Richard Milhous Nixon was an American politician who served as the 37th president of the United States from 1969 to 1974. He had served as the 36th vice president of the United States from 1953 to 1961, prior to that as both a U. S. representative and senator from California. Nixon was born in California. After completing his undergraduate studies at Whittier College, he graduated from Duke University School of Law in 1937 and returned to California to practice law, he and his wife Pat moved to Washington in 1942 to work for the federal government. He subsequently served on active duty in the U. S. Navy Reserve during World War II. Nixon was elected to the House of Representatives in 1946 and to the Senate in 1950, his pursuit of the Hiss Case established his reputation as a leading anti-communist and elevated him to national prominence. He was the running mate of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Republican Party presidential nominee in the 1952 election. Nixon served for eight years as Vice President, becoming the second-youngest vice president in history at age 40.
He waged an unsuccessful presidential campaign in 1960, narrowly losing to John F. Kennedy, lost a race for governor of California to Pat Brown in 1962. In 1968, he ran for the presidency again and was elected, defeating incumbent Vice President Hubert Humphrey. Nixon ended American involvement in the war in Vietnam in 1973 and brought the American POWs home, ended the military draft. Nixon's visit to China in 1972 led to diplomatic relations between the two nations and he initiated détente and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with the Soviet Union the same year, his administration transferred power from Washington D. C. to the states. He imposed wage and price controls for ninety days, enforced desegregation of Southern schools, established the Environmental Protection Agency and began the War on Cancer. Nixon presided over the Apollo 11 moon landing, which signaled the end of the moon race, he was reelected in one of the largest electoral landslides in U. S. history in 1972 when he defeated George McGovern.
In his second term, Nixon ordered an airlift to resupply Israeli losses in the Yom Kippur War, resulting in the restart of the Middle East peace process and an oil crisis at home. The Nixon administration supported a coup in Chile that ousted the government of Salvador Allende and propelled Augusto Pinochet to power. By late 1973, the Watergate scandal escalated. On August 9, 1974, he resigned in the face of certain impeachment and removal from office—the only time a U. S. president has done so. After his resignation, he was issued a controversial pardon by Gerald Ford. In 20 years of retirement, Nixon wrote nine books and undertook many foreign trips, helping to rehabilitate his image into that of an elder statesman, he suffered a debilitating stroke on April 18, 1994 and died four days at the age of 81. Richard Milhous Nixon was born on January 9, 1913 in Yorba Linda, California, in a house, built by his father, his parents were Francis A. Nixon, his mother was a Quaker, his father converted from Methodism to the Quaker faith.
Nixon was a descendant of the early American settler, Thomas Cornell, an ancestor of Ezra Cornell, the founder of Cornell University, as well as of Jimmy Carter and Bill Gates. Nixon's upbringing was marked by evangelical Quaker observances of the time, such as refraining from alcohol and swearing. Nixon had four brothers: Harold, Donald and Edward. Four of the five Nixon boys were named after kings who had ruled in legendary Britain. Nixon's early life was marked by hardship, he quoted a saying of Eisenhower to describe his boyhood: "We were poor, but the glory of it was we didn't know it"; the Nixon family ranch failed in 1922, the family moved to Whittier, California. In an area with many Quakers, Frank Nixon opened a grocery gas station. Richard's younger brother. At the age of twelve, a spot was found on Richard's lung, with a family history of tuberculosis, he was forbidden to play sports; the spot was found to be scar tissue from an early bout of pneumonia. Young Richard attended East Whittier Elementary School, where he was president of his eighth-grade class.
His parents believed that attending Whittier High School had caused Richard's older brother Harold to live a dissolute lifestyle before he fell ill of tuberculosis, so they sent Richard to the larger Fullerton Union High School. He had to ride a school bus for an hour each way during his freshman year, he received excellent grades, he lived with an aunt in Fullerton during the week. He played junior varsity football, missed a practice though he was used in games, he had greater success as a debater, winning a number of championships and taking his only formal tutelage in public speaking from Fullerton's Head of English, H. Lynn Sheller. Nixon remembered Sheller's words, "Remember, speaking is conversation... don't shout at people. Talk to them. Converse with them." Nixon stated. At the start of his junior year beginning in September 1928, Richard's parents permitted him to transfer to Whittier High School. At Whittier High, Nixon suffered his first electoral defeat, for student body president, he rose at 4 a.m. to drive the family truck into Los Angeles and purchase vegetables at the market.
He drove to the store to wash and display them, befo
1936 United States presidential election in Illinois
The 1936 United States presidential election in Illinois took place on November 3, 1936, as part of the 1936 United States presidential election. Illinois voters chose twenty-nine representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Illinois was won by incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt, running with Vice President John Nance Garner, with 57.70% of the popular vote, against Governor Alf Landon, running with Frank Knox, with 39.69% of the popular vote
1976 United States presidential election in Illinois
The 1976 United States presidential election in Illinois was held on November 2, 1976. Gerald Ford won Illinois with 50.10% percent of the vote, but lost the general election to Jimmy Carter of Georgia. This is the last election where a Democrat won the White House without carrying Illinois
2008 United States presidential election in Illinois
The 2008 United States presidential election in Illinois took place on November 4, 2008, was part of the 2008 United States presidential election. Voters chose 21 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Barack Obama won the race in his home state with a 25.1 percent margin of victory. Prior to the election, every major news organization considered this a state Obama would win, or otherwise considered as a safe blue state. One of the most reliably blue states in the nation, Illinois has not voted for a Republican presidential nominee since 1988, when George H. W. Bush narrowly carried the state. In 2008, continuing that trend, it appeared that a generic Democratic presidential nominee could have won Illinois. Thus, it surprised no one that Barack Obama, who represented Illinois in the U. S. Senate, won Illinois in 2008 over Republican John McCain in a landslide victory, clinching near 62 percent of the total vote; as of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last time a Democrat won the following counties: Boone, Cass, Coles, Grundy, Kendall, LaSalle, Macoupin, Mason, McDonough, McHenry, McLean, Pulaski, Schuyler and Vermillion.
The Illinois Democratic Presidential Primary took place on Super Tuesday, February 5, 2008, with 153 delegates at stake. The winner in each of Illinois's 19 congressional districts was awarded all of that district's delegates, totaling 100. Another 53 delegates were awarded to Barack Obama; the 153 delegates represented Illinois at the Democratic National Convention in Colorado. Thirty-two other unpledged delegates, known as superdelegates attended the convention and cast their votes as well. Polls indicated that then-U. S. Senator Barack Obama was leading then-U. S. Senator Hillary Clinton by double digits in the days before the contest in his home state of Illinois. Chicago Public Radio reported on March 13, 2008, that the delegate counts were recalculated and Obama won 106 delegates to 47 for Clinton. During the state by state roll-call at the Democratic National Convention, the Illinois delegation declined to cast their votes, it was no surprise that Barack Obama cruised to a landslide victory in Illinois, the state he had represented in the U.
S. Senate since 2005, he enjoyed massive support in his state among all demographics. According to exit polls, 57 percent of voters in the Illinois Democratic Primary were Caucasian and they opted for Obama 57-41. Obama tied Clinton among senior citizens aged 65 and over, he won all voters in the state of all educational attainment levels as well as income/socioeconomic classes. He won all ideological voters from both parties as well as self-identified Independents. Regarding religion, Obama won every major denomination except Roman Catholics, who narrowly backed Clinton 50-48 percent. Obama won Protestants by a margin of 58-38, other Christians 79-19, other religions 82-17, atheists/agnostics 78-21. Obama performed well statewide and racked up massive victories in his home city of Chicago as well as its suburbs and the metropolitan area, he won Northern Illinois as well as the collar counties by substantial victories. Clinton’s best performance was in Southern Illinois among the more rural and conservative counties that are majority white, although Obama still won the region as a whole.
The Illinois Republican primary, 2008 was held on February 5, 2008. Illinois was one of 24 States holding a primary or caucus on Super Tuesday. Delegates from each of Illinois' 19 congressional districts are selected by direct election. In addition, the primary ballot contains a preference poll that lists the presidential candidates. *Candidate withdrew prior to the primary The Illinois chapter of the Green Party held a presidential primary on February 5. There were 16 news organizations. Here are their last predictions before election day: D. C. Political Report: Democrat Cook Political Report: Solid Democrat Takeaway: Solid Obama Electoral-vote.com: Strong Democrat Washington Post: Solid Obama Politico: Solid Obama Real Clear Politics: Solid Obama FiveThirtyEight.com: Solid Obama CQ Politics: Safe Democrat New York Times: Solid Democrat CNN: Safe Democrat NPR: Solid Obama MSNBC: Solid Obama Fox News: Democrat Associated Press: Democrat Rasmussen Reports: Safe Democrat Obama won every single pre-election poll, each by a double-digit margin and with at least 52%.
The final 3 polls averaged Obama leading 60% to 35%. Obama raised $35,307,625. McCain raised $7,207,428. Obama spent $23,319. McCain and interest groups spent $52,865; the Democratic ticket visited the state 13 times. McCain's ticket visited the state twice. For most of the second half of the 20th century, Illinois was reckoned as a Republican-leaning swing state, it voted Republican in every election from 1952 to 1988, save for 1960 and 1964. However, George H. W. Bush just won the state in 1988, it swung to Bill Clinton and the Democrats in 1992. Since Democrats have won the state by comfortable margins, it is now reckoned as the most solidly Democratic state in the Midwest; the blue trend in the Land of Lincoln in presidential elections can be attributed to Cook County, home to Chicago, which makes up about 41.2% of the state's total population. While Chicago has been a Democratic stronghold for decades, the suburban areas of Cook County have tilted Republican; the brand of Republicanism in the suburbs, h
President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh
1860 United States presidential election in Illinois
The 1860 United States presidential election in Illinois took place on November 6, 1860, as part of the 1860 United States presidential election. Illinois voters chose eleven representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Illinois was won by Illinois Representative Abraham Lincoln, running with Senator Hannibal Hamlin, with 50.69% of the popular vote, against Senator Stephen A. Douglas, running with 41st Governor of Georgia Herschel V. Johnson, with 47.17% of the popular vote. Liberty Party candidate Gerrit Smith received 35 of his 171 popular votes in Illinois alone; the other 136 votes came from Ohio
Adlai Stevenson II
Adlai Ewing Stevenson II was an American lawyer and diplomat. A member of the Democratic Party, Stevenson served in numerous positions in the federal government during the 1930s and 1940s, including the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, Federal Alcohol Administration, Department of the Navy, the State Department. In 1945, he served on the committee that created the United Nations, he was a member of the initial U. S. delegations to the UN. He was the 31st Governor of Illinois from 1949 to 1953, received the Democratic Party's nomination for president in the 1952 and 1956 elections. In both the 1952 and 1956 elections, Stevenson was defeated in landslides by Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower, he sought the Democratic presidential nomination for a third time at the 1960 Democratic National Convention, but was defeated by Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts. After his election, President Kennedy appointed Stevenson as the United States Ambassador to the United Nations, he served from 1961 until his death.
He died on July 14, 1965, from heart failure in London, following a United Nations conference in Switzerland. Following public memorial services in New York City, Washington, DC, his childhood hometown of Bloomington, Illinois, he was buried in his family's section in Bloomington's Evergreen Cemetery. Noted historian Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. who served as one of his speechwriters, described Stevenson as a "great creative figure in American politics. He turned the Democratic Party around in the fifties and made JFK possible...to the United States and the world he was the voice of a reasonable and elevated America. He brought a new generation into politics, moved millions of people in the United States and around the world." Journalist David Halberstam wrote that "Stevenson's gift to the nation was his language and well-crafted and calming." His biographer Jean H. Baker stated that Stevenson's memory "still survives...as an expression of a different kind of politics - nobler, more issue-oriented, less compliant to the greedy ambitions of modern politicians, less driven by public opinion polls and the media."
W. Willard Wirtz, his friend and law partner, once said "If the Electoral College gives an honorary degree, it should go to Adlai Stevenson." Stevenson was born in Los Angeles, California, in a neighborhood now designated as the North University Park Historic District. His home and birthplace at 2639 Monmouth Avenue has been designated as a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument, he was a member of a prominent Illinois political family. His grandfather and namesake Adlai Stevenson I was Vice President of the United States under President Grover Cleveland from 1893 to 1897, his father, Lewis Stevenson, never held an elected office, but was appointed Illinois Secretary of State and was considered a strong contender for the Democratic vice-presidential nomination in 1928. A maternal great-grandfather, Jesse W. Fell, had been a close friend and campaign manager for Abraham Lincoln in his 1858 US Senate race. Stevenson's eldest son, Adlai E. Stevenson III, became a U. S. Senator from Illinois, his mother was Helen Davis Stevenson, he had an older sister, Elizabeth Stevenson Ives, an author, called "Buffie".
Actor McLean Stevenson was a second cousin once removed. He was the nephew by marriage of novelist Mary Borden, she assisted in the writing of some of his political speeches. Stevenson was raised in the city of Illinois. On December 30, 1912, at the age of twelve, Stevenson accidentally killed Ruth Merwin, a 16-year-old friend, while demonstrating drill technique with a rifle, inadvertently left loaded, during a party at the Stevenson home. Stevenson was devastated by the accident and mentioned or discussed it as an adult with his wife and children. However, in 1955 Stevenson heard about a woman, he wrote to her that she should tell her son that "he must now live for two", which Stevenson's friends took to be a reference to the shooting incident. Stevenson left Bloomington High School after his junior year and attended University High School in Normal, Bloomington's "twin city", just to the north, he went to boarding school in Connecticut at The Choate School, where he played on the tennis team, acted in plays, was elected editor-in-chief of The Choate News, the school newspaper.
Upon his graduation from Choate in 1918, he enlisted in the Navy and served at the rank of Seaman Apprentice, but his training was completed too late for him to participate in World War I. He attended Princeton University, becoming managing editor of The Daily Princetonian, a member of the American Whig-Cliosophic Society, a member of the Quadrangle Club, received a B. A. degree in 1922 in literature and history. Under prodding from his father he went to Harvard Law School, but found the law to be "uninteresting", withdrew after failing several classes, he returned to Bloomington where he wrote for the family newspaper, The Daily Pantagraph, founded by his maternal great-grandfather Jesse Fell. The Pantagraph, which had one of the largest circulations of any newspaper in Illinois outside of the Chicago area, was a main source of the Stevenson family's wealth. Following his mother's death in 1935, Adlai inherited one-quarter of the Pantagraph's stock, providing him with a large, dependable source of income for the rest of his life.
A year after leaving Harvard, Stevenson became interested in the law again after talking to Sup