparted by the Earth's rotation as air flows inwards toward the axis of rotation. As a result, they form within 5° of the equator. Tropical cyclones are unknown in the South Atlantic due to a strong wind shear and a weak Intertropical Convergence Zone; the African easterly jet and areas of atmospheric instability which give rise to cyclones in the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea, along with the Asian monsoon and Western Pacific Warm Pool, are features of the Northern Hemisphere and Australia. Coastal regions are vulnerable to the impact of a tropical cyclone, compared to inland regions; the primary energy source for these storms is warm ocean waters, therefore these forms are strongest when over or near water, weaken quite over land.
Coastal damage may be caused by strong winds and rain, high waves, storm surges, the potential of spawning tornadoes. Tropical cyclones draw in air from a large area—which can be a vast area for the most severe cyclones—and concentrate the precipitation of the water content in that air into a much smaller area; this continual replacement of moisture-bearing air by new moisture-bearing air after its moisture has fallen as rain, which may cause heavy rain and river flooding up to 40 kilometres from the coastline, far beyond the amount of water that the local atmosphere holds at any one time. Though their effects on human populations are devastating, tropical cyclones can relieve drought conditions, they carry heat energy away from the tropics and transport it toward temperate latitudes, which may play an important role in modulating regional and global climate. Tropical cyclones are areas of low pressure in the troposphere, with the largest pressure perturbations occurring at low altitudes near the surface.
On Earth, the pressures recorded at the centers of tropical cyclones are among the lowest observed at sea level. The environment near the center of tropical cyclones is warmer than the surroundings at all altitudes, thus they are characterized as "warm core" systems; the near-surface wind field of a tropical cyclone is characterized by air rotating around a center of circulation while flowing radially inwards. At the outer edge of the storm, air may be nearly calm; as air flows radially inward, it begins to rotate cyclonically in order to conserve angular momentum. At an inner radius, air begins to ascend to the top of the troposphere; this radius is coincident with the inner radius of the eyewall, has the strongest near-surface winds of the storm. Once aloft, air flows away from the storm's center; the mentioned processes result in a wind field, nearly axisymmetric: Wind speeds are low at the center, increase moving outwards to the radius of maximum winds, decay more with radius to large radii.
However, the wind field exhibits additional spatial and temporal variability due to the effects of localized processes, such as thunderstorm activity and horizontal flow instabilities. In the vertical direction, winds are strongest near the surface and decay with height within the troposphere. At the center of a mature tropical cyclone, air sinks rather than rises. For a sufficiently strong storm, air may sink over a layer deep enough to suppress cloud formation, thereby creating a clear "eye". Weather in the eye is calm and free of clouds, although the sea may be violent; the eye is circular in shape, is 30–65 km in diameter, though eyes as small as 3 km and as large as 370 km have been observed. The cloudy outer edge of the eye is called the "eyewall"; the eyewall expands outward with height, resembling an arena foo
A Pacific hurricane is a mature tropical cyclone that develops within the eastern and central Pacific Ocean to the east of 180°W, north of the equator. For tropical cyclone warning purposes, the northern Pacific is divided into three regions: the eastern and western, while the southern Pacific is divided into 2 sections, the Australian region and the southern Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W. Identical phenomena in the western north Pacific are called typhoons; this separation between the two basins has a practical convenience, however, as tropical cyclones form in the central north Pacific due to high vertical wind shear, few cross the dateline. Documentation of Pacific hurricanes dates to the Spanish colonization of Mexico, when the military and missions wrote about "tempestades". In 1730, such accounts indicated an understanding of the storms. After observing the rotating nature of tropical cyclones, meteorologist William Charles Redfield expanded his study to include storms in the eastern North Pacific Ocean in the middle of the 19th century.
Between June and October 1850, Redfield observed five tropical cyclones along "the southwestern coast of North America", along with one in each of the three subsequent years. In 1895, Cleveland Abbe reported the presence of many storms between 5° to 15°–N in the eastern Pacific, although many such storms dissipated before affecting the Mexican coast. Two years the German Hydrography Office Deutsche Seewarte documented 45 storms from 1832 to 1892 off the west coast of Mexico. Despite the documentation of storms in the region, the official position of the United States Weather Bureau denied the existence of such storms. In 1910, the agency reported on global tropical cyclones, noting that "the occurrence of tropical storms is confined to the summer and autumn months of the respective hemispheres and to the western parts of the several oceans." In 1913, the Weather Bureau reinforced their position by excluding Pacific storms among five tropical cyclone basins. Such activity increased further after the Panama Canal opened in 1914, the shipping lanes moved closer to the coast.
By around 1920, Pacific hurricanes were recognized due to widespread ship observations, radio service, a newly created weather network in western Mexico. Within 60 years, further studies of the region's tropical activity indicated that the eastern Pacific is in fact the second most active basin in the world. During the 1920s, a few documents in the Monthly Weather Review reported additional storms within 2,000 mi off the Mexican coastline; the Eastern Pacific hurricane best track database was compiled on magnetic tape in 1976 for the seasons between 1949 and 1975, at the NHC to help with the development of two tropical cyclone forecast models, which required tracks of past cyclones as a base for its predictions. The database was based on records held by the United States Navy and were interpolated from 12 hourly intervals to 6 hourly intervals based on a scheme devised by Hiroshi Akima in 1970. Tracks for the Central Pacific region and tracks for tropical depressions that did not develop into tropical storms or hurricanes were not included within the database.
After the database had been created Arthur Pike of the NHC made some internal adjustments, while in 1980 a review was made by Arnold Court under contract from the United States National Weather Service and resulted in additions and/or modifications to 81 tracks in the database. Between 1976–1987, the NHC archived best track data from the Eastern Pacific Hurricane Center, in 1982 started including information on Central Pacific tropical storms and hurricanes started to be included in the database based on data from the Joint Typhoon Warning Center and research done by Samuel Shaw of the Central Pacific Hurricane Center in 1981; the format of the database was revised by the NHC during 1984, so that the format could resemble the Atlantic database before they took over the warning responsibility from the EPHC for the Eastern Pacific during 1988. During 2008 and 2013 several revisions were made to the database to extend tracks in land, based on reports in the Mariners Weather Log and extrapolation of the tracks since the EPHC stopped issuing advisories on systems before they made landfall.
The archives format was changed during 2013 to include non-synoptic best track times, non-developing tropical depressions and wind radii. During February 2016, the NHC released the 1959 Mexico hurricane's reanalysis, the first system to be reassessed, using methods developed for the Atlantic reanalysis process; the presence of a semi-permanent high-pressure area known as the North Pacific High in the eastern Pacific is a dominant factor against formation of tropical cyclones in the winter, as the Pacific High results in wind shear that causes environmental conditions for tropical cyclone formation to be not conducive. Its effects in the central Pacific basin are related to keeping cyclones away from the Hawaiian Islands. Due to westward trade winds, hurricanes in the Pacific head eastward, unless recurved by a trough. A second factor preventing tropical cyclones from forming during the winter is the occupation of a semi-permanent low-pressure area designated the Aleutian Low between January and April.
Its presence over western Canada and the northwestern United States contributes to the area's occurrences of precipit