In motorsport the pole position is the position at the inside of the front row at the start of a racing event. This position is given to the vehicle and driver with the best qualifying time in the trials before the race; this number-one qualifying driver is referred to as the pole sitter. Grid position is determined by a qualifying session prior to the race, where race participants compete to ascend to the number 1 grid slot, the driver, pilot, or rider having recorded fastest qualification time awarded the advantage of the number 1 grid slot ahead of all other vehicles for the start of the race; the fastest qualifier was not the designated pole-sitter. Different sanctioning bodies in motor sport employ different qualifying formats in designating who starts from pole position. A starting grid is derived either by current rank in the championship, or based on finishing position of a previous race. In important events where multiple qualification attempts spanned several days, the qualification result was segmented or staggered, by which session a driver qualified, or by which particular day a driver set his qualification time, only drivers having qualified on the initial day eligible for pole position.
In a phenomenon known as race rigging, where race promoters or sanctioning bodies invert their starting grid for the purpose of entertainment value, the slowest qualifier would be designated as pole-sitter. In contrast to contemporary motorsport, where only a race participant is designated pole-sitter, prior to World War II, the pace car was designated as official pole-sitter for the Indianapolis 500; the term has its origins in horse racing, in which the fastest qualifying horse would be placed on the inside part of the course, next to the pole. In Grand Prix racing, grid positions, including pole, were determined by lottery among the drivers. Prior to the inception of the Formula One World Championship, the first instance of grid positions being determined by qualifying times was at the 1933 Monaco Grand Prix. Since the FIA have introduced many different qualifying systems to Formula One. From the long-standing system of one session on each of Friday and Saturday, to the current knockout-style qualifying leaving 10 out of 20 drivers to battle for pole, there have been many changes to qualifying systems.
Between 1996 and 2006, the FIA made 6 significant changes to the qualifying procedure, each with the intention of making the battle for pole more interesting to viewers at home. Traditionally, pole was always occupied by the fastest driver due to low-fuel qualifying; the race-fuel qualifying era between 2003 and 2009 changed this. Despite the changing formats, drivers attempting pole were required between 2003 and 2009 to do qualifying laps with the fuel they would use to start the race the next day. An underfuelled slower car and driver would therefore be able to take pole ahead of a better but heavier-fueled car. In this situation, pole was not always advantageous to have in the race as the under-fueled driver would have to pit for more fuel before their rivals. With the race refueling ban introduced, low-fuel qualifying returned and these strategy decisions are no longer in play; when Formula One enforced the 107% rule between 1996 and 2002, a driver's pole time might affect slower cars posting times for qualifying, as cars that could not get within 107% of the pole time were not allowed start the race unless the stewards decided otherwise.
Since the reintroduction of the rule in 2011, this only applies to the quickest first session time, not the pole time. From 2014 to 2017, the FIA awarded a trophy to the driver who won the most pole positions in a season without sponsorship. From 2018, the FIA Pole Trophy has been renamed the Pirelli Pole Position Award, with the polesitter at each race winning a Pirelli wind tunnel tyre with the name of the polesitter and their time; the driver with the most pole positions at the end of the season wins a full-size engraved Formula 1 tyre. indicates that the driver won the World Championship in the same season. IndyCar uses four formats for qualifying: one for most oval tracks, one for Iowa Speedway, one for the Indianapolis 500, another for road and street circuits. Oval qualifying is like the Indianapolis 500, with two laps, instead of four, averaged together with one attempt, although with just one session. At Iowa, each car takes one qualifying lap, the top six cars advance to the feature race for the pole position.
Positions from 7th onward are assigned to their races, based on time, with cars in the odd-numbered finishing order starting in one race, cars in the even-numbered finishing order starting in the second race. The finishing order for the odd-numbered race starts on the inside, starting in Row 6, even-numbered race on the outside based on finishing position, again from Row 6, except for the top two in each race, which start in the inside and outside of the race for the pole position; the result of the feature race determines positions 1–10. All three races are 50 laps. On road and street courses, cars are drawn randomly into two qualifying groups. After each group has one twenty-minute session, the top six cars from each group qualify for a second session; the cars that finished seventh or worse are lined up by their times, with the best of these times starting 13th. The twelve remaining cars run a 15-minute session, after which the top six cars move on to a final 10-minute session to determine positions one through six on the grid.
The Iowa format was instituted in 2012 with major modifications (times set based on open qualifying session in second pract
A podium is a platform used to raise something to a short distance above its surroundings. It derives from the Greek πόδι. In architecture a building can rest on a large podium. Podia can be used to raise people, for instance the conductor of an orchestra stands on a podium as do many public speakers. Common parlance has shown an increasing use of podium in American English to describe a lectern. In sports, a type of podium is used to honor the top three competitors in events such as the Olympics. In the Olympics a three-level podium is used. Traditionally, the highest level in the center holds the gold medalist. To their right is a somewhat lower platform for the silver medalist, to the left of the gold medalist is an lower platform for the bronze medalist. At the 2016 Summer Games in Rio, the Silver and Bronze were equal in elevation. In many sports, results in the top three of a competition are referred to as "podiums" or "podium finishes". In some individual sports, "podiums" is an official statistic, referring to the number of top three results an athlete has achieved over the course of a season or career.
The word may be used, chiefly in the United States, as a verb, "to podium", meaning to attain a podium place. Podia were first used at the 1930 British Empire Games in Hamilton and subsequently during the 1932 Summer Olympic Games in Los Angeles and the 1932 Winter Olympic Games in Lake Placid; the winner stands in the middle, with the second placed driver to his right and the third place driver to his left. Present are the dignitaries selected by the race organisers who will present the trophies. In many forms of motorsport, the three top-placed drivers in a race stand on a podium for the trophy ceremony. In an international series, the national anthem of the winning driver, the winning team or constructor may be played over a public address system and the flags of the drivers' countries are hoisted above them; the recordings are short versions of the national anthems, ensuring the podium ceremony does not exceeded its allocated time. Should a driver experience problems with his car on a slow lap in Formula One, that driver is transported to the pit lane via road car by the Formula One Administration security officer.
Following the presentation of the trophies, the drivers will spray Champagne over each other and their team members watching below, a tradition started by Dan Gurney following the 1967 24 Hours of Le Mans race. The drivers will refrain from spraying champagne if a fatality or major accident occurs during the event. In countries where alcohol sponsorship or drinking is prohibited, alcoholic beverages may be replaced by other drinks, for example rose water; the term has become common parlance in the media, where a driver may be said to "be heading for a podium finish" or "just missing out on a podium" when he is heading for, or just misses out on a top three finish. The Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series, the highest level of stock car racing in the United States, does not use a podium in post-game events or statistics. Instead, the winning team celebrates in victory lane, top-five and top-ten finishes are recognized statistically; those finishing second to fifth are required to stop in a media bullpen located on pit lane for interviews.
The INDYCAR Verizon IndyCar Series does not use a podium at either the Indianapolis 500 or at Texas Motor Speedway. The Indy 500 has a long tradition of the winning driver and team celebrating in victory lane, while Texas Motor Speedway president Eddie Gossage has stated that victory lane should be reserved for the winner of the race. However, the series does use a podium at all other races road course events. Architectural podiums are consist of a projecting base or pedestal at ground level, they have been used since ancient times. Sometimes only meters tall, architectural podiums have become more prominent in buildings over time, as illustrated in the gallery. Lectern
1957 Formula One season
The 1957 Formula One season was the 11th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1957 World Championship of Drivers which commenced on 13 January 1957 and ended on 8 September after eight races. Juan Manuel Fangio won his fourth consecutive title, his fifth in total, in his final Championship – a feat that would not be matched for nearly 50 years; the season included numerous non-championship races for Formula One cars. Fangio chose joining Maserati before the start of the season; the decision to switch proved to be a masterstroke, with Ferrari's line-up of Peter Collins, Eugenio Castellotti and the returning Mike Hawthorn failing to win a race. Castellotti and Alfonso de Portago were killed during the season, making this a disastrous year for Ferrari; the man Fangio replaced at Maserati, Stirling Moss, moved to Vanwall, a team beginning to fulfill their promise. Between them Fangio and Moss won every championship race of the season with the exception of the Indianapolis 500, with Fangio taking four victories to Moss' three.
Fangio's drive at the Nürburgring, where he overtook Collins and Hawthorn on the penultimate lap after a pit stop had put him nearly a minute behind, is regarded as a notable drive. At the end of the year it was announced. Maserati pulled out, citing financial reasons; this was the final year in which points were awarded for shared drives. The first race of the season was in January at the Buenos Aires Autodrome in Argentina's capital city. Briton Moss took pole ahead of Fangio, ahead of Behra, Ferrari drivers Castellotti, Collins and Hawthorn. At the start of the race Behra took the lead from Castellotti. Moss was taken by surprise and a juddering start damaged the throttle mechanism and he pitted at the end of the first lap. While Moss sat in the pits, Castellotti led but was overtaken by Behra. Soon afterwards Collins worked his way to the front but within a few laps he was in trouble with his clutch and had to pit; this left Behra in the lead again but he was soon passed by Fangio. Castelotti had lost his third position after a spin, so now Hawthorn was leading the charge although both he and Musso would retire after a while with clutch problems.
Castellotti remained the only challenge to the Maseratis at the front but his race ended when a wheel fell off with 24 laps to go. Menditeguy and Schell were promoted to third and fourth when Castellotti went out and so Maserati started the season by romping home with a 1-2-3-4 result, with Fangio winning his 4th Argentine Grand Prix in a row ahead of Behra. Argentina'57 would be Castellotti's last Grand Prix, he was killed testing a Ferrari at the Modena Aerodrome in March. A non-championship race was held in Syracuse on the southern Italian island of Sicily; the Pau Grand Prix, held on the city streets of the southwestern French town of Pau was won by home favorite Behra in a Maserati, while on the same day, the Glover Trophy at the Goodwood circuit in southern England was won by Briton Stuart Lewis-Evans in a Connaught-Alta. 6 days after these two events, Collins won the Naples Grand Prix. Another works Ferrari driver, Spaniard Alfonso de Portago, was killed in May while contesting the Mille Miglia sportscar race in Italy for Ferrari.
Four months after the Argentine round and a number of non-championship races, the teams assembled in Monaco for the second championship round of the season. Moss had joined Vanwall from Maserati, driving a car designed by Colin Chapman and financed by Tony Vanderwell, a wealthy British industrialist, leaving Fangio as the undisputed team leader at Maserati. Fangio took pole position, however Moss took the lead at the first corner with Fangio behind him but on the second lap Collins got ahead of the Argentine driver. Moss went off and crashed at the chicane on lap 4, Collins swerved to avoid the crash and ended up hitting a stone wall. Fangio managed to get through without a problem and Brooks braked hard only to be rammed from behind by Hawthorn. Only Brooks was able to keep going, but he was five seconds behind Fangio by the time he was up to speed again. Von Trips was third with Menditeguy fourth and Schell fifth. Menditeguy would have to stop early for new tyres after hitting a curb so Schell moved to fourth until his suspension broke.
Brabham was next in the little Cooper with Trintignant chasing him but the Frenchman soon dropped away with a stop to cure a misfire. After a number or retirements, Australian Jack Brabham was up to third as a result of this but a fuel pump failure left him to push the car to the line, he was classified sixth, Fangio won again ahead of Brooks, Masten Gregory in a Maserati, Lewis-Evans and Trintignant. The Indianapolis 500 was the 3rd round of the championship but since that race was not run to Formula One rules, no competitors who raced in Formula One raced at the Indy 500, vice versa; the Belgian and Dutch Grands Prix, scheduled for June 2 and June 16, were both canceled because of disputes over money affected by the Suez crisis in Egypt, so there was a six-week break between Monaco and the French GP, to be held at the Rouen-Les-Essarts public road circuit in northern France, extended from its previous layout used in 1952. In practice Fangio was fastest with Musso alongside on the front row.
Behind them were Schell and Collins with the third row consisting of Salvadori and Trintignant. At the start Behra went into the lead but Musso soon got ahead. Fangio followed in third with Schell giving chase. Came a fast-starting McKay-Fraser. Fangio took Musso for the lead on lap four. BRM suffered a setback when Flockhar
Juan Manuel Fangio
Juan Manuel Fangio Déramo, nicknamed El Chueco or El Maestro, was an Argentine racing car driver. He dominated the first decade of Formula One racing, winning the World Drivers' Championship five times. From childhood, he abandoned his studies to pursue auto mechanics. In 1938, he debuted in Turismo Carretera, competing in a Ford V8. In 1940, he competed with Chevrolet, winning the Grand Prix International Championship and devoted his time to the Argentine Turismo Carretera becoming its champion, a title he defended a year later. Fangio competed in Europe between 1947 and 1949 where he achieved further success, he won the World Championship of Drivers five times—a record which stood for 47 years until beaten by Michael Schumacher—with four different teams, a feat that has not been repeated. He is regarded by many as one of the greatest F1 drivers of all time and holds the highest winning percentage in Formula One – 46.15% – winning 24 of 53 Formula One races he entered. Fangio is the only Argentine driver to have won the Argentine Grand Prix, having won it four times in his career—the most of any driver.
After retirement, Fangio presided as the honorary president of Mercedes-Benz Argentina from 1987, a year after the inauguration of his museum, until his death in 1995. In 2011, on the centenary of his birth, Fangio was remembered around the world and various activities were held in his honor. Fangio's grandfather, Giuseppe Fangio, emigrated to Buenos Aires from Italy in 1887. Giuseppe managed to buy his own farm near Balcarce, a small city in southern Buenos Aires Province, within three years by making charcoal from tree branches, his father, emigrated to Argentina from the small central Italian town of Castiglione Messer Marino in the Chieti province of the Abruzzo region. His mother, Herminia Déramo, was from Tornareccio to the north, they married on 24 October 1903, lived on farms where Herminia was a housekeeper and Loreto worked in the building trade, becoming an apprentice stonemason. Fangio was born in Balcarce on San Juan's Day 1911 at 12:10 am, his birth certificate was mistakenly dated 23 June by the Register of Balcarce.
He was the fourth of six children. In his childhood he became known as El Chueco, the bandy legged one, for his skill in bending his left leg around the ball to shoot on goal during football games. Fangio started his education at the School No. 4 of Balcarce, Calle 13 before transferring to School No. 1 and 18 Uriburu Av. When Fangio was 13, he worked as an assistant mechanic; when he was 16, he started riding as a mechanic for his employer's customers. He developed pneumonia, which proved fatal, after a football game where hard running had caused a sharp pain in his chest, he was bed-ridden for two months, cared for by his mother. After recovering, Fangio served compulsory military service at the age of 21. In 1932 he was enlisted at the Campo de Mayo cadet school near Buenos Aires, his driving skills caught the attention of his commanding officer, who appointed Fangio as his official driver. Fangio was discharged before his 22nd birthday after taking his final physical examination, he returned to Balcarce.
Along with his friend José Duffard he received offers to play at a club based in Mar del Plata. Their teammates at Balcarce suggested the two work on Fangio's hobby of building his own car and his parents donated space in a small section of their home where a rudimentary shed was built. After finishing his military service, Fangio raced in local events, he began his racing career in Argentina in 1934, which he had rebuilt. These local events were unlike anything in Europe or North America, they were long-distance races held on dirt roads up and down South America. During his time racing in Argentina, he drove Chevrolet cars and was Argentine National Champion in 1940 and 1941. One particular race, which he won in 1940, the Gran Premio del Norte, was 10,000 km long; this race started in Buenos Aires and ran up through the Andes to Lima and back again, taking nearly two weeks with stages held each day. Following many successes driving modified American stock cars. In the Tourism Highway category, Fangio participated in his first race between 18 and 30 October 1938 as the co-pilot of Luis Finocchietti.
Despite not winning the Argentine Road Grand Prix, Fangio drove most of the way and qualified in seventh place. In November of that year, he entered the "400 km of Tres Arroyos ", but it was suspended due to a fatal accident. In 1939, the circuit was in Forest, which conformed well with his last involvement with a Ford V8. With Hector Tieri as his partner, they led Turismo Carretera that year with a Chevrolet, competing for the Argentine Grand Prix. Suspended by a strong rain and resumed in Cordoba, he managed their first stage victory, winning the fourth stage from Catamarca to San Juan. In October, after 9500 km of competition in Argentina and Peru, he won his first race in Turismo Carretera, the Grand Prix International North, he became the first TC Argentine Champion to have driven a Chevrolet. In 1941, he beat Oscar Gálvez in the Grand Prix Getúlio Vargas in Brazil. For the second time, Fangio was crowned champion of Argentine TC. In 1942, he ended South Grand Prix in tenth place in accordance with the general classification.
In April he won the race "Mar y Sierras" and had to suspend the mechanic
Scuderia Centro Sud
Scuderia Centro Sud was a privateer racing team founded in Modena by Guglielmo "Mimmo" Dei and active in Formula One and sports car racing between 1956 and 1965. Dei had been an amateur driver in the 1930s. In the early 1950s he opened a Maserati dealership in Rome. Keen on maintaining a relationship with motorsport, in 1956 he founded his own team; the name "Centro Sud" refers to the parts of Italy where his adoptive and native cities are.. Over the course of nine seasons, Scuderia Centro Sud entered a total of 49 World Championship rounds, with cars such as the Maserati 250F, various Maserati-powered Coopers and, in the 1960s, a BRM P57. After a promising start, Centro Sud went on to earn a further total of 24 points with Masten Gregory and Tony Maggs, but never won a race, with Gregory's third place at the 1957 Monaco Grand Prix as the team's best result. Centro Sud was the only Italian racing team who took part in the Tasman races in Australia and New Zealand during the winter of 1961-1962.
One of their most notable feats was to be the first team in the history of Formula One to run a female driver when Maria Teresa de Filippis qualified for the Portuguese Grand Prix in 1958. Future 24 Hours of Le Mans and 24 Hours of Daytona winner Lorenzo Bandini made his Formula One debut with the team at the 1961 Belgian Grand Prix. * Gregory and Shelby scored no points for their shared drive at the 1958 Italian Grand Prix Italy's Maserati privateer Mimmo Dei, Dei ex Machina: La storia della Scuderia Centro-Sud, Fucina Editore, 2008
The Maserati 250F was a racing car made by Maserati of Italy used in'2.5 litre' Formula One racing between January 1954 and November 1960. Twenty-six examples were made; the 250F principally used the SSG 220 bhp 2.5-litre Maserati A6 straight-six engine, ribbed 13.4" drum brakes, wishbone independent front suspension and a De Dion tube axle. It was built by Vittorio Bellentani and Alberto Massimino. A streamlined version with bodywork which enclosed the wheels was used in the 1956 French Grand Prix; the 250F first raced in the 1954 Argentine Grand Prix where Juan Manuel Fangio won the first of his two victories before he left for the new Mercedes-Benz team. Fangio won the 1954 Drivers' World Championship, with points gained with both Maserati and Mercedes-Benz. In 1955 a 5-speed gearbox. Jean Behra drove this in a five-member works team. In 1956 Stirling Moss won the Italian Grands Prix, both in a works car. In 1956 three 250F T2 cars first appeared for the works drivers. Developed by Giulio Alfieri using lighter steel tubes they sported a slimmer, stiffer body and sometimes the new 315 bhp V12 engine, although it offered little or no real advantage over the older straight 6.
It was developed into the 3 litre V12 that won two races powering the Cooper T81 and T86 from 1966 to 1969, the final "Tipo 10" variant of the engine having three valves and two spark plugs per cylinder. In 1957 Juan Manuel Fangio drove to four more championship victories, including his legendary final win at German Grand Prix at the Nürburgring, where he overcame a 48-second deficit in 22 laps, passing the race leader, Mike Hawthorn, on the final lap to take the win. In doing so he broke the lap record at 10 times. By the 1958 season, the 250F was outclassed by the new rear engined F1 cars. However, the car remained a favourite with the privateers, including Maria Teresa de Filippis, was used by back markers through the 1960 F1 season, the last for the 2.5 litre formula. In total, the 250F competed in 46 Formula One championship races with 277 entries, leading to eight wins. Success was not limited to World Championship events with 250F drivers winning many non-championship races around the world.
Stirling Moss said that the 250F was the best front-engined F1 car he drove. David McKinney, Maserati 250F, 250F Overview Article Case history of 250F article with complete chassis data Top Gear 250F review
French Grand Prix
The French Grand Prix known as the Grand Prix de l'ACF, is an auto race held as part of the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile's annual Formula One World Championship. It is one of the oldest motor races in the world as well as the first "Grand Prix", it ceased shortly after its centenary in 2008 with 86 races having been held, due to unfavourable financial circumstances and venues. The race returned to the Formula One calendar in 2018 with Circuit Paul Ricard hosting the race. Unusually for a race of such longevity, the location of the Grand Prix has moved with 16 different venues having been used over its life, a number only eclipsed by the 23 venues used for the Australian Grand Prix since its 1928 start, it is one of four races to have been held as part of the three distinct Grand Prix championships. The Grand Prix de l'ACF was tremendously influential in the early years of Grand Prix racing, leading the establishment of the rules and regulations of racing as well as setting trends in the evolution of racing.
The power of original organiser, the Automobile Club de France, established France as the home of motor racing organisation. Grand Prix motor racing originated in France and the French Grand Prix, open to international competition, is the oldest Grand Prix race, first run on 26 June 1906 under the auspices of the Automobile Club de France in Sarthe, with a starting field of 32 automobiles; the Grand Prix name referred to the prize of 45,000 French francs to the race winner. The franc was pegged to the gold at 0.290 grams per franc, which meant that the prize was worth 13 kg of gold, or €191,000 adjusted for inflation. The earliest French Grands Prix were held on circuits consisting of public roads near towns through France, they were held at different towns each year, such as Le Mans, Amiens, Lyon and Tours. Dieppe in particular was an dangerous circuit – 9 people in total were killed at the three French Grands Prix held at the 79 km circuit; the 1906 race was the first Grand Prix, an event that originated from the Gordon Bennett Cup races that had started in 1899.
This race was run on a 66-mile closed public road circuit starting at the western French town of Le Mans, through a series of villages and back again to Le Mans. Hungarian Ferenc Szisz won this long 12‑hour race on a Renault from Italian Felice Nazzaro in a Fiat, where laps on this circuit took around an hour and the horse carriage road surface was made of dirt; the 1908 race saw Mercedes humiliating the French organizers and finishing 1-2-3 at the lethal circuit at Dieppe, where no less than 4 people were killed during the weekend. The 1913 race was won by Georges Boillot on a one-off 19-mile circuit near Amiens in northern France. Amiens was another deadly circuit – it had a 7.1 mile straight and 5 people were killed during its use during pre-race testing and the race weekend itself. The 1914 race, run on a 24‑mile circuit near Lyon is the most legendary Grand Prix of the pre‑WWI racing era; this was a hard-fought battle between the German Mercedes. Although the Peugeots were fast and Boillot ended up leading for 12 of the 20 laps the Dunlop tyres they used wore out badly compared to the Continentials that the Mercedes cars were using.
Boillot's four-minute lead was wiped out by Christian Lautenschlager in a Mercedes while Boillot stopped an incredible eight times for tyres. Although Boillot drove hard to try to catch Lautenschlager, he had to retire on the last lap due to engine failure, for the second time in 6 years Mercedes finished 1–2–3. Thanks to World War I and the amount of damage it did to France, the Grand Prix was not brought back until 1921, that race was won by American Jimmy Murphy with a Duesenberg at the Sarthe circuit on Le Mans, the now legendary circuit's first year of operation. Bugatti made its debut at the 1922 race at an 8.3‑mile off-public road circuit near Strasbourg near the French-German border –, close to Bugatti's headquarters in Molsheim. It rained, the muddy circuit was in a dreadful condition; this race became a duel between Bugatti and Fiat – and Felice Nazzaro won in a Fiat, although his nephew and fellow competitor Biagio Nazzaro was killed after the axle on his Fiat broke, threw a wheel and hit a tree.
The 1923 race at another one-off circuit near Tours featured another new Bugatti – the Type 32. This car was unkindly dubbed the "Tank", owing to its streamlined shape and short wheelbase; this car was fast on the straights of this high-speed public road circuit – but it handled badly and was outpaced by Briton Henry Seagrave in a Sunbeam. Seagrave won the race, the Sunbeam would be the last British car to win an official Grand Prix until Stirling Moss's victory with a Vanwall at the 1957 British Grand Prix; the 1924 race was held again at Lyon, but this time on a shortened 14‑mile variant of the circuit used in 1914. Two of the most successful Grand Prix cars of all time, the Bugatti Type 35 and the Alfa Romeo P2 both made their debuts at this race; the Bugattis, with their advanced alloy wheels suffered tyre failure, Italian Giuseppe Campari won his Alfa P2. In 1925, the first permanent autodrome in France was built, it was called Autodrome de Linas-Montlhéry, located 20 miles south of the centre of the French capital of Paris.