Major League Baseball Most Valuable Player Award
The Major League Baseball Most Valuable Player Award is an annual Major League Baseball award given to one outstanding player in the American League and one in the National League. Since 1931, it has been awarded by the Baseball Writers' Association of America; the winners receive the Kenesaw Mountain Landis Memorial Baseball Award, which became the official name of the award in 1944, in honor of the first MLB commissioner, Kenesaw Mountain Landis, who served from 1920 until his death on November 25, 1944. MVP voting takes place before the postseason, but the results are not announced until after the World Series; the BBWAA began by polling three writers in each league city in 1938, reducing that number to two per league city in 1961. The BBWAA does not offer a clear-cut definition of what "most valuable" means, instead leaving the judgment to the individual voters. First basemen, with 34 winners, have won the most MVPs among infielders, followed by second basemen, third basemen, shortstops.
Of the 25 pitchers who have won the award, 15 are right-handed. Walter Johnson, Carl Hubbell, Hal Newhouser are the only pitchers who have won multiple times, Newhouser winning consecutively in 1944 and 1945. Hank Greenberg, Stan Musial, Alex Rodriguez, Robin Yount have won at different positions, while Rodriguez is the only player who has won the award with two different teams at two different positions. Barry Bonds has won the most and the most consecutively. Jimmie Foxx was the first player to win multiple times. Frank Robinson is the only player to win the award in both the National Leagues; the award's only tie occurred in the National League in 1979, when Keith Hernandez and Willie Stargell received an equal number of points. There have been 18 unanimous winners; the New York Yankees have the most winning players with 22, followed by the St. Louis Cardinals with 17 winners; the award has never been presented to a member of the following three teams: Arizona Diamondbacks, New York Mets, Tampa Bay Rays.
In recent decades, pitchers have won the award. When Justin Verlander won the AL award in 2011, he became the first pitcher in either league to be named the MVP since Dennis Eckersley in 1992. Verlander became the first starting pitcher to win this award since Roger Clemens accomplished the feat in 1986; the National League went longer without an MVP award to a pitcher. After Bob Gibson won in 1968, no pitcher in that league was named MVP until Clayton Kershaw in 2014. Before the 1910 season, Hugh Chalmers of Chalmers Automobile announced he would present a Chalmers Model 30 automobile to the player with the highest batting average in Major League Baseball at the end of the season; the 1910 race for best average in the American League was between the Detroit Tigers' disliked Ty Cobb and Nap Lajoie of the Cleveland Indians. On the last day of the season, Lajoie overtook Cobb's batting average with seven bunt hits against the St. Louis Browns. American League President Ban Johnson said a recalculation showed that Cobb had won the race anyway, Chalmers ended up awarding cars to both players.
The following season, Chalmers created the Chalmers Award. A committee of baseball writers were to convene after the season to determine the "most important and useful player to the club and to the league". Since the award was not as effective at advertising as Chalmers had hoped, it was discontinued after 1914. In 1922 the American League created a new award to honor "the baseball player, of the greatest all-around service to his club". Winners, voted on by a committee of eight baseball writers chaired by James Crusinberry, received a bronze medal and a cash prize. Voters were required to select one player from each team and player-coaches and prior award winners were ineligible. Famously, these criteria resulted in Babe Ruth winning only a single MVP award before it was dropped after 1928; the National League award, without these restrictions, lasted from 1924 to 1929. The BBWAA first awarded the modern MVP after the 1931 season, adopting the format the National League used to distribute its league award.
One writer in each city with a team filled out a ten-place ballot, with ten points for the recipient of a first-place vote, nine for a second-place vote, so on. In 1938, the BBWAA raised the number of voters to three per city and gave 14 points for a first-place vote; the only significant change since occurred in 1961, when the number of voters was reduced to two per league city. "Esurance MLB Awards" Best Major Leaguer "Players Choice Awards" Player of the Year Baseball America Major League Player of the Year Baseball Digest Player of the Year Best Major League Baseball Player ESPY Award The Sporting News Most Valuable Player Award Sporting News Player of the Year List of Major League Baseball awards Baseball awards a A player is considered inactive if he has announced his retirement or not played for a full season. B A unanimous victory indicates. C Torre is a member of the Hall of Fame, but not as a player, he was inducted in 2014 as a manager. D Hernandez and Stargell both received 216 points in the 1979 voting.
Most Valuable Player MVP Awards & Cy Young
Indios de Mayagüez
The In are a baseball team in Puerto Rico's Liga de Béisbol Profesional Roberto Clemente. Based in Mayagüez, the Indios have won two Caribbean World Series, it is one of four teams remaining from the original six incorporated into the LBPPR at its founding in 1938. The Indios were named after the named Cervecería India, the local brewery, its formal sponsor over most of the team's 75-year run) besides the fact that Mayagüez, located at the western coast of Puerto Rico, has a strong indigenous heritage, starting with the city's name; the team's colors are burgundy and gold, which at one time were the colors on the label of Cerveza India, the original flagship product of the brewery which promoted the team and served as base for its name. The CCC's current flagship product, Cerveza Medalla Light, is now the team's official endorser; the Indios de Mayagüez team is the team with the most championship wins in PRBL history. It has reached the PRBL final series 33 times. At a time when most Puerto Rican cities and towns are better known for their support of basketball or volleyball teams, the city of Mayagüez remains as a strong baseball stronghold in the island nation.
The team's fan base has a reputation for loyalty bordering in the extreme, average game attendance by Indios fans has been high in the Puerto Rico winter league during recent seasons. At any given year -should the Indios make it to the PRBL tournament playoffs- attendance to the team's baseball park and post-game celebrations tend to be high because they coincide with the celebration of the patron saint feasts for the city of Mayagüez; the Indios' management team is led by general manager Frankie Thon. The team's administrator is Raúl Villalobos. Carlos Baerga is the team's current manager. Baseball had been played in Mayagüez since the Spanish–American War. However, evidence tends to confirm that baseball became a regular pastime in the city by 1902. Mayagüez had semi-professional baseball teams prior to the 1938 founding of the team, through various inceptions; the earliest team was named "Pope-Hartford", was organized in 1905 by Santiago Panzardi, the brand's importer. It was substituted by a succession of teams: the Mayagüez Cardinals, the Yaguez, others.
These teams played games against organized teams from the rest of the island and Cuba, as well as teams assembled from Negro league baseball players. Once the LBPPR was created, the Mayagüez team became a part of it. A management team led by Alfonso Valdés Cobián owned the team during its initial years, between 1938 and 1957; the Indios won their first LBPPR championship in 1949. The Indios played their home games in the facilities of La Liga de París. now named the Santiago Lloréns baseball park, in use since February 14, 1912. The team moved from their previous grounds to then-new Isidoro García Baseball Stadium, located near the southwest corner of the city that year. Babel Pérez assumed the management of the Indios after Alfonso Valdés; the Indios won two championships under his helm, in 1962–1963 and 1965-1966. Joe Christopher was a major player for the Indios during the period. Pérez died in Bamberg, Germany in 1971, while visiting one of his daughters and new grandson, the great Ovidio Enrique Pérez II.
Gloria Méndez Pérez, widow of Babel Pérez, owned the team until its sale in 1974, entering into baseball history as the first female to own a baseball team. A new management team led by Luis Gómez Monagas, a successful insurance businessman, father. Bought the Indios in 1974. At the time, after winning the 1965 - 66 league championship the Indios had had a dry spell, having earned only two championships in more than 15 years and ending in last place in every LBPPR tournament between the 1966 - 67 season and the 1973-74 season, except the 1969-70, when the team made the playoffs in a surprising fashion. On two occasions, the franchise threatened to move to Bayamón, but popular support kept the team in Mayagüez both times. To make matters worse, the Isidoro García baseball stadium was in such a state of disrepair that it was unsafe for fans and field keepers; the 1977–1978 team saved the franchise from bankruptcy and oblivion. Managed by Rene Lacheman, provided with a powerful lineup that featured Ron LeFlore, Jim Dwyer, Kurt Bevacqua and José Manuel Morales in the 1-4 spots, the team made it to the playoffs, to sweep the semi-final and final series.
The final game for the series had Mayagüez beat the coincidentally named Bayamón Cowboys with a score of 18-2. The team made it to Mazatlán, where it won the 1978 Caribbean World Series; this was a turning point in the team's history. Fan support gave the Indios' management team enough financial solvency to save the franchise. From winning only three championships in 40 years, the team went on to win 13 championships in the 34 years following the 1978 season. Collective fan prote
Naranjeros de Hermosillo
The Naranjeros de Hermosillo is a baseball team in the Mexican Pacific League. Based in Hermosillo, they are one of the most successful teams in the Liga Mexicana del Pacífico with 16 titles, they were the first Mexican team to win the Caribbean Series in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic in 1976. Before they were named the Naranjeros, the team was called the Queliteros, was a part of the LMP's predecessor, the Sonoran Winter League; the Queliteros won their first title in 1944, from 1945–1958, they won one more championship title. Since the founding of the LMP in the 1957–58 season, the Naranjeros have won 15 further titles, making the team the most successful in the league's 60-year history; the Naranjeros' victory at the 1976 Caribbean Series in Santo Domingo was the first by a Mexican team. The team was managed by Benjamin "Cananea" Reyes and included players such as Héctor Espino, Sergio "Kaliman" Robles, Celerino Sanchez, Elliot Willis, Arnoldo de Hoyos, George Brunett and Jerry Hairston, Sr..
In its early days, the team played at Fernando M. Ortiz Stadium known as "La Casa del Pueblo." Since 1972, the Naranjeros have been playing in their home stadium, Estadio De Beisbol Héctor Espino, named after the greatest Mexican baseball player in history, Héctor Espino. From 2013 they will play their games at Estadio de Beisbol Sonora, it it not clear the exact date or season the tomahawk chop was first used by the roaring fans at the Naranjeros Stadium, but most fans will point to Gabriel Vargas as the initiator of the tomahawk chop during the season of 2013. There is great controversy between Mr. Vargas and the Mexican baseball community because Mr. Vargas claims it is not the Tomahawk chop but instead the Naranja Slice. Only time will settle this controversy. Miguel Sotelo Francisco Barrios Maury Wills Alex Treviño Héctor Espino Ángel Moreno Sergio Robles Cornelio Garcia Ramon Arano Pepe Peña Narciso Elvira Ronny Henderson Celerino Sánchez Fernando Valenzuela Elmer Dessens Maximino León Erubiel Durazo Vinny Castilla Jorge de la Rosa Édgar González Curt Schilling Larry Walker Carlos Gastelum Luis Garcia Jerry Owens Official site
The Cuban League was one of the earliest and longest lasting professional baseball leagues outside the United States, operating in Cuba from 1878 to 1961. The schedule operated during the winter months, so the league was sometimes known as the "Cuban Winter League." It was always a small league 3 to 5 teams, was centered in Havana, though it sometimes included teams from outlying cities such as Matanzas or Santa Clara. The league became racially integrated in 1900, during the first half of the 20th century the Cuban League was a premier venue for black and white players to meet. Many great black Northern American players competed in Cuba alongside native black and white Cuban stars such as José Méndez, Cristóbal Torriente, Adolfo Luque, Martín Dihigo. After 1947, the Cuban League entered into an agreement with Major League Baseball and was used for player development. Following the 1959 Cuban Revolution, tensions rose with the new Communist government, in March 1961 the government decreed the abolition of professional baseball.
The first game in what became known as the Cuban League took place in Havana on December 29, 1878. Esteban Bellán, the first Latin American to play professionally in the United States, was captain of Habana while the opposing Almendares was captained by Carlos Zaldo. Habana won the first game 21-20; the only other team in the league was Matanzas. In that first season, only four games were scheduled for each team, with the season lasting through February. Habana won the first championship with a record of 4-0-1. Early baseball in Cuba, as in the United States, was an amateur sport first organized by gentlemen's athletic clubs. Games were played on Sundays and were preceded by a picnic and followed by a dance. A unique feature of early Cuban baseball is; the tenth player was a "right shortstop", playing halfway between the second bases. By the mid-1880s, the best-known players were becoming celebrities and baseball began to become professional, as players jumped from team to team and Americans were sometimes brought in as reinforcements.
The gradual development of professionalism that took place in Cuba during the 1880s and 1890s echoed the development of professionalism in the United States two decades earlier in the National Association of Base Ball Players, which led to the formation of the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players. In Cuba, the clubs that wished to remain amateur broke off from the Cuban League. Baseball in Cuba became associated with Cuban nationalism. González Echevarría notes, "Baseball was a sport played in defiance of Spanish authorities, who viewed this American invention as vaguely secessionist and dangerously violent because of the use of sticks. A ban was issued in 1869, just as the Ten Years' War was starting." Several of the sponsors of early baseball teams were supporters of the revolutionary cause. A number of ballplayers fought against Spain in the Cuban War of Independence, at least three lost their lives: Emilio Sabourín, Juan Manuel Pastoriza, Ricardo Cabaleiro. During the 19th century the Cuban League remained a whites-only institution.
However, black Cubans were developing their baseball skills playing for semi-professional and sugarmill teams. The Cuban War of Independence brought Cuban blacks and whites together in a common cause and created the pressures that brought integration; the other great legacy of 19th century Cuban League baseball was the enduring rivalry between Habana and Almendares. This rivalry began before the formation of the Cuban League and survived after its end, lasting for nearly a century. Growing up in Havana meant choosing between Almendares. On December 29, 1878 the Cuban League's first game took place in Havana. On December 21, 1879 an American professional team, the "Hop Bitters", visited Cuba and beat a Cuban team; the team's players comprised the Worcester team that had played in the minor league National Association in 1879 and would play in the major National League in 1880–1882. This tour began a long tradition of post-season exhibition series between major leaguers and Cuban teams. In 1881 the first Almendares Park opened.
For several decades it served as the principal Havana home for Cuban League baseball. On February 2, 1886, Carlos Maciá pitched a shutout for Almendares, the first in Cuban League history, beating Fe 16 to 0. In 1887 Habana won its sixth consecutive pennant. In the nine years since the founding of the Cuban League, Habana had so far been the only winner. In 1888 Fe became the first team other than Habana to win a championship. Antonio María García, known as El Inglés, wins the first of 4 batting championships, hitting.448 for Habana. In 1889 Wenceslao Gálvez writes the first history of baseball in El base-ball en Cuba. On May 17, 1890 the President of the league, Oscar Martínez Conill, was killed in a fire while serving in a volunteer fire-fighting brigade. In 1891, Alfred Lawson led two American teams on tours of Cuba; the first team to tour, in January and February, featured a mix of minor leaguers. It beat Matanzas and Almendares, but lost to Habana, Fe, an all-star team known as the All-Cubans.
The second team, the "All Americans", came in December and comprised major-league players including young stars like Bill Dahlen and John McGraw. This team beat the Cubans in five st
1961 in baseball
The following are the baseball events of the year 1961 throughout the world. Roger Maris hits 61 home runs. World Series: New York Yankees over Cincinnati Reds. February 7 – Boston Red Sox outfielder Jackie Jensen makes a return to the major leagues by signing a $40,000 contract. Jensen had retired in 1960 due to a fear of flying. Jensen will hit.263 with 13 home runs in 1961. March – The Cuban government, led by Fidel Castro, abolishes professional baseball and ends the Cuban League, started in 1878, the Serie Nacional de Béisbol is established. March 6 – The New York Metropolitan Baseball Club Inc. formally receives a certificate of membership from National League President Warren Giles. April 10 — In the traditional "Presidential Opener" in Washington, D. C. the Chicago White Sox defeat the Washington Senators, 4–3, with John F. Kennedy throwing out the first pitch before a crowd of 26,725; the Senators are an expansion team created expressly to replace the preceding team of the same name that moved to Minneapolis–Saint Paul over the winter.
The 1961 season is the first of the expansion era, this Presidential Opener is the last in the history of Griffith Stadium, Washington's venerable baseball park. April 11 At Fenway Park, Boston Red Sox rookie Carl Yastrzemski gets a hit off Ray Herbert of the Kansas City Athletics, it is the first of 3,318 hits. The Los Angeles Angels play the first game in franchise history, defeating the Baltimore Orioles team, 7–2. For the Angels, Ted Kluszewski hits. At Yankee Stadium, the Minnesota Twins shut out the New York Yankees, 6–0, in their first game since their move from Washington, D. C. Pedro Ramos is the winning pitcher, helping himself with a two-run single while allowing just three singles in beating Yankees starter, Whitey Ford. Philadelphia Phillies pitcher Robin Roberts ties Grover Cleveland Alexander's National League record with a 12th-straight Opening Day start‚ but Philadelphia loses 6–2 to Don Drysdale and the Los Angeles Dodgers. Roberts is now 5-6 on Opening Day. April 21 – The Minnesota Twins play their first home game in franchise history, losing to the Washington Senators 5–3.
April 22 – The Boston Red Sox snap a 13-game losing streak in Chicago's Comiskey Park by edging the Chicago White Sox 7–6 on Pumpsie Green's 11th-inning home run. April 27 – The Los Angeles Angels drew a crowd of 11,931 for their home opener against the Minnesota Twins at Los Angeles' Wrigley Field. Ty Cobb, in his last appearance at a ball park, throws out the ceremonial first pitch. Minnesota starter Camilo Pascual spoils the opener by winning, 4–2, sending the Angels to their eighth loss in nine games. April 30 – San Francisco Giants slugger Willie Mays became the ninth player to hit four home runs in a single game as the Giants beat the Milwaukee Braves, 14–4, at Milwaukee's County Stadium. May 8 – New York's expansion National League club announces that the team nickname will be "Mets," a natural shortening of the corporate name May 9 – The Baltimore Orioles' Jim Gentile hits a grand slam in both the first and second innings in a game against the Minnesota Twins, finishes with nine RBI in the game.
May 31 – Boston Red Sox outfielder Carroll Hardy pinch-hits for rookie Carl Yastrzemski. On September 20, 1960, Hardy pinch hit for Ted Williams, making him the only player to go in for both future Hall of Famers. Hardy hit his first major league home run pinch-hitting for Roger Maris when both were at Cleveland. June 29 – Willie Mays hits 3 home runs helping the San Francisco Giants beat the Philadelphia Phillies 8-7. July 4 Willie Mays hits his 300th career home run off pitcher Jack Curtis, leading the San Francisco Giants to a 4–1 victory over the Chicago Cubs at Wrigley Field. In the first game of an Independence Day double-header at Metropolitan Stadium, Minnesota Twins pinch-hitter Julio Bécquer hits the first recorded four-pitcher walk-off grand slam in Major League Baseball history. Chicago White Sox starter Billy Pierce, up 4–2 in the ninth inning en route to a complete game, allows a single to Bob Allison; as a result, Pierce is relieved by Russ Kemmerer. Frank Baumann is brought in and he walks Lenny Green to load the bases.
Afterwards, White Sox manager Al López summons Warren Hacker from the bullpen while Twins manager Sam Mele counters with Bécquer, who puts the ball over the right field fence for the walk-off homer and a 6–4 victory. In the second game of the double-header, Minnesota Twins slugger Harmon Killebrew hits a three-run home run, which will be the only inside-the-park home run of the 573 homers he will hit in his distinguished career. July 11 – Strong winds at Candlestick Park dominate the first All-Star Game of the season. A capacity crowd sees pitcher Stu Miller blow
National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum
The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum is an American history museum and hall of fame, located in Cooperstown, New York, operated by private interests. It serves as the central point for the study of the history of baseball in the United States and beyond, displays baseball-related artifacts and exhibits, honors those who have excelled in playing and serving the sport; the Hall's motto is "Preserving History, Honoring Excellence, Connecting Generations." The word Cooperstown is used as shorthand for the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum to Canton for the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio. The Hall of Fame was established in 1939 by the owner of a local hotel. Clark had sought to bring tourists to a city hurt by the Great Depression, which reduced the local tourist trade, Prohibition, which devastated the local hops industry. A new building was constructed, the Hall of Fame was dedicated on June 12, 1939; the erroneous claim that Civil War hero Abner Doubleday invented baseball in Cooperstown was instrumental in the early marketing of the Hall.
An expanded library and research facility opened in 1994. Dale Petroskey became the organization's president in 1999. In 2002, the Hall launched Baseball As America, a traveling exhibit that toured ten American museums over six years; the Hall of Fame has since sponsored educational programming on the Internet to bring the Hall of Fame to schoolchildren who might not visit. The Hall and Museum completed a series of renovations in spring 2005; the Hall of Fame presents an annual exhibit at FanFest at the Major League Baseball All-Star Game. Jeff Idelson replaced Petroskey as president on April 16, 2008, he had been acting as president since March 25, 2008, when Petroskey was forced to resign for having "failed to exercise proper fiduciary responsibility" and making "judgments that were not in the best interest of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum." Among baseball fans, "Hall of Fame" means not only the museum and facility in Cooperstown, New York, but the pantheon of players, umpires and pioneers who have been enshrined in the Hall.
The first five men elected were Ty Cobb, Babe Ruth, Honus Wagner, Christy Mathewson and Walter Johnson, chosen in 1936. As of January 2018, 323 people had been elected to the Hall of Fame, including 226 former Major League Baseball players, 35 Negro league baseball players and executives, 22 managers, 10 umpires, 30 pioneers and organizers. 114 members of the Hall of Fame have been inducted posthumously, including four who died after their selection was announced. Of the 35 Negro league members, 29 were inducted posthumously, including all 24 selected since the 1990s; the Hall of Fame includes Effa Manley. The newest members elected on January 22, 2019, are players Edgar Martínez, Roy Halladay, Mike Mussina and Mariano Rivera, with Rivera becoming the first player to be elected unanimously. Players are inducted into the Hall of Fame through election by either the Baseball Writers' Association of America, or the Veterans Committee, which now consists of four subcommittees, each of which considers and votes for candidates from a separate era of baseball.
Five years after retirement, any player with 10 years of major league experience who passes a screening committee is eligible to be elected by BBWAA members with 10 years' membership or more who have been covering MLB at any time in the 10 years preceding the election. From a final ballot including 25–40 candidates, each writer may vote for up to 10 players. Any player named on 75% or more of all ballots cast is elected. A player, named on fewer than 5% of ballots is dropped from future elections. In some instances, the screening committee had restored their names to ballots, but in the mid-1990s, dropped players were made permanently ineligible for Hall of Fame consideration by the Veterans Committee. A 2001 change in the election procedures restored. Players receiving 5% or more of the votes but fewer than 75% are reconsidered annually until a maximum of ten years of eligibility. Under special circumstances, certain players may be deemed eligible for induction though they have not met all requirements.
Addie Joss was elected despite only playing nine seasons before he died of meningitis. Additionally, if an otherwise eligible player dies before his fifth year of retirement that player may be placed on the ballot at the first election at least six months after his death. Roberto Clemente's induction in 1973 set the precedent when the writers chose to put him up for consideration after his death on New Year's Eve, 1972; the five-year waiting period was established in 1954 after an evolutionary process. In 1936 all players were eligible, including active ones. From the 1937 election until the 1945 election, there was no waiting period, so any retired player was eligible, but writers were discouraged from voting for current major leaguers. Since there was no formal rule preventing a writer from casting a ballot for an active player, the scribes did not always comply with the informal guideline.
1957 in architecture
The year 1957 in architecture involved some significant architectural events and new buildings. July 20 – Civic Trust, founded by Duncan Sandys to promote improvement of the built environment, holds its inaugural conference. Byrd Station commissioned in West Antarctica. July 22 – Fazle Omar Mosque, Germany. October 15 Torre de Madrid, one of the tallest buildings in Spain, designed by Julián and José María Otamendi Machimbarrena. Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge in China, with Wang Juqian as chief engineer. Otaniemi Chapel, Aalto University, Finland, designed by Heikki and Kaija Siren. Church of St. Bonifatius, Germany, designed by Architekturbüro Josef Bieling, consecrated. First stage of Golden Lane Estate in Finsbury, designed by Chamberlin and Bon opened. Great Arthur House is the tallest residential building in Britain at the time of construction. Connecticut General Life Insurance Company Headquarters building designed by Gordon Bunshaft of Skidmore and Merrill in Bloomfield, Connecticut, USA. Friedrich-Engelhorn-Hochhaus in Ludwigshafen am Rhein, at this time the tallest building in Germany.
The Interbau project in Hansaviertel, West Berlin, with buildings designed by forty-eight architects. Mashtots Institute of Ancient Manuscripts in Yerevan, Armenia. Munkegaard School near Copenhagen, designed by Arne Jacobsen. Spaarbank, designed by J. J. P. Oud in 1942. Richards Medical Research Laboratories by architect Louis Kahn, on the campus of the University of Pennsylvania, USA. Unité d'Habitation by Le Corbusier. Josep Lluís Sert's house for himself at 64 Francis Avenue, Massachusetts, USA. Dr. Robert Hohf House near Kenilworth, Illinois, USA by Keck & Keck; the Pediment, Northamptonshire, designed by Raymond Erith. Norms Restaurant, La Cienega Boulevard, Los Angeles, USA by Armét & Davis. AIA Gold Medal – Ralph Walker, Louis Skidmore RIBA Royal Gold Medal – Alvar Aalto May 18 – Ai Weiwei, Chinese contemporary artist, active in sculpture, architecture, photography and social, political and cultural criticism August 5 – Shigeru Ban, Japanese architect known for use of paper and cardboard January 7 – Joze Plecnik, Slovene architect February 2 – Julia Morgan, first woman to be admitted to the architecture program at l'École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris, the first woman architect licensed in California August 22 – Beverly Loraine Greene, first African American woman architect to be licensed October 3 – Bernard Maybeck, American architect of the Arts and Crafts Movement October 15 – Henry Van de Velde, Belgian Flemish painter and interior designer