British Racing Motors
British Racing Motors was a British Formula One motor racing team. Founded in 1945 and based in the market town of Bourne in Lincolnshire, it participated from 1951 to 1977, competing in 197 grands prix and winning seventeen. BRM won the constructors' title in 1962. In 1963, 1964, 1965 and 1971, BRM came second in the constructors' competition. BRM was founded just after the Second World War by Raymond Mays, who had built several hillclimb and road racing cars under the ERA brand before the war, Peter Berthon, a long-time associate. Mays' pre-war successes inspired him to build an all-British grand prix car for the post-war era as a national prestige project, with financial and industrial backing from the British motor industry and its suppliers channelled through a trust fund; this proved to be an unwieldy way of organising and financing the project, as some of the backers withdrew, disappointed with the team's slow progress and early results, it fell to one of the partners in the trust, Alfred Owen of the Rubery Owen group of companies.
Owen, whose group manufactured car parts, took over the team in its entirety. Between 1954 and 1970 the team entered its works F1 cars under the official name of the Owen Racing Organisation. Berthon and Mays continued to run the team on Rubery Owen's behalf into the 1960s, before it was handed over to Louis Stanley, the husband of Sir Alfred's sister Jean Owen. A factory was set up in Spalding Road, Lincolnshire, behind Eastgate House, Mays' family home, in a building called'The Maltings'. Several people involved with ERA returned to the firm to work for BRM, including Harry Mundy and Eric Richter; the team had access to a test facility at Folkingham aerodrome. The first post-war rules for the top level of motor racing allowed 1.5-litre supercharged or 4.5-litre aspirated engines. BRM's first engine design was an ambitious 1.5-litre supercharged V16. Rolls-Royce was contracted to produce centrifugal superchargers, rather than the more used Roots type; the design concept of the V16 had not been used extensively on automobiles before so that design problems were many and the engine did not fire for the first time until June 1949.
It proved to be outstandingly powerful but its output was produced over a limited range of engine speed, coming on if the throttle was applied carelessly, resulting in wheelspin as the narrow tyres proved unable to transfer the power to the road. This made the car touchy to drive. Engineer Tony Rudd was seconded to BRM from Rolls-Royce to develop the supercharging system and remained involved with BRM for nearly twenty years; the Type 15, the designation for the V16 car, won the first two races it started, the Formula Libre and Formula One events at Goodwood in September 1950, driven by Reg Parnell. However, it was never to be so successful again; the engine proved unreliable and difficult to develop, the team were not up to the task of improving the situation. A string of failures caused much embarrassment, the problems were still unsolved when the Commission Sportive Internationale announced in 1952 that for 1954, a new engine formula of 2.5 litres aspirated or 750 cc supercharged would take effect.
Meanwhile, the organisers of all the grands prix counting for the world championship elected to run their races for Formula Two for the next two years, as Alfa Romeo had pulled out of racing and BRM were unable to present raceworthy cars, leaving no credible opposition to Ferrari other than outdated Lago-Talbots and the odd O. S. C. A.. The V16s continued to race in minor Formula One races and in British Formula Libre events until the mid fifties, battles with Tony Vandervell's Thin Wall Special Ferrari 375 being a particular highlight of the British scene; the Type 25 was BRM's next car. It used an oversquare 2.5 L atmospheric four-cylinder engine designed by Stewart Tresilian and it arrived late and took a lot of development. The P25 was unsuccessful, not winning a race until a victory at the Dutch Grand Prix in 1959. Colin Chapman helped to improve the car in 1956. Stirling Moss believed that the BRM engine was superior to the Coventry-Climax unit used in his Cooper, a P25 was run in 1959 by the British Racing Partnership, for Moss, Rob Walker backed the construction of a Cooper-BRM to gain access to the engine.
The P25 was becoming competitive just as the rear-engined Cooper started to become dominant. The P48 was revised for the 1.5 L rules in 1961, but once again BRM's own engine was not ready and the cars had to run with a Coventry-Climax four-cylinder unit in adapted P48 chassis, achieving little in terms of results. The firm moved to a purpose-built workshop on an adjoining site in the spring of 1960, but when the 1.5-litre atmospheric Formula One regulation was introduced in 1961, Alfred Owen was threatening to pull the plug unless race victories were achieved soon. By the end of the 1961 season BRM had managed to build an engine designed by Peter Berthon and Aubrey Woods, on a par with the Dino V6 used by Ferrari and the Coventry C
1958 Monaco Grand Prix
The 1958 Monaco Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 18 May 1958 at Monaco. It was race 2 of 11 in the 1958 World Championship of Drivers and race 2 of 10 in the 1958 International Cup for Formula One Manufacturers; the race was the 16th Monaco Grand Prix and was held over 100 laps of the three kilometre circuit for a total race distance of 314 kilometres. The race was won by French driver Maurice Trintignant in the second and final Grand Prix victory of his long career; the win was the second consecutive victory for the privateer Rob Walker Racing Team. Trintignant took the teams newly acquired Cooper T45 to a twenty-second victory over Italian driver Luigi Musso driving a Ferrari Dino 246 with Musso's British teammate Peter Collins was third. Trintignant's win put doubt in the superiority of front-engined cars. Musso's second place put him into a four-point championship lead over Trintignant. Vanwall and BRM returned after their Argentine absence and so Stirling Moss, Jean Behra and Harry Schell all went back to their regular drives.
In Moss's place at the Rob Walker Racing Team with the new 2000 cc engined Cooper T45 was French driver Maurice Trintignant. The race winning Cooper T43 could not qualify for the small 16-car Monaco grid, Ron Flockhart was first reserve for the race. Missing from the field was the previous year's winner and reigning World Champion, Juan Manuel Fangio who did not have a full-season drive. Fangio himself was in America, preparing for an disappointing Indianapolis 500 campaign with the Dayton-Walther team. Future Formula One impresario Bernie Ecclestone entered a Connaught B-Type in his first appearance but he failed to qualify, as did two substitute drivers. Failing to make the grid was 58-year-old Louis Chiron in his final appearance at a Grand Prix; the Monaco local had won the Grand Prix 27 years earlier but Chiron and his Maserati 250F did not make it past qualifying. Tony Brooks took pole position in his Vanwall VW 5 but Behra won the start, he led until his brakes failed in his BRM P25, Mike Hawthorn swept by in the Ferrari Dino 246.
Moss had been duelling with him throughout the race until he retired on lap 38, Hawthorn followed suit on lap 47 with a broken fuel pump. Graham Hill retired from fourth place in his first race on lap 69, after leading. Vanwall pair Brooks and Stuart Lewis-Evans retired, leaving Trintignant to lead home the Ferraris by some 20 seconds giving Rob Walker his second race win of the year. Behind the Ferraris of Luigi Musso and Peter Collins was Jack Brabham in the factory Cooper T45, although three laps down and still looking a long way from becoming the next years champion. Schell in his BRM P25 was a further six laps behind Brabham picking up the final points after Wolfgang von Trips had an engine failure in the closing stages in his Ferrari Dino 246; the only other car still circulating was the second Lotus 12 of Cliff Allison, 13 laps behind Trintignant. Trintignant's win put to the sword the belief that rear-engined Cooper victory achieved by Stirling Moss in Argentina was a one-off freak circumstance win and the smaller British cars would be treated more although a Cooper would not win again until 1959.
The Rob Walker Racing Teams pair of early 1958 victories would remain the best performance by a privateer team until the rise of Tyrrell Racing in the late 1960s. Notes^1 – 1 point for fastest lap Note: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings
Peter Collins (racing driver)
Peter John Collins was a British racing driver. He was killed in the 1958 German Grand Prix, just weeks after winning the RAC British Grand Prix, he started his career as a 17-year-old in 1949, impressing in Formula 3 races, finishing third in the 1951 Autosport National Formula 3 Championship. Born on 6 November 1931, Collins grew up in Kidderminster, in Worcestershire; the son of a motor-garage owner and haulage merchant, Collins became interested in motor vehicles at a young age. He was expelled from school at 16 owing to spending time at a local fairground during school hours, he began competing in local trials races. In common with many British drivers of the time, Collins began racing in the 500 cc category, when his parents bought him a Cooper 500 from the fledgling Cooper Car Company. Success for Collins started once he switched to the JBS-Norton in 1951; those small vehicles, powered by Norton motorcycle engines, were the proving ground of many of Collins's F1 contemporaries, including Stirling Moss.
His breakthrough came, away from the track, when at a party hosted by the great pre-war lady racer, Kay Petre, Collins managed to inveigle himself with John Wyer, the team principal at Aston Martin, earning his test drive at Silverstone. During that test, Aston was joined by the Formula 2 team, HWM – and by the time the teams were preparing to leave, Collins had a contract with both. At HWM Collins he became part of a three-car team with Lance Macklin and Moss, they competed in most of the F2 races in Britain and in Europe. Collins showed in speed, but the underfinanced HWM-Alta finished a race, his best result was second place in the Grand Prix des Sables d'Olonne. Collins got his Formula One break in 1952, with HWM, his best result in a World Champion event was sixth in the Grand Prix de l'ACF at Rouen-Les-Essarts. Success did not come the team's way, Collins left after the 1953 season. Not known for his technical knowledge, Collins was happy to have his mechanics set up his car, he drove it with his consummate natural skill.
This was evident in 1954, when Tony Vandervell signed Collins to drive the fearsome "Thinwall Special". The potent machine was a crowd pleaser at Formula Libre events, he was amongst the first to handle the "Vanwall Special" on the world stage, but he only finished seventh in the Grand Premio d'ItaliaAfter being a constant thorn in BRM's side, he joined the team for the 1955 season. He raced a Maserati 250F belonging to team owner, Alfred Owen, winning the BRDC International Trophy and the London Trophy; these results led to a drive with the works Maserati in the Gran Premio d'Italia. Meanwhile, he had better success in sportscars. Throughout the first half of the 1950s, Collins was a stalwart performer for the Aston Martin team, scoring a sensational victory at the 1952 Goodwood Nine Hours race; the following year he took the Aston Martin DB3S he shared with Pat Griffith to victory in the RAC Tourist Trophy at Dundrod. Further successes included second places in an Aston Martin DB3S at Le Mans in 1955 and 1956 with Paul Frère and Moss respectively.
For the 1956 season, Collins joined Ferrari on the strength of a superb drive in the previous year's Targa Florio, in which he partnered Moss to victory in a Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR. This proved to be a turning point, with a solid second-place finish behind Moss at the Grand Prix Automobile de Monaco, wins at the Grote Prijs van Belgie and Grand Prix de l'ACF. In those early days at Ferrari, Collins earnt the unstinting admiration of Enzo Ferrari, devastated by the untimely death from muscular dystrophy at age 24 of his son and who turned to Collins for solace, treating him as a member of the family. Collins was on the verge of becoming Britain's first F1 World Champion when he handed his Lancia-Ferrari D50 over to team leader Juan Manuel Fangio after the latter suffered a steering-arm failure toward the end of the Gran Premio d'Italia at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza. Collins finished second, but the advantage handed to Moss, the extra points gained by Fangio's finish, demoted Collins to third place in the championship.
Collins's selfless act gained him respect from Enzo Ferrari and high praise from Fangio: "I was moved to tears by the gesture... Peter was one of the finest and greatest gentlemen I met in my racing career." Meanwhile, in sports cars, he finished second in a Ferrari 860 Monza in the Mille Miglia and at the Swedish Sports Car GP in a Ferrari 290MM with Wolfgang von Trips in 1956. These three were back-to-back, his last World Sports Car Championship podium was another second place at the'Ring with Mike Hawthorn. In 1956, Collins moved to Monaco to avoid compulsory military service in the British Army and thus continue his racing career. In January 1957, Collins married American actress Louise King, daughter of the executive assistant to UN Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld, the couple took up residence on a yacht in Monaco harbour. In the same year, Collins was joined at Ferrari by Hawthorn; the two became close friends arranging to split their winnings between each other, together engaged in a fierce rivalry with fellow Ferrari driver Luigi Musso.
However, despite a third-place finish at the Groβer Preis von Deutschland, Ferrari were disadvantaged for much of the season as the 801 model was overweig
The Cooper T43 was a Formula One and Formula Two racing car designed and built by Cooper Car Company for the 1957 Formula One season, first appearing at the 1957 Monaco Grand Prix in a works car for Jack Brabham. The T43 earned a significant place in motor racing history when Stirling Moss drove a Rob Walker Racing Team T43 to win the 1958 Argentine Grand Prix, the first World Drivers' Championship win for a mid-engined car. Despite this achievement, the car was superseded immediately by the T45; the T43's last appearance in a World Championship event was the 1960 Italian Grand Prix. ^1 The World Constructors' Championship was not awarded before 1958. ^2 Shared drive. ^ 3 No points scored by the T43. ^4 Points scored by the Cooper T44 and Cooper T45. ^5 Points scored by the Cooper T51. ^6 Points scored by the Cooper T51 and Cooper T53. The first true Formula One Coopers http://www.f1-images.de/009900 - Race results http://www.formula2.net/ - Race results
The Maserati 250F was a racing car made by Maserati of Italy used in'2.5 litre' Formula One racing between January 1954 and November 1960. Twenty-six examples were made; the 250F principally used the SSG 220 bhp 2.5-litre Maserati A6 straight-six engine, ribbed 13.4" drum brakes, wishbone independent front suspension and a De Dion tube axle. It was built by Vittorio Bellentani and Alberto Massimino. A streamlined version with bodywork which enclosed the wheels was used in the 1956 French Grand Prix; the 250F first raced in the 1954 Argentine Grand Prix where Juan Manuel Fangio won the first of his two victories before he left for the new Mercedes-Benz team. Fangio won the 1954 Drivers' World Championship, with points gained with both Maserati and Mercedes-Benz. In 1955 a 5-speed gearbox. Jean Behra drove this in a five-member works team. In 1956 Stirling Moss won the Italian Grands Prix, both in a works car. In 1956 three 250F T2 cars first appeared for the works drivers. Developed by Giulio Alfieri using lighter steel tubes they sported a slimmer, stiffer body and sometimes the new 315 bhp V12 engine, although it offered little or no real advantage over the older straight 6.
It was developed into the 3 litre V12 that won two races powering the Cooper T81 and T86 from 1966 to 1969, the final "Tipo 10" variant of the engine having three valves and two spark plugs per cylinder. In 1957 Juan Manuel Fangio drove to four more championship victories, including his legendary final win at German Grand Prix at the Nürburgring, where he overcame a 48-second deficit in 22 laps, passing the race leader, Mike Hawthorn, on the final lap to take the win. In doing so he broke the lap record at 10 times. By the 1958 season, the 250F was outclassed by the new rear engined F1 cars. However, the car remained a favourite with the privateers, including Maria Teresa de Filippis, was used by back markers through the 1960 F1 season, the last for the 2.5 litre formula. In total, the 250F competed in 46 Formula One championship races with 277 entries, leading to eight wins. Success was not limited to World Championship events with 250F drivers winning many non-championship races around the world.
Stirling Moss said that the 250F was the best front-engined F1 car he drove. David McKinney, Maserati 250F, 250F Overview Article Case history of 250F article with complete chassis data Top Gear 250F review
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Ferrari 246 F1
The Ferrari 246 F1 was a Ferrari racing car built for the Formula One World Championship of 1958. The regulations for 1954–1960 limited aspirated engines to 2500 cc and for the 1958 season there was a change from alcohol fuels to avgas; the 246 used a 2417 cc Dino V6 engine with a 65° angle between the cylinder banks. This was the first use of a V6 engine in a Formula One car, but otherwise the 246 was a conventional front-engine design; the Ferrari 246 was good enough to win a World Championship for Mike Hawthorn and a second place in the Constructors' Championship for Ferrari. The Ferrari 246 was not only the first V6-engined car to win a Formula One Grand Prix, the French Grand Prix at Reims in 1958, it was the last front-engined car to win a Formula One Grand Prix; this occurred at the 1960 Italian Grand Prix at Monza, where the major British teams boycotted the race. In 1960, the Ferrari 246 designation was used for the first mid-/rear-engined Ferrari, the 246P Formula One car, again in 1966 for Ferrari's first three-litre era Formula One car.
Grand Prix Racing – Ferrari Dino 246