Football in Israel
Football is the most popular sport in Israel. Football as a sport, first developed in the United Kingdom. In the late 1970s and 1980s, the Israel Football Association was not affiliated with any confederation, during this period, the Israeli national teams were only playing in FIFA competitions occasionally in OFC, UEFA and CONMEBOL qualifying tournaments. Finally it was admitted to UEFA as a member in 1992 and as a full member in 1994. The Israel Football Association is the body of football in the State of Israel. All of Israels professional football clubs must be members, and hundreds of semi-professional, as of 2013–14, the Israeli football league system has five levels and 16 different divisions, all run by the IFA. Promotion and relegation operates between each level, theoretically allowing clubs to progress from bottom to top four seasons. The State Cup is the Israeli equivalent of the English FA Cup and it is a straightforward knock-out cup. The final is played at the Ramat Gan Stadium and the winner qualifies for the UEFA Europa League, the Toto Cup is the Israeli equivalent of the English League Cup, the main difference being that there is a separate cup for each of the three national divisions. The cup is played first in a stage, with the highest placed teams qualifying for the knock-out stages. Like the State Cup, the final is played at the National Stadium, clubs who do well in either the Premier League or State Cup qualify to compete in various UEFA-organised Europe-wide competitions in the following season. The number of Israeli clubs playing in Europe in any one season can range four to six. Any clubs playing in the UEFA Champions League that will finish third in the stage will go into the UEFA Europa League round of 32 Israel hosted. Israel qualified for the World Cup in 1970 which was held in Mexico, mordechai Spiegler scored in a 1–1 draw against Sweden. Israels Olympic football team qualified for the 1968 Summer Olympics and the 1976 Summer Olympics both times reaching the quarter finals, Israels highest FIFA ranking was 15th in November 2008. During the British Mandate for Palestine, organized football consisted mainly of British and Jewish clubs, although Arab clubs also existed and took part in IFA competitions. As early as 1906, Maccabi Tel Aviv was formed as a club, followed by a string of Maccabi clubs in other cities and towns, such as Jerusalem, Petah Tikva, Haifa, Zikhron Yaakov. On 24 April 1924, Hapoel Haifa was formed, shortly after formation, they joined the World Maccabi Organization
Hapoel Tel Aviv F.C.
Hapoel Tel-Aviv Football Club is an Israeli football club based in Tel Aviv. The club currently competes in the Israeli Premier League and plays its matches at the Bloomfield Stadium. To date, the club has won thirteen championships and sixteen State Cups, in 1967 Hapoel Tel Aviv became the first club to win the Asian Club Championships. It is also one of only 3 Israeli teams to have qualified for the UEFA Champions League group stage, the club name, Hapoel, translates to The Worker, and combined with its red Hammer and sickle crest represents the club ties to Socialism and working class. For seven decades, the club was owned by Israeli largest trade union, Hapoel Tel Aviv F. C. was originally established in 1923, but was disbanded soon after. The club was re-formed in 1925, and then for a time in May 1926. In 1927 the club merged with Allenby F. C. giving the club its modern form and it is part of the Hapoel sports association which was affiliated with the Histadrut trade union, and supporters of the club were often referred to as communists. In 1928 the club reached the Palestine Cup final, although they beat Maccabi Hasmonean Jerusalem 2–0, Hapoel fielded an ineligible player, resulting in the cup being shared. The 1934–35 season saw Hapoel led the table, but the championship was abandoned. The 1937–38 season ended the way, with Hapoel top of the league. In the meantime, the won the cup again in 1937,1938 and 1939. In 1939–40 they won their second championship, the following season no national championships were held, but the club won the tournament for Hapoel-affiliated clubs. Following Israeli independence, Hapoel joined the new Israeli League and they won the title in 1956–57 and the State Cup in 1961, beating Hapoel Petah Tikva 2–1. In the 1965–66 season Hapoel won the title, and qualified for the first Asian Club Championships, in the tournament Hapoel were given byes all the way to the final, where they beat Selangor 2–1 to become Asias first club champions. The club also reached the State Cup final that year, Hapoel won the title again in 1968–69, and again qualified for the Asian Club championships. Although they reached the final, they lost 2–1 to Iranian side Taj Club, the following season they reached the cup final again, but lost 1–0 to Hapoel Yehud. A hat-trick of cup final defeats was avoided when they beat Maccabi Tel Aviv 3–2 in the 1982 final, another title was won in 1985–86, and another in 1987–88. However, the following season Hapoel finished bottom of the league and were relegated to the second tier for the first time in their history
Shimshon Tel Aviv F.C.
Shimshon Tel Aviv F. C. is an Israeli football club based in Tel Aviv. In 2000 it merged with Beitar Tel Aviv to create Beitar Shimshon Tel Aviv, in 2014, the club was resurrected by local businessmen. The club is currently in Liga Gimel Tel Aviv division, the club was formed in memory of Shimshon Rouzi, a former Maccabi Tel Aviv player who died in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. It was commonly referred to as the club of Kerem HaTeimanim, the club spent its first few years in the lower leagues, before winning promotion to the top flight in 1960 as Liga Alef champions. In 1962–63 the Shimshon finished 4th, the clubs highest position to date, in 1965–66, Shimshon player Moshe Romano was the divisions joint top scorer alongside Maccabi Netanyas prolific striker Mordechai Spiegler, with 17 goals. The club also made their first appearance in a State Cup final, another 4th-place finish was achieved in 1969–70, with Romano again finishing as the leagues top scorer. The following season went one better by finishing second to champions Maccabi Netanya. However, the success was not sustained, and a season finishing second. The 1972–73 was even worse, as the club was relegated alongside Hapoel Marmorek, despite their setback the previous season, Shimshon had a successful season in 1973–74, finishing second in Liga Alef North and took part in the new promotion/relegation play-offs. They finished second in the group, and were promoted back to Liga Leumit. The early 1980s were a period of success, as the club finished third in 1979–80 and 1984–85. A second cup final was reached in 1986, but they lost 2–1 to Beitar Jerusalem, in 1987–88 the club qualified for the Intertoto Cup. In 2014, the returned to the map of Israeli football after 14 years. Israeli Premier League Runners-up 1970–71, 1982–83 Israeli Second Division Champions 1959–60 Toto Cup Winners 1986–87, 1987–88 Israel State Cup Runners-up 1966,1986,1990
Hapoel Petah Tikva F.C.
Hapoel Petah Tikva F. C. is an Israeli football club based in the city of Petah Tikva. Their most successful period was the late 1950s and early 1960s, in which the club won six championships, although they have not won the title since 1963, Hapoel still hold the record for the number of back-to-back titles. The club was established in 1934 and that years tournament, which was known as the War Cup and was boycotted by Beitar-affiliated clubs, was not recognised by the Israel Football Association until recently. Nowadays, the IFA recognize this cup edition as part of the competitions history, the club was included in the new Israeli League in 1949 and finished fourth in the first post-independence championship, with their 3–2 home defeat to Beitar Tel Aviv annulled. In the 1954–55 season the club won their first championship, and they finished second for the next three seasons, winning the cup for the first time in 1957, before winning the title again in 1958–59. They retained the title in 1959–60, 1960–61, 1961–62 and 1962–63, in both 1959 and 1960 the club also reached the cup final, but lost on both occasions, 4–3 to Maccabi Tel Aviv and 2–1 to Hapoel Tel Aviv respectively. Hapoel finished second in 1964–65 and 1966–68 and reached the cup again in 1968. In the 1974 final they lost 1–0 to Hapoel Haifa after extra time, at the end of the 1975–76 season the club were relegated for the first time in their history, and dropped into Liga Artzit. They returned to the top flight in 1978, but were relegated again at the end of the 1981–82 season, the club returned to Liga Leumit in 1984. In 1986 they won the Toto Cup for the first time, despite a two-point deduction for breaking budget rules, Hapoel finished second in 1988–89 and qualified for the Intertoto Cup. They also finished as runners-up in 1989–90 and 1990–91, winning the Toto Cup in both seasons, in the latter they also reached the State Cup final, but lost 3–1 to Maccabi Haifa. The following year the club reached the final, this time winning, beating Maccabi Tel Aviv 3–1 after extra time. In their first season in Europe, Hapoel beat Strømsgodset 4–0 on aggregate in the first qualifying round, domestically, Hapoel struggled during the 1992–93 season, finishing second from bottom, only avoiding relegation after beating Maccabi Jaffa in a play-off. In 1996–97 Hapoel finished second, qualifying for the UEFA Cup, after beating Flora Tallinn and Vejle in the qualifying rounds they were knocked out by Rapid Vienna. In 2005 they won the Toto Cup for a fourth time. In 2006–07 the club finished bottom of the Israeli Premier League, however, they made an immediate return to the top division after finishing as runners-up in the 2007–08 Liga Leumit, also winning the Liga Leumit Toto Cup. The club have developed a yo-yo pattern, relegated in 2011–12, the club were promoted in 2013–14, before being relegated immediately. The home ground of Hapoel Petah Tikva is HaMoshava Stadium which opened at the end of 2011, as of 22 October 2016 Official WebSite www. 4everblue. co. il Hapoel Petach Tikva Museum The Blue Frontier 06 site
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. The country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israels economy and technology center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, in 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Mandatory Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency for Palestine, next year, the Jewish Agency declared the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel. Israel has since fought several wars with neighboring Arab states, in the course of which it has occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and it extended its laws to the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israels occupation of the Palestinian territories is the worlds longest military occupation in modern times, efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in peace. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have successfully been signed, the population of Israel, as defined by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, was estimated in 2017 to be 8,671,100 people. It is the worlds only Jewish-majority state, with 74. 8% being designated as Jewish, the countrys second largest group of citizens are Arabs, at 20. 8%. The great majority of Israeli Arabs are Sunni Muslims, including significant numbers of semi-settled Negev Bedouins, other minorities include Arameans, Armenians, Assyrians, Black Hebrew Israelites, Circassians, Maronites and Samaritans. Israel also hosts a significant population of foreign workers and asylum seekers from Africa and Asia, including illegal migrants from Sudan, Eritrea. In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish, Israel is a representative democracy with a parliamentary system, proportional representation and universal suffrage. The prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature, Israel is a developed country and an OECD member, with the 35th-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2016. The country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentage of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. The country has the highest standard of living in the Middle East and the third highest in Asia, in the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term Israeli to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have historically used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel. The name Israel in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, jacobs twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, also known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. The earliest known artifact to mention the word Israel as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity, Islam
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Israel Football Association
The Israel Football Association, also known as IFA, is the governing body of football in Israel. It organizes a variant of football leagues, cups. The association is based in Ramat Gan, IFA was founded in 1928 as the Palestine Football Association. The Palestine Football Association was founded in July 1928 under the British Mandate, in 1954, the Israel Football Association was admitted to the Asian Football Confederation. In 1974, the Israel Football Association was expelled from the AFC due to pressure from Arab. In the late 1970s and 1980s, the Israel Football Association was not affiliated with any confederation, during this period, the Israeli national teams were only playing in FIFA competitions occasionally in OFC, UEFA and CONMEBOL qualifying tournaments. In 1992, the IFA was admitted to UEFA as an associate member, since 1992, Israeli clubs have been playing in the various UEFA club competitions and the Israeli national teams play in UEFA championships. In 1979, Yosef Yekutieli, the founder of the IFA, was awarded the Israel Prize for dedicating his life to promoting and laying the foundation of Israeli sports. Football in Israel List of football stadiums in Israel Sport in Israel Official website Israel at FIFA site Israel at UEFA site
Mandatory Palestine was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Southern Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948, further confusing the issue was the Balfour Declaration of 1917, promising British support for a Jewish national home in Palestine. At the wars end the British and French set up a joint Occupied Enemy Territory Administration in what had been Ottoman Syria, the British achieved legitimacy for their continued control by obtaining a mandate from the League of Nations in June 1922. The civil Mandate administration was formalized with the League of Nations consent in 1923 under the British Mandate for Palestine, the land west of the Jordan River, known as Palestine, was under direct British administration until 1948. The land east of the Jordan, a region known as Transjordan, under the rule of the Hashemite family from the Hijaz. The divergent tendencies regarding the nature and purpose of the mandate are visible already in the discussions concerning the name for this new entity. As a set-off to this, certain of the Arab politicians suggested that the country should be called Southern Syria in order to emphasise its close relation with another Arab State. During the British Mandate period the area experienced the ascent of two major nationalist movements, one among the Jews and the other among the Arabs, following its occupation by British troops in 1917–1918, Palestine was governed by the Occupied Enemy Territory Administration. In July 1920, the administration was replaced by a civilian administration headed by a High Commissioner. The first High Commissioner, Herbert Samuel, a Zionist recent cabinet minister, arrived in Palestine on 20 June 1920, following the arrival of the British, Muslim-Christian Associations were established in all the major towns. In 1919 they joined to hold the first Palestine Arab Congress in Jerusalem and its main platforms were a call for representative government and opposition to the Balfour Declaration. The Zionist Commission was formed in March 1918 and was active in promoting Zionist objectives in Palestine, on 19 April 1920, elections were held for the Assembly of Representatives of the Palestinian Jewish community. The Zionist Commission received official recognition in 1922 as representative of the Palestinian Jewish community, Rutenberg soon established an electric company whose shareholders were Zionist organizations, investors, and philanthropists. Palestinian-Arabs saw it as proof that the British intended to favor Zionism, when Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Kamil al-Husayni died in March 1921, High Commissioner Samuel appointed his half-brother Mohammad Amin al-Husseini to the position. Amin al-Husseini, a member of the clan of Jerusalem, was an Arab nationalist. As Grand Mufti, as well as the influential positions that he held during this period. In 1922, al-Husseini was elected President of the Supreme Muslim Council which had created by Samuel in December 1921. The Council controlled the Waqf funds, worth annually tens of thousands of pounds, in addition, he controlled the Islamic courts in Palestine
Israel national football team
The Israel national football team is the national football team of Israel, governed by the Israel Football Association. Israels national team is the successor of the Mandatory Palestine/Eretz Israel national team. The Israeli side qualified for their only FIFA World Cup to date in 1970, Israel also hosted and won the AFC Asian Cup in 1964, and was finalist in 1956 and in 1960. Football has a tradition in Israel. The game was introduced during the time of the Ottoman Empire. The British Mandate of Palestine national team made its debut against Egypt in 1934 FIFA World Cup qualification, the team played five international matches, including a friendly match against Lebanon, until the British Mandate for Palestine was dissolved. Upon the creation of the State of Israel in May 1948, the Israel national teams first match as an independent nation was on 26 September 1948, against the USA Olympic Team. The game was won by the USA 1–3, and in the 20th minute of the game Shmuel Ben-Dror scored the first goal after the creation of the State of Israel, Israel competed in the Asian Football Confederation between 1954 and 1974. Due to the Arab–Israeli conflict, several Muslim states refused to compete against Israel, Israel hosted and won the 1964 AFC Asian Cup. In 1968, Israel went to their first Olympic Games and lost to Bulgaria in the quarterfinals. In 1969, Israel qualified for its first and only FIFA World Cup, via Asia/Oceania, in 1976, Israel went to its second Olympic Games and lost in the quarterfinals again, this time against Brazil. In 1972 and 1977, it attempted World Cup qualification as part of Asia, in 1974, Israel was excluded from AFC competitions, as a result of a proposal by Kuwait which was adopted by a vote of 17 to 13 with 6 abstentions. The vote coincided with the 1974 Asian Games, where the competition was marred by the refusal of both North Korea and Kuwait to play second-round matches against Israel. During the 1980s, it played the majority of its matches against European teams, for the next two tournaments, it entered Oceanias qualification stage. In 1989, Israel made it to the CONMEBOL–OFC play-offs for the 1990 World Cup to play against Colombia, which qualified from the South American group, but lost. In 1991, Israeli clubs began participating in European club competitions, in 1994, Israel received full UEFA membership,20 years after it had left Asia. Within Europe, Israel has been a minor nation, though with some successes, notably winning 3–2 in Paris against France in 1993. That year, Israel made it to the playoffs of UEFA Euro 2000, the Swiss had a better goal difference, though, and advanced to the qualification play-off
1956 AFC Asian Cup
The 1956 AFC Asian Cup was the inaugural tournament of the AFC Asian Cup. The final tournament was held in Hong Kong from 1 September to 15 September 1956 and it was won by South Korea. Qualifiers Hong Kong South Vietnam South Korea Israel All times are Hong Kong Time With four goals, in total,27 goals were scored by 15 different players, with none of them credited as own goal. Jovanovic, Bojan, Panahi, Majeed, Veroeveren, Pieter
AFC Asian Cup
The AFC Asian Cup is an international association football tournament run by the Asian Football Confederation. It is the second oldest continental football championship in the world after Copa América, the winning team becomes the champion of Asia and automatically qualifies for the FIFA Confederations Cup. The Asian Cup was held every four years from the 1956 edition in Hong Kong until the 2004 tournament in China. After 2004, the tournament was held in 2007 when it was co-hosted by four nations, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand. Thereafter, it has held every four years. The Asian Cup has generally dominated by a small number of top teams. Initially successful teams included South Korea and Iran, since 1984, Japan and Saudi Arabia have been the most successful teams, together winning 7 of the last 9 finals. The other teams which have achieved success are Iraq and Kuwait, Australia joined the Asian confederation in 2007 and hosted the Asian Cup finals in 2015. The 2019 tournament will be expanded from 16 teams to 24 teams, the tournament will be hosted by the United Arab Emirates. The qualifying process involved the hosts plus the winners of the various zones and it was only a four-team tournament, a format that also existed for 1960 and 1964. Each sub-confederation already hosts their own championship, each with varying degrees of interest. Dominance has swung between the East and West so far, Japan hold the record for the most victories in the tournaments history with title triumphs in 1992,2000,2004 and 2011. The 2015 AFC Asian Cup tournament was hosted by Australia, the host country and South Korea reached the final and Australia won the title after defeating South Korea 2–1 in extra time. United Arab Emirates also finished in place after defeating 2007 champions Iraq in the third/fourth-place play-off. The final tournament is being played in two stages, the stage and the knockout stage. In the group each team plays three games in a group of four, with the winners and runners-up from each group advancing to the knockout stage. In the knockout stage the eight teams advance to compete in a tournament, beginning with the quarter-finals. A third-place match is played between the two losing teams of the semi-finals
Maccabi Sha'arayim F.C.
Maccabi Shaarayim is an Israeli football club from the city Rehovot, currently playing in Liga Leumit. The club spent the past seven seasons in the top division from 1963 to 1969, the club was promoted to Liga Leumit for the first time in 1963. In their first season in the league they finished 11th out of 15, the following season the club finished sixth, which remains their highest ever league position. In the 1965–66 season they avoided relegation, finishing one place above the relegation zone. In 1969 Maccabi reach the cup final for the first time, in the same season they finished second bottom of the league and were relegated back to Liga Alef. The final match of the 1971–72 season saw the club have a chance to return to the top flight, but they lost 2–1 to Hapoel Marmorek, which were promoted instead. Two years later qualified for the promotion/relegation play-offs, but failed to win any of their five matches. At the end of the 1977–78 season they finished bottom of Liga Artzit and were relegated to Liga Alef, however, they finished bottom, and were relegated back to Liga Artzit. At the end of the 2011–12 season the club returned to Liga Alef, in the 2015–16 season, the club won Liga Alef South division and promoted to Liga Leumit. Thus, the returned to the second tier of Israeli football after 23 years
Liga Leumit is the second tier in the Israeli football league system below the Premier League. There are 16 clubs in the league, at the end of each season, the two lowest-placed teams are relegated to Liga Alef while the two highest-placed teams from Liga Alef are promoted in their place. The two highest-placed Liga Leumit teams are promoted to the Israeli Premier League while the two teams from Israeli Premier League are relegated in their place. The participating clubs were first play a conventional round-robin schedule for a total of 30 matches, following this, the top eight teams will first play in a promotion playoff. And the eight clubs play a single round-robin schedule, the Israeli State Cup winners qualify for the third qualifying round of the 2013–14 UEFA Europa League. In addition, the eight teams play out to avoid two relegation spots. Since the 2010–11 season, One match is broadcast live on Sport +5 LIVE channel on Friday or Saturday afternoons, the rest of the matches has no TV cover. Liga Leumit came into existence at the start of the 1955–56 season, however, it was usurped as the top flight in the 1999–2000 season, when it was replaced by the Premier League. Since then it has operated as the tier in the Israeli football league system
Maccabi Jaffa F.C.
Maccabi Jaffa Football Club was one of the first football teams in Israel. It was founded in 1950 as Zionist association of Maccabi Jaffa, the Team played for 32 seasons in the Israeli Top Division, though its only title was The Israeli Toto Cup for the Second Division. Maccabi Jaffa finished three times at the place in the Israeli First Division. In 1957, Maccabi Jaffa played at the final of the Israeli State Cup, the fans club Maccabi Kabilio Jaffa won the Israeli District Cup of the fourth and sixth divisions in the 2009 and 2010 seasons. Zionist association of Maccabi Jaffa was founded in 1949 by Albert Kiyosso, in the season of 1954–1955 Maccabi Jaffa played in the promotion play-offs for the Israeli top division with Hapoel Kfar-Saba, Hapoel Kiryat Haim, and Beitar Jerusalem. Jaffa won the Play-offs and promoted for the first time to the Israeli major league, during the 1950s Maccabi Jaffa was struggling in the bottom part of the Israeli First Division. The peak of this period was in the season of 1956–1957 when Maccabi Jaffa participated in the final of The Israeli State Cup, in the 1960s, Maccabi Jaffa was close twice to win the championship. In the Season of 1961–1962 Maccabi Jaffa finished second in the Israeli Major League, only 2 points from the champions, the season of 1963–1964 considered as the best season of Maccabi Jaffa history. In this season Maccabi Jaffa fought the championship against Hapoel Ramat Gan, in the games between the teams, Jaffa had won 3–1 in Ramat Gan, and 1–0 in Jaffa, but that wasn’t enough. Ramat-Gan won the Championship, only 1 point above Maccabi Jaffa, in that season, Maccabi Jaffa striker Israel Ashkenazi was Israels top scorer with 21 goals. Maccabi Jaffa had started the 1970s in the second division, the rest of the 1970s, Jaffa was a mediocre team in the Israeli first division. The only season worth mentioning is 1976–1977. in this year, Jaffa finished in the second place, after Maccabi Tel Aviv, thats after Jaffa beat Maccabi Tel-Aviv in both games of that season. Jaffas first season in the 1980s was promising, as the finished in the third place. Jaffa became a league team, until in the season of 1986–1987. Jaffa did not succeed to promote to the first division in the 1980s, and finished the seasons in mid-table of Liga Artzit. The first years of the 1990s seem good for Maccabi Jaffa, in the season of 1991–1992 Jaffa finished in the sixth place, but won their first title ever, Israeli Toto Cup of the Liga Artzit. Jaffa lost 1–2 and 0–3 and remained in the second division, in the season of 1994–1995 Jaffa finished in the first place, and promoted to the first division after 8 years in the second division. The season of 1995–1996 was not good for The Bulgarians, as Jaffa finished in the bottom place, Jaffa came back to life in the season of 1997–1998
Hapoel Jerusalem F.C.
Hapoel Jerusalem Football Club is an Israeli football club in Liga Leumit. Hapoel plays at Teddy Stadium in Malha, Jerusalem, Hapoel Jerusalem Club was established in 1926 and played in the inaugural season of the EIFA league, playing the leagues first match against local rivals Maccabi Hasmonean Jerusalem. The club played in the league for its first three seasons, however, the club was restricted to playing mainly in the Jerusalem area due to travelling difficulties. The club participated occasionally in the Palestine Cup, reaching the cup final in 1943, after the establishment of Israel, the club registered to play in the makeshift second tier league, Liga Meuhedet, in the Jerusalem-Central division, which the club won. The club continued to play in the division, until it was promoted to the top division at the end of the 1956–57 season. Following the promotion, the club stayed in the top division for 21 seasons, achieving its best position, 3rd, in 1971–72 the club reached the State Cup final, losing to Hapoel Tel Aviv 0–1. A season later, the reached the cup final again. The club was relegated to the division in 1979. The club continued to yo-yo between the two top divisions in the seasons, playing his last season at the top division in 1999–2000. In 1998, the club reached its fourth cup final, in the early 1990s, the club was transferred to businessmen Yossi Sassi and Victor Yona. The two ran the team together until falling out, leading to a business and legal dispute which lasted until 2009. The fan-based club was established in 2009 and progressed to the Liga Leumit in 2013–14, the club currently plays in second tier Liga Leumit, to which it promoted from Liga Alef in 2010–11. Katamon Stadium was razed in 1982, with the intention to build a modern stadium in its place. The new stadium in Katamon was never built, and instead Teddy Stadium was built in the Malha neighborhood, during the early years, support of the club came mostly from the labour organizations in Israel. City rivals Beitar were identified with the right-wing nationalist organizations, all this played out to create the Jerusalem derby. To this day the rivalry exists, though it is not nearly as heated as both clubs played in the top division of Israeli football. In 2007 a large majority of fans, unhappy with the management of the club, as to 11 February 2017 Club website Hapoel Jerusalem Israel Football Association
Bnei Yehuda Tel Aviv F.C.
Bnei Yehuda Tel Aviv F. C. commonly known as just Bnei Yehuda, is an Israeli football club from the Hatikva Quarter of Tel Aviv. The club is currently a member of the Israeli Premier League, the club was formed in January 1936 by Nathan Sulami and his friends. It was named after Judah, because the decision on its formation occurred during the week when the Torah portion of Vayigash is read in the Synagogue, Sulami and his friends were first promoted to the top division in 1959. Two seasons later they narrowly avoided relegation, finishing second from bottom, in 1965 the club reached the State Cup final for the first time, but lost 2–1 to Maccabi Tel Aviv. In 1968 they reached the final again, this time beating Hapoel Petah Tikva to claim their first piece of major silverware, after several near-misses, the club was relegated at the end of the 1971–72 season after finishing second from bottom. However, they made a return as Liga Alef champions but were relegated again in 1976. In the 1977–78 season the club were promoted back to the top division as Liga Artzit champions, and also reached the State Cup final, the following season the club finished fourth in Liga Leumit. The 1980–81 season was the clubs best so far, managed by Shlomo Sharf they finished second in the league and reached the cup final again, this time beating Hapoel Tel Aviv 4–3 after a penalty shootout. However, the success was not maintained, and they were relegated at the end of the 1983–84 season, the club made an immediate return as Liga Artzit champions and finished second in 1986–87. The 1989–90 season saw the club win its first, and to date only, two seasons later they won the Toto Cup for the first time, repeating the feat in 1997. The 2000–01 season saw Bnei Yehuda finish second from bottom of the Premier League, however, they made an immediate return as Liga Leumit runners-up. The club have remained in the Premier League since, in 2005–06 they reached the cup final, losing 1–0 to Hapoel Tel Aviv, but also qualifying for Europe for the first time. In the 2006–07 UEFA Cup they lost 6–0 on aggregate to Lokomotiv Sofia and had to play their match in Senec in Slovakia due to security concerns. In the 2009–10 season Bnei Yehuda reached the European League play-off, after starting in the first qualifying round, the following season they reached the second qualifying round of the Europa League, but lost to Shamrock Rovers. From 2009–10 to the 2012–13 season, Bnei Yehuda managed to finish regularly in the top 3–4 ranks of the Israeli Premier League which won her participation in the European League qualifying, following the success, the group became a springboard for players. Many players who were remarkable in the ranks of Bnei Yehuda have moved or were sold to bigger clubs, in the 2013–14 season, Bnei Yehuda finished bottom and relegated to Liga Leumit. However, they made a return to the Premier League as the 2014–15 Liga Leumit champions. For most of its existence, Bnei Yehuda played at the Hatikva Neighborhood Stadium in the Hatikva Quarter of Tel Aviv
Beitar Nes Tubruk F.C.
Beitar Nes Tubruk Netanya, formerly Beitar Netanya, is a football club in Netanya, Israel. The club is one of the most successful youth academies in the country, however, the club won only three games in its first and only season in the top flight, and were relegated with just 10 points, the lowest ever total during a 16-team season. At the end of the 1991–92 Liga Artzit season the club was relegated to the third tier, the club rights were sold to a group of Israeli businessmen. The club relies heavily on transfer fees and loan arrangements, the annual budget is generally around 3 million shekels, with about a third of that budget coming from Yaakov Shahar of Maccabi Haifa and Meir Shamir. 1As Beitar Netanya Yehoshua Feigenbaum Shmulik Perlman Beni Lam Official Website Official page on IFA
South Korea national football team
The Korea Republic national football team represents South Korea in international association football and is controlled by the Korea Football Association. They have since improved their ability to play on foreign soil and were able to reach the Round of 16 in the 2010 World Cup. South Korea won the first two AFC Asian Cup tournaments though they have been unable to win since, finishing second in 1972,1980,1988, and 2015, and third in 1964,2000,2007, and 2011. They also took the medal at the 1970,1978. The team is commonly nicknamed The Reds by both fans and the due to the color of their primary kit. The national teams supporting group is referred to as the Red Devils. Koreans were not introduced to football until 1882, when British crew members played a game while their vessel was visiting the Incheon Port, Korea became a Japanese colony in 1910. In 1921, the first All Korea Football Tournament was held, and in 1928, The Korea Football Association was organized, in 1940, however, the Japanese Governor-General of Korea forced the Korea Football Association to dissolve. Following the establishment of the Republic of Korea, the Korea Football Association was reinstated in 1948 and joined FIFA, the same year, the Korean national team made its international debut at the Olympic Games in London. The KFA joined the AFC in 1954, South Korea first entered the World Cup in 1954 as the second Asian team ever to compete in the World Cup after the Dutch East Indies. South Korea played games against Hungary and Turkey, losing 9–0 and 7–0 respectively and it would take thirty-two years before South Korea was able to participate in the World Cup finals again. South Korea would later participate in the first Asian Cup in 1956 and they drew with Hong Kong but defeated Israel and South Vietnam to take first place. They hosted and won the second Asian Cup in 1960, winning all of their games, however, they failed to repeat this success and lost all their games in the 1964 Asian Cup and failed to qualify in 1968. They recovered in 1972 and took second place and they once again failed to qualify in 1976 but reached second place again in 1980. In 1986, South Korea was able to qualify for the 1986 FIFA World Cup, held in Mexico, for the first time since 1954. They, however, failed to win a game despite the presence of Cha Bum-kun, at the one of the best Asian players, losing 3–1 to Argentina, drawing 1–1 with Bulgaria. South Korea started the 1990s poorly, at the 1990 FIFA World Cup, they lost all their games against Spain 3–1, Uruguay 1–0, and Belgium 2–0. South Korea failed to qualify for the 1992 Asian Cup as well, in the 1994 FIFA World Cup they managed to draw with Spain 2–2
Hong Kong national football team
The Hong Kong national football team, represents Hong Kong in international association football competitions such as the FIFA World Cup, AFC Asian Cup and East Asian Football Championship. The team is represented and supervised by the Hong Kong Football Association, although usually known as simply Hong Kong, the EAFF refer to the team as Hong Kong, China. The team had been representing Hong Kong in international events before 1997 when Hong Kong was a colony of the United Kingdom. In Hong Kong, the Hong Kong football team is referred as the Hong Kong team. Hong Kong played its first international match after World War II in 1949 and its first victory came in 1953, a 4–0 win against South Korea. However, the players in the team came from Hong Kong since the reputation of the Hong Kong national football team was not as good as the Republic of China. Also winning the Football at the 1954 Asian Games and Football at the 1958 Asian Games, Hong Kong has never qualified for the World Cup. However, its most celebrated victory happened during 1986 World Cup qualifying, on 19 May 1985, in Beijing, Hong Kong faced China in the final match of the first qualifying round, where Hong Kong needed a win to advance while China needed only a draw. The year 2009 could be a point in the diminishing football standards of Hong Kong. On 12 December, Hong Kong defeated Japan and took their first East Asian Games football gold medal in the first major competition Hong Kong football team have won. This unexpected and surprising result, raised the belief that the Hong Kong football team could perform for football lovers in Hong Kong, in recent years, Hong Kong plays most of home matches at Mong Kok Stadium, including FIFA World Cup and AFC Asian Cup qualification matches. Players in bold are active at international level. Players with an number of caps are ranked in chronological order of reaching the milestone. Goalscorers with an number of goals are ranked with the highest to lowest goals per game ratio. Caps and goals as of 28 March 2017, after the match against Lebanon, the following players have been called up for the team within the last twelve months. Notes INJ Player withdrew from the due to an injuryPRE Preliminary squadRET Player retired from international football Last updated. See comprehensive article, Hong Kong national football team - record in qualifying and major tournaments Denotes draws includes knockout matches decided on penalty kicks
South Vietnam national football team
The South Vietnam national football team was the national team of South Vietnam controlled by Vietnam Football Association between 1949 and 1975. It took part in the first two Asian Cups finals, finishing both times. The team also entered qualification for the 1974 FIFA World Cup, the team ceased to exist when the North and South regions combined into the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. For results after 1991, see the article Vietnam national football team, the only World Cup which South Vietnam entered was the 1974 tournament in West Germany. They were placed in Zone A of the AFC and OFC qualification in Seoul, on 16 May 1973 they beat Thailand 1-0 to qualify for Group 1. On 20 May South Vietnam lost their opening game 4-0 to Japan, Hong Kong and Japan advanced but neither got any further, losing play-offs for the next round to South Korea and Israel respectively. com
Hong Kong, officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the Pearl River Delta of East Asia. Macau lies across the delta to the west, and the Chinese province of Guangdong borders the territory to the north. With a total area of 1,106 square kilometres. Hong Kong was later occupied by Japan during World War II until British control resumed in 1945, under the principle of one country, two systems, Hong Kong maintains a separate political and economic system from China. Except in military defence and foreign affairs, Hong Kong maintains its independent executive, legislative, in addition, Hong Kong develops relations directly with foreign states and international organisations in a broad range of appropriate fields. Hong Kong is one of the worlds most significant financial centres, with the highest Financial Development Index score and consistently ranks as the worlds most competitive and freest economic entity. As the worlds 8th largest trading entity, its legal tender, Hong Kongs tertiary sector dominated economy is characterised by simple taxation with a competitive level of corporate tax and supported by its independent judiciary system. However, while Hong Kong has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world and it has a very high Human Development Index ranking and the worlds longest life expectancy. Over 90% of the population use of well-developed public transportation. Seasonal air pollution with origins from neighbouring areas of Mainland China. Hong Kong was officially recorded in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking to encompass the entirety of the island, before 1842, the name referred to a small inlet—now Aberdeen Harbour, literally means Little Hong Kong)—between Aberdeen Island and the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was a point of contact between British sailors and local fishermen. Detailed and accurate romanisation systems for Cantonese were available and in use at the time, fragrance may refer to the sweet taste of the harbours fresh water estuarine influx of the Pearl River or to the incense from factories lining the coast of northern Kowloon. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export before Hong Kong developed Victoria Harbour, the name had often been written as the single word Hongkong until the government adopted the current form in 1926. Nevertheless, a number of century-old institutions still retain the form, such as the Hongkong Post, Hongkong Electric. As of 1997, its name is the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China. This is the title as mentioned in the Hong Kong Basic Law. Hong Kong has carried many nicknames, the most famous among those is the Pearl of the Orient, which reflected the impressive nightscape of the citys light decorations on the skyscrapers along both sides of the Victoria Harbour
Nahum Stelmach was an Israeli footballer and manager. He was chosen third by Yediot Aharonots greatest Israeli footballers and he made a name for himself as the leader of Hapoel Petah Tikva. At the height of his career in Hapoel Petah Tikva, Stelmach received offers to sign for Arsenal and Fenerbahçe and he led his team to five national championships, four of them consecutive. His most recognizable attribute was the quality of his headers, with which he scored most of his international goals, as a result he was commonly nicknamed the golden head in Israel. He scored what was arguably his most famous goal for Israel in an Olympic qualifier against The USSR, with Lev Yashin as goalkeeper, at the Ramat Gan Stadium on July 31,1956. Despite the fact that Israel lost the game 2,1, and that the game was not televised and he was the trainer of Hapoel Haifa in the 1970s, while training the international stars Yochanan Vollach and Itzhak Englander. National league, 1954–55, 1958–59, 1959–60, 1960–61, 1961–62, 1962–63 Israel State Cup, 1956–57
Hong Kong Stadium
Hong Kong Stadium is the main sports venue of Hong Kong. Redeveloped from the old Government Stadium, it reopened as Hong Kong Stadium in March 1994. It has a seating capacity of 40,000, including 18,257 at the main level,3,153 at executive level,18,507 upper level seats and 57 seats for wheelchair users. The stadium is located in So Kon Po, Hong Kong Island, most international football matches held in Hong Kong are held at this stadium. It is also the location for the Hong Kong Sevens rugby sevens tournament, Hong Kong Stadium also hosted the Rugby World Cup Sevens twice, in 1997 and 2005. So Kon Po was formerly the burial ground for the 1918 fire at Happy Valley Racecourse, then the Hong Kong Government moved all the tombs to Aberdeen. The old Government Stadium was a U-shaped constructed by 1953 and had a capacity of 28,000 with partially covered seating and it witnessed the best times of Hong Kong football in the 60s and 70s. At the time, the stadium would be packed full of spectators when a top of the league clash happened, eager spectators without tickets would climb the hill behind the stadium to see the game. The old Government Stadium was only covered, without sufficient seats or lighting systems. In the 90s, the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club proposed a plan so that Hong Kong can have a world class sports stadium. Even before the reconstruction, the Government Stadium was Hong Kongs most important sports venue, as the focus on the design was for football only, the track went to 450m, 50m longer than standard. Numerous schools held their athletic meetings here, in the early 1990s, the Government Stadium was reconstructed into a 40, 000-seat rectangular stadium. No running track was due to the restricted land size. This forced the schools to look for alternative venues, the stadiums management contract was won by Wembley International, a foreign subsidiary of Wembley Stadium, against strong competition, in March 1994. From the first day there have been problems with the pitch. The owners of the stadium, the Urban Council, were disappointed, the surface is just sand-based and the turf doesnt hold well. The government had hoped that the stadium could be used as a concert venue in order to bring in more rental income. But nearby citizens complained endlessly about noise levels, leading to restrictions on noise levels that effectively rendered the stadium unsuitable for concerts and this reduced greatly the income levels of the stadium and the management company, Wembley, ran into financial troubles
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam, was a state governing the southern half of Vietnam from 1955 to 1975. It received international recognition in 1949 as the State of Vietnam, the term South Vietnam became common usage in 1954, when the Geneva Conference provisionally partitioned Vietnam into communist and non-communist parts. The Republic of Vietnam was proclaimed on 26 October 1955, with Ngô Đình Diệm as its first president and its sovereignty was recognized by the United States and eighty-seven other nations. It had membership in several committees of the United Nations. After the Second World War, the Viet Minh, led by Ho Chi Minh, in 1949, anti-communist Vietnamese politicians formed a rival government in Saigon led by former emperor Bảo Đại. Bảo Đại was deposed by Prime Minister Ngô Đình Diệm in 1955, after Diệm was killed in a military coup led by general Dương Văn Minh in 1963, there was a series of short-lived military governments. General Nguyễn Văn Thiệu led the country from 1967 until 1975, the Vietnam War began in 1959 with an uprising by Viet Cong forces armed and controlled by Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Fighting reached a climax during the Tet Offensive of 1968, when there were over 1.5 million South Vietnamese soldiers and 500,000 U. S. soldiers in South Vietnam. Despite a peace treaty concluded in January 1973, fighting continued until the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong armies overran Saigon on 30 April 1975, the creation of this republic, during the Indochina War, allowed France to evade a promise to recognise Vietnam as independent. This pre-Vietnam government prepared for a unified Vietnamese state, but the countrys full reunification was delayed for a year because of the problems posed by Cochinchinas legal status, Nguyễn Văn Xuân 1949–55 State of Vietnam. Roughly 60% of Vietnamese territory was controlled by the communist Việt Minh. Vietnam was partitioned at the 17th parallel in 1954, once highly lauded by America, he was ousted and assassinated in a U. S. -backed coup. In 1963–65, there were numerous coups and short-lived governments, several of which were headed by Dương Văn Minh or Nguyễn Khánh, Prime Minister Nguyễn Cao Kỳ was the top leader in 1965–67. Surrendered to Communists when others abandoned their posts, 1975–76 Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam. Huỳnh Tấn Phát Before World War II, the third of Vietnam was the concession of Cochinchina. Between Tonkin in the north and Cochinchina in the south was the protectorate of Annam, Cochinchina had been annexed by France in 1862 and even elected a deputy to the French National Assembly. It was more evolved, and French interests were stronger than in parts of Indochina. During World War II, Indochina was administered by Vichy France, japanese troops overthrew the French administration on 9 March 1945, Emperor Bảo Đại proclaimed Vietnam independent