Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
1928 United States presidential election in South Carolina
The 1928 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place on November 6, 1928, as part of the 1928 United States Presidential Election, held throughout all contemporary forty-eight states. Voters chose nine representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. South Carolina voted for the Democratic nominee, Governor Alfred E. Smith of New York, over the Republican nominee, Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover of California. Smith ran with Senator Joseph Taylor Robinson of Arkansas, while Hoover’s running mate was Senate Majority Leader Charles Curtis of Kansas. Smith won South Carolina by a margin of 82.85 percent
1964 United States presidential election in South Carolina
The 1964 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place on November 3, 1964, as part of the 1964 United States presidential election. South Carolina voters chose eight representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. South Carolina was won by Senator Barry Goldwater, with 58.89% of the popular vote, against incumbent President Lyndon B. Johnson, with 41.10% of the popular vote. With Goldwater carrying the state, he became the first Republican presidential candidate to carry the state since Rutherford B. Hayes in 1876; the state has voted Republican in every subsequent election except 1976. South Carolina Senator Strom Thurmond had a big factor in helping Goldwater win the race. With 58.89% of the popular vote, South Carolina would prove to be Goldwater's third strongest state in the 1964 election after Mississippi and Alabama
1792 United States presidential election in South Carolina
The 1792 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place between November 2 and December 5, 1792 as part of the 1792 United States presidential election. The state legislature chose eight representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President. South Carolina, unanimously cast its eight electoral votes for incumbent George Washington during its first presidential election
1796 United States presidential election in South Carolina
The 1796 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place between November 4 and December 7, 1796, as part of the 1796 United States presidential election. The state legislature chose eight representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President. During this election, South Carolina cast nine electoral votes for former Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson
1956 United States presidential election
The 1956 United States presidential election was the 43rd quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 6, 1956; the popular incumbent President, Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower ran for re-election; the election was a re-match of 1952, as Eisenhower's opponent in 1956 was Adlai Stevenson, a former Illinois governor whom Eisenhower had defeated four years earlier. Eisenhower, who had first become famous for his military leadership in World War II, remained popular. A heart attack in 1955 provoked speculation that he would not seek a second term, but Eisenhower's health recovered and he was unopposed at the 1956 Republican National Convention. Stevenson remained popular with a core of liberal Democrats, but held no office and had no real base, he defeated Governor W. Averell Harriman and several other candidates on the first presidential ballot of the 1956 Democratic National Convention. Stevenson called for a significant increase in government spending on social programs and a decrease in military spending.
As the country enjoyed peace—Eisenhower had ended the Korean War—and economic growth, few doubted a successful re-election for the charismatic Eisenhower. His voters were less to bring up his leadership record. Instead what stood out this time, "was the response to personal qualities—to his sincerity, his integrity and sense of duty, his virtue as a family man, his religious devotion, his sheer likeableness." The weeks before the election saw two major international crises in the Middle East and Eastern Europe, Eisenhower's handling of the crises boosted his popularity. Eisenhower improved upon his 1952 majorities in both the popular and electoral vote, he maintained his 1952 gains among Democrats white urban Southerners and Northern Catholics. Compared to the 1952 election, Eisenhower gained Kentucky and West Virginia from Stevenson, while losing Missouri; this was the last presidential election before the admissions of Alaska and Hawaii, the last election in which any of the major candidates were born in the 19th century, the most recent election, a rematch of a previous election.
Republican candidates Dwight D. Eisenhower, President of the United StatesEarly in 1956, there was speculation that President Eisenhower would not run for a second term because of concerns about his health. In 1955, Eisenhower had suffered a serious heart attack. However, he soon recovered, after being cleared by his doctors, he decided to run for a second term. Given Eisenhower's enormous popularity, he was re-nominated with no opposition at the 1956 Republican National Convention in San Francisco, California; the only question among Republicans was whether Vice-President Richard Nixon would again be Eisenhower's running mate. There is some evidence that Eisenhower would have preferred a less controversial running mate, such as Governor Christian Herter of Massachusetts. According to some historians, Eisenhower offered Nixon another position in his cabinet, such as Secretary of Defense. Harold Stassen was the only Republican to publicly oppose Nixon's re-nomination for Vice-President, Nixon remained popular among the Republican rank-and-file voters.
Nixon had reshaped the vice-presidency, using it as a platform to campaign for Republican state and local candidates across the country, these candidates came to his defense. In the spring of 1956, Eisenhower publicly announced that Nixon would again be his running mate, Stassen was forced to second Nixon's nomination at the Republican Convention. Unlike 1952, conservative Republicans did not attempt to shape the platform. At the convention, one delegate voted for a fictitious "Joe Smith" for Vice-President to prevent a unanimous vote. Democratic candidates Adlai Stevenson, former governor of Illinois Estes Kefauver, U. S. senator from Tennessee W. Averell Harriman, governor of New York Adlai Stevenson, the Democratic Party's 1952 nominee, fought a tight primary battle with populist Tennessee Senator Estes Kefauver for the 1956 nomination. Kefauver won. After Kefauver upset Stevenson in the Minnesota primary, realizing that he was in trouble, agreed to debate Kefauver in Florida. Stevenson and Kefauver held the first televised presidential debate on May 21, 1956, before the Florida primary.
Stevenson carried Florida by a 52-48% margin. By the time of the California primary in June 1956, Kefauver's campaign had run low on money and could not compete for publicity and advertising with the well-funded Stevenson. Stevenson won the California primary by a 63-37% margin, Kefauver soon withdrew from the race. Adlai Stevenson - 3,069,504 Estes Kefauver - 2,283,172 Unpledged - 380,300 Frank Lausche - 278,074 John William McCormack - 26,128 Source At the 1956 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, New York Governor W. Averell Harriman, backed by former President Harry S. Truman, challenged Stevenson for the nomination. However, Stevenson's delegate lead was much too large for Harriman to overcome, Stevenson won the nomination on the first ballot; the roll call, as reported in Richard C. Bain and Judith H. Parris, Convention Decisions and Voting Records, pp. 294–298: The highlight of the 1956 Democratic Convention came when Stevenson, to create excitement for the ticket, made the surprise announcement that the convention's delegates would choose his running mate.
This set off a desperate scramble among several candidates to win the nomination. Potential vice-presidential candidates had only one hectic day to campaign among the delegates b
1908 United States presidential election in South Carolina
The 1908 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place on November 3, 1908. Voters chose nine representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. South Carolina overwhelmingly voted for the Democratic nominee, former U. S. Representative William Jennings Bryan, over the Republican nominee, Secretary of War William Howard Taft. Bryan won the state by a landslide margin of 87.9 percent. Although South Carolina was Taft’s weakest state, he performed better in the state than Theodore Roosevelt had four years prior