Motorsport or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which involve the use of motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing competition. The terminology can be used to describe forms of competition of two-wheeled motorised vehicles under the banner of motorcycle racing, includes off-road racing such as motocross. Four- wheeled motorsport competition is globally governed by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile; the Union Internationale Motonautique governs powerboat racing while the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale governs air sports. In 1894, a French newspaper organised a race from Paris to Rouen and back, starting city to city racing. In 1900, the Gordon Bennett Cup was established. Closed circuit racing arose. Brooklands was the first dedicated motor racing track in the United Kingdom. Following World War I, European countries organised Grand Prix races over closed courses. In the United States, dirt track racing became popular.
After World War II, the Grand Prix circuit became more formally organised. In the United States, stock car racing and drag racing became established. Motorsports became divided by types of motor vehicles into racing events, their appropriate organisations. Motor racing is the subset of motorsport activities which involve competitors racing against each other; the Red Bull RB8, the 2012 Formula One World Championship winning car Formula racing is a set of classes of motor vehicles, with their wheels outside, not contained by, any bodywork of their vehicle. These have been globally classified as specific'Formula' series - the most common being Formula One, many others include the likes of Formula 3, Formula Ford, Formula Renault and Formula Palmer Audi. However, in North America, the IndyCar series is their pinnacle open-wheeled racing series. More new open-wheeled series have been created, originating in Europe, which omit the'Formula' moniker, such as GP2 and GP3. Former ` Formula' series include Formula Two.
Formula One is a class of single-seat and open-wheel grand prix closed course racing, governed by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, organized by the owned company Formula One Group. The formula regulations contain a strict set of rules which govern vehicle power and size. Formula E is a class of open-wheel auto racing; the series was conceived in 2012, the inaugural championship started in Beijing on 13 September 2014. The series is sanctioned by the FIA and races a spec chassis/battery combination with manufacturers allowed to develop their own electric power-trains; the series has gained significant traction in recent years. A series originated on June 1909 in Portland, Oregon at its first race. Shortly after, Indianapolis Motor Speedway opened in 1909 and held races that ranged from 50-200 miles, its premier race is the Indianapolis 500 which began on May 11th, 1911 and a tradition was born. Today, Indycar operates a full schedule with over 40 different drivers; the current schedule includes 14 tracks over the course of 17 races per season.
Josef Newgarden was crowned current champion of the Indycar Series at Sonoma Raceway on September 17th, 2017 in Sonoma, California. Enclosed wheel racing is a set of classes of vehicles, where the wheels are enclosed inside the bodywork of the vehicle, similar to a North American'stock car'. Sports car racing is a set of classes of vehicles, over a closed course track, including sports cars, specialised racing types; the premiere race is the 24 Hours of Le Mans which takes place annually in France during the month of June. Sports car racing rules and specifications differentiate in North America from established international sanctioning bodies. Stock car racing is a set of vehicles that race over a speedway track, organized by NASCAR. While once stock cars, the vehicles are now purpose built, but resemble the body design and shape of production cars. Bootleggers throughout the Carolinas are credited for the origins of NASCAR due to the resistance during the prohibition. Many of the vehicles were modified to increase top speed and handling, to provide the bootleggers with an advantage toward the vehicles local law enforcement would use in the area.
An important part to the modifications of stock cars, was to increase the performance of the vehicle while maintaining the same exterior look giving it the name Stock car racing. Many legends in NASCAR originated as bootleggers in the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina like Junior Johnson. Organized oval racing began on Daytona Beach in Florida as a hobby but gained interest from all over the country; as oval racing became larger and larger, a group gathered in hopes to form a sanctioning body for the sport. NASCAR was organized in 1947. Daytona Beach and Road Course was founded where land speed records were set on the beach, including part of A1A; the highlight of the stock car calendar is the season-opening Daytona 500 nicknamed'The Great American Race', held at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida. NASCAR has now held over 2,500 sanctioned events over the course of 70 seasons. Richard Petty is known as the king of NASCAR with over 200 recorded wins in the series and has competed in 1,184 races in his career.
Touring car racing is a set of vehicles, modified street cars, that race over closed purpose built race tracks and street courses. Off-Road Racing is a group
Tony Brooks (racing driver)
Charles Anthony "Tony" Standish Brooks is a British former racing driver from England known as the "racing dentist". He participated in 39 Formula One World Championship Grands Prix, debuting on 14 July 1956, achieving six wins, 10 podium finishes and 75 career points, he was third in the World Drivers' Championship in 1958 and second in 1959. He scored the first win by a British driver in a British car in a Grand Prix since 1923, in 1955 driving a Connaught at Syracuse in a non-World Championship race. Brooks was born on 25 February 1932, in Dukinfield and educated at Mount St Mary's College, he is the son of a dental surgeon, Charles Standish Brooks, studied the practice himself. He is a cousin of Norman Standish Brooks, a former British Olympic swimmer, he took up racing in 1952 and drove a Healey and a Frazer Nash at club events until 1955. In that same year, Brooks finished fourth. Brooks claimed the first victory for a British-constructed car in a World Championship race in the 1957 British Grand Prix at Aintree, which he shared with Sir Stirling Moss.
Along with Moss, Brooks is considered one of the best drivers never to have been World Champion and both Moss and three-time World Champion Jack Brabham were known to have thought of his ability. In 1959, together with Brabham and Moss, had a chance to win the title due to the retirement of Mike Hawthorn and the death, the previous season, of Peter Collins. Brooks started well, behind Brabham, he dominantly won the French Grand Prix at Reims. Having failed to finish in a Vanwall at the British Grand Prix which he drove due to Ferrari workers in Italy being on strike, he won the only German Grand Prix of Formula One to be held at AVUS; the race was split unusually into two heats, he won both. He had a slow car in Portugal, finishing five laps down, he was still in contention to win the championship. At the first United States Grand Prix for Formula One at Sebring, he was hit by German teammate Wolfgang von Trips and pitted to check for any damage, losing two minutes, it still finished in third place.
He finished second in the championship with 27 points, seven behind Brabham, one-and-a-half ahead of Moss. Brooks won six races for Vanwall and Ferrari, secured four pole positions, achieved ten podiums, scored a total of 75 championship points, he drove for BRM but retired from the team at the end of 1961, just before their most successful season. He ended his career with a third place at the first United States Grand Prix at Watkins Glen, he was an accomplished sports car driver, winning both the 1957 1000 km Nürburgring and the 1958 RAC Tourist Trophy, with co-driver, racing an Aston Martin DBR1. He was less successful at Le Mans in 1957, due again to an accident which occurred while racing an Aston Martin DBR1 at that year's 24-hour race, which brought about a change in his racing philosophy. A crash in the 1956 British Grand Prix and the subsequent Le Mans crash both occurred in cars with mechanical problems, of which he was aware, Brooks, being a devout Catholic, vowed he would never again risk his life in a car, in less than sound condition.
He had fewer qualms when it came to his own condition, however: "I was lucky in the Le Mans shunt in that I didn't break anything, but I did have severe abrasions – there was a hole in the side of my thigh I could have put my fist into." It was with these injuries that he went on to race in the 1957 British GP with Moss, win. In 2008, Brooks was honoured by his home town; the Dukinfield District Assembly, part of Tameside Council, held a dinner in his honour and unveiled a plaque outside his former home on Park Lane. * Tony Brooks won the 1957 British Grand Prix sharing his car with Stirling Moss. Both were awarded half points for their victory. ** Brooks was awarded one point in the 1957 Italian Grand Prix and 1959 German Grand Prix for recording the fastest lap. Profile at grandprix.com
A podium is a platform used to raise something to a short distance above its surroundings. It derives from the Greek πόδι. In architecture a building can rest on a large podium. Podia can be used to raise people, for instance the conductor of an orchestra stands on a podium as do many public speakers. Common parlance has shown an increasing use of podium in American English to describe a lectern. In sports, a type of podium is used to honor the top three competitors in events such as the Olympics. In the Olympics a three-level podium is used. Traditionally, the highest level in the center holds the gold medalist. To their right is a somewhat lower platform for the silver medalist, to the left of the gold medalist is an lower platform for the bronze medalist. At the 2016 Summer Games in Rio, the Silver and Bronze were equal in elevation. In many sports, results in the top three of a competition are referred to as "podiums" or "podium finishes". In some individual sports, "podiums" is an official statistic, referring to the number of top three results an athlete has achieved over the course of a season or career.
The word may be used, chiefly in the United States, as a verb, "to podium", meaning to attain a podium place. Podia were first used at the 1930 British Empire Games in Hamilton and subsequently during the 1932 Summer Olympic Games in Los Angeles and the 1932 Winter Olympic Games in Lake Placid; the winner stands in the middle, with the second placed driver to his right and the third place driver to his left. Present are the dignitaries selected by the race organisers who will present the trophies. In many forms of motorsport, the three top-placed drivers in a race stand on a podium for the trophy ceremony. In an international series, the national anthem of the winning driver, the winning team or constructor may be played over a public address system and the flags of the drivers' countries are hoisted above them; the recordings are short versions of the national anthems, ensuring the podium ceremony does not exceeded its allocated time. Should a driver experience problems with his car on a slow lap in Formula One, that driver is transported to the pit lane via road car by the Formula One Administration security officer.
Following the presentation of the trophies, the drivers will spray Champagne over each other and their team members watching below, a tradition started by Dan Gurney following the 1967 24 Hours of Le Mans race. The drivers will refrain from spraying champagne if a fatality or major accident occurs during the event. In countries where alcohol sponsorship or drinking is prohibited, alcoholic beverages may be replaced by other drinks, for example rose water; the term has become common parlance in the media, where a driver may be said to "be heading for a podium finish" or "just missing out on a podium" when he is heading for, or just misses out on a top three finish. The Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series, the highest level of stock car racing in the United States, does not use a podium in post-game events or statistics. Instead, the winning team celebrates in victory lane, top-five and top-ten finishes are recognized statistically; those finishing second to fifth are required to stop in a media bullpen located on pit lane for interviews.
The INDYCAR Verizon IndyCar Series does not use a podium at either the Indianapolis 500 or at Texas Motor Speedway. The Indy 500 has a long tradition of the winning driver and team celebrating in victory lane, while Texas Motor Speedway president Eddie Gossage has stated that victory lane should be reserved for the winner of the race. However, the series does use a podium at all other races road course events. Architectural podiums are consist of a projecting base or pedestal at ground level, they have been used since ancient times. Sometimes only meters tall, architectural podiums have become more prominent in buildings over time, as illustrated in the gallery. Lectern
Bernard Charles Ecclestone is a British business magnate. He is the former chief executive of the Formula One Group, which manages Formula One and controls the commercial rights to the sport, part-owns Delta Topco, the previous ultimate parent company of the Formula One Group; as such, he was described in journalism as'F1 Supremo'. On 23 January 2017, it was announced that Ecclestone had been replaced by Chase Carey as chief executive of the Formula One Group, though he has been appointed as chairman emeritus and will act as an adviser to the board, his early involvement in the sport was as a competitor and as a manager of drivers Stuart Lewis-Evans and Jochen Rindt. In 1972, he bought the Brabham team; as a team owner he became a member of the Formula One Constructors Association. His control of the sport, which grew from his pioneering the sale of television rights in the late 1970s, was chiefly financial, but under the terms of the Concorde Agreement he and his companies managed the administration and logistics of each Formula One Grand Prix, making him one of the richest men in the UK.
Ecclestone entered two Grand Prix races as a driver, during the 1958 season, but failed to qualify for either of them. Ecclestone and business partner Flavio Briatore owned the English football club Queens Park Rangers between 2007 and 2011. Ecclestone was born in South Elmham, a hamlet three miles south of Bungay, Suffolk; the son of a fisherman, he attended primary school in Wissett before the family moved to Danson Road, north west Kent, in 1938. Ecclestone left Dartford West Central Secondary School at the age of 16 to work as an assistant in the chemical laboratory at the local gasworks testing gas purity, he studied chemistry at Woolwich Polytechnic and pursued his hobby of motorcycles. After the end of World War II, Ecclestone went into business trading in spare parts for motorcycles, formed the Compton & Ecclestone motorcycle dealership with Fred Compton, his first racing experience came in 1949 in the 500cc Formula 3 Series, acquiring a Cooper Mk V in 1951. He drove only a limited number of races at his local circuit, Brands Hatch, but achieved a number of good placings and an occasional win.
He retired from racing following several accidents at Brands Hatch, intending to focus on his business interests. After his accident, Ecclestone temporarily left racing to make a number of lucrative investments in real estate and loan financing and to manage the Weekend Car Auctions firm, he returned to racing in 1957 as manager of driver Stuart Lewis-Evans, purchased two chassis from the disbanded Connaught F1 team, whose driver line-up over the years had included Lewis-Evans, Roy Salvadori, Archie Scott Brown, Ivor Bueb. Ecclestone attempted, unsuccessfully, to qualify a car himself at Monaco in 1958, he entered the British Grand Prix, but the car was raced by Jack Fairman. He continued to manage Lewis-Evans. Lewis-Evans suffered severe burns when his engine exploded at the 1958 Moroccan Grand Prix and succumbed to his injuries six days later, his friendship with Salvadori led to his becoming manager of driver Jochen Rindt and a partial owner of Rindt's 1970 Lotus Formula 2 team. Rindt, on his way to the 1970 World Championship, died in a crash at the Monza circuit, though he was awarded the championship posthumously.
In early 1972, Ecclestone purchased the Brabham team from Ron Tauranac. During the 1971 season, Ecclestone was approached by Ron Tauranac, owner of the Brabham team, looking for a suitable business partner. Ecclestone made him an offer of £100,000 for the whole team, which Tauranac accepted; the Australian stayed on as designer. Colin Seeley was brought in against Tauranac's wishes to assist in design and management. Ecclestone and Tauranac were both dominant personalities and Tauranac left Brabham early in the 1972 season; the team achieved little during 1972, as Ecclestone moulded the team to fit his vision of a Formula One team. He abandoned the successful customer car production business established by Jack Brabham and Tauranac – reasoning that to compete at the front in Formula One you must concentrate all of your resources there. For the 1973 season, Ecclestone promoted Gordon Murray to chief designer; the young South African produced the triangular cross-section BT42, the first of a series of Ford-powered cars with which the Brabham team would take several victories in 1974 and 1975 with Carlos Reutemann and Carlos Pace.
Despite the increasing success of Murray's nimble Ford-powered cars, Ecclestone signed a deal with Alfa Romeo to use their powerful but heavy flat-12 engine from the 1976 season. Although this was financially beneficial, the new BT45s were unreliable and the Alfa engines rendered them overweight; the 1976 and 1977 seasons saw Brabham fall towards the back of the field again, before winning two races again in the 1978 season when Ecclestone signed the Austrian double world champion Niki Lauda, intrigued by Murray's radical BT46 design. The Brabham-Alfa era ended in 1979, the team's first season with the up-and-coming young Brazilian Nelson Piquet when Alfa Romeo started testing their own Formula One car during this season; this prompted Ecclestone to revert to Cosworth DFV engines – a move Murray described as "like having a holiday". Piquet formed a close and long-lasting relationship with Ecclestone and the team, losing the title after a narrow battle with Alan Jon
1958 Italian Grand Prix
The 1958 Italian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Monza on 7 September 1958. It was race 10 of 11 in the 1958 World Championship of Drivers and race 9 of 10 in the 1958 International Cup for Formula One Manufacturers. Notes^1 – Includes 1 point for fastest lap ^2 – No points awarded for shared drive Vanwall won the Constructors' Championship with 1 race left to go. Notes: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings. Only the best 6 results counted towards each Championship. Numbers without parentheses are Championship points.
1958 Formula One season
The 1958 Formula One season was the 12th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1958 World Championship of Drivers which commenced on 19 January 1958, ended on 19 October after eleven races; this was the first Formula One season in which a Manufacturers title was awarded, the International Cup for F1 Manufacturers being contested concurrently with the World Championship of Drivers with the exception of the Indianapolis 500 which did not count towards the Cup. Englishman Mike Hawthorn won the Drivers' title after a close battle with compatriot Stirling Moss and Vanwall won the inaugural Manufacturers award from Ferrari. Hawthorn retired from racing at the end of the season, only to die three months after a road car accident; the season was one of the most tragic seasons in Formula One's history. Four drivers died in four different races during this season. Italian Luigi Musso in his works Ferrari during the French Grand Prix at Reims. Hawthorn retired from motor racing after his success, but was killed in a road accident only a few months later.
This season was effectively the last year of Grand Prix racing where the field was dominated with front engined-cars. 1959 and 1960 would be transitional years, where grids at Grand Prix events would feature more and more mid-engined cars and fewer front-engined cars. The mid-engined cars, with their better road holding, increased driving comfort, lighter weight and ease on tires and mechanical components were the way to go. An old-fashioned traditionalist like Enzo Ferrari had to concede that mid-engined cars were what his team needed in order to be competitive- and Ferrari did not have a race-ready mid-engined car until 1961. Although the engine formula remained the same, maximum race lengths were reduced to 300 kilometres or two hours, the use of commercial petrol became compulsory, in place of specialized alcohol-based racing fuels; the International Cup for F1 Manufacturers was awarded for the first time, but Ferrari's Mike Hawthorn won the Drivers' Championship from Stirling Moss, despite the latter having won four of the ten grand prix to Hawthorn's one.
Rear-engined Cooper-Climaxes, entered by the private owner Rob Walker, won two early-season races, through Moss and Maurice Trintignant. Following the Portuguese Grand Prix, Hawthorn faced a penalty but Moss sportingly spoke up for him, the points that Hawthorn was able to keep, subsequently enabled him to edge ahead of Moss for the title. Moss's teammate at Vanwall, Tony Brooks won three races, his success in the Italian race, overtaking Hawthorn after Moss had retired, ensured the title went to the final round in Morocco. Moss needed to win, with Hawthorn third or lower to win the title. With Moss leading and teammate Stuart Lewis-Evans attempted to hold Hawthorn in third, however both their engines failed – Lewis-Evans's tragically resulting in severe burns from which he did not recover. Hawthorn finished second to win his first title by a single point. Vanwall won the inaugural Constructors' competition. Hawthorn's death early in 1959 compounded a tragic season for Formula One, with four drivers killed or fatally injured on the track.
Luigi Musso died in the French Grand Prix, Peter Collins a month in the German Grand Prix – just two weeks after winning his home race, Lewis-Evans died in hospital following his fire in Morocco and Pat O'Connor died at the Indianapolis 500. Maria Teresa de Filippis became the first woman to drive in a race counting towards the World Championship of Drivers. Reigning five-time Champion Juan Manuel Fangio, the dominant driver of the 1950s and one of the greatest of all time, competed in only two races as a privateer, retiring after the French Grand Prix. ^A The Indianapolis 500 counted towards the 1958 USAC Championship, was run for USAC Championship cars, but did not count towards the International Cup for F1 Manufacturers. The following teams and drivers competed in the 1958 FIA World Championship; the above list does not include drivers who only contested the Indianapolis 500. Pink background denotes Formula Two cars at the German and Moroccan Grands Prix Points were awarded on an 8–6–4–3–2 basis to the first five finishers at each race.
An additional point was awarded to the driver setting the fastest race lap. The best six results from the eleven races were retained. Italics indicate fastest lap Bold indicates pole position ~ No points awarded for shared drive Ecclestone – handed car to Fairman at British GP 1 – Ineligible for Formula One points, because he drove with a Formula Two car; the 1958 International Cup for F1 Manufacturers was contested over the same series of races as the World Championship of Drivers, with the exception of the Indianapolis 500 which counted only towards the Drivers' title. Points were awarded on an 8–6–4–3–2 basis to the first five finishers at each race; however a manufacturer only received points for its highest placed car and only the best six results from the ten races were retained. Bold results counted to championship totals. No points awarded for shared drive; the following races were contested by Formula One cars, but did not count towards the World Championship of Drivers or the International Cup for Formula One Manufacture
Casablanca, located in the central-western part of Morocco and bordering the Atlantic Ocean, is the largest city in Morocco. It is the largest city in the Maghreb region, as well as one of the largest and most important cities in Africa, both economically and demographically. Casablanca is one of the largest financial centers on the continent. According to the 2014 population estimate, the city has a population of about 3.35 million in the urban area and over 6.8 million in the Casablanca-Settat region. Casablanca is considered the economic and business center of Morocco, although the national political capital is Rabat; the leading Moroccan companies and many international corporations doing business in the country have their headquarters and main industrial facilities in Casablanca. Recent industrial statistics show Casablanca retains its historical position as the main industrial zone of the country; the Port of Casablanca is one of the largest artificial ports in the world, the second largest port of North Africa, after Tanger-Med 40 km east of Tangier.
Casablanca hosts the primary naval base for the Royal Moroccan Navy. The original name of Casablanca was Anfa, in Berber language, by at least the seventh century BC. After the Portuguese took control of the city in the 15th century AD, they rebuilt it, changing the name to Casa Branca, it derives from the Portuguese word combination meaning "White House". The present name, the Spanish version, came when the Portuguese kingdom was integrated in personal union to the Spanish kingdom. During the French protectorate in Morocco, the name remained Casablanca. In 1755 an earthquake destroyed most of the town, it was rebuilt by Sultan Mohammed ben Abdallah who changed the name into the local Arabic, Ad-dar Al Baidaa', although Arabic has its own version of Casablanca. The city is still nicknamed Casa by many outsiders to the city. In many other cities with a different dialect, it is called Ad-dar Al-Bida, instead; the area, today Casablanca was founded and settled by Berbers by at least the seventh century BC.
It was used as a port by the Phoenicians and the Romans. In his book Description of Africa, Leo Africanus refers to ancient Casablanca as "Anfa", a great city founded in the Berber kingdom of Barghawata in 744 AD, he believed Anfa was the most "prosperous city on the Atlantic Coast because of its fertile land." Barghawata rose as an independent state around this time, continued until it was conquered by the Almoravids in 1068. Following the defeat of the Barghawata in the 12th century, Arab tribes of Hilal and Sulaym descent settled in the region, mixing with the local Berbers, which led to widespread Arabization. During the 14th century, under the Merinids, Anfa rose in importance as a port; the last of the Merinids were ousted by a popular revolt in 1465. In the early 15th century, the town became an independent state once again, emerged as a safe harbour for pirates and privateers, leading to it being targeted by the Portuguese, who bombarded the town which led to its destruction in 1468; the Portuguese used the ruins of Anfa to build a military fortress in 1515.
The town that grew up around it was called meaning "white house" in Portuguese. Between 1580 and 1640, the Crown of Portugal was integrated to the Crown of Spain, so Casablanca and all other areas occupied by the Portuguese were under Spanish control, though maintaining an autonomous Portuguese administration; as Portugal broke ties with Spain in 1640, Casablanca came under Portuguese control once again. The Europeans abandoned the area in 1755 following an earthquake which destroyed most of the town; the town was reconstructed by Sultan Mohammed ben Abdallah, the grandson of Moulay Ismail and an ally of George Washington, with the help of Spaniards from the nearby emporium. The town was called الدار البيضاء ad-Dār al-Bayḍāʼ, the Arabic translation of the Spanish Casa Blanca. In the 19th century, the area's population began to grow as it became a major supplier of wool to the booming textile industry in Britain and shipping traffic increased. By the 1860s, around 5,000 residents were there, the population grew to around 10,000 by the late 1880s.
Casablanca remained a modestly sized port, with a population reaching around 12,000 within a few years of the French conquest and arrival of French colonialists in the town, at first administrators within a sovereign sultanate, in 1906. By 1921, this rose to 110,000 through the development of shanty towns. In June 1907, the French attempted to build a light railway near the port and passing through a graveyard; as an act of resistance and protestation, the locals attacked the French, riots ensued, causing a few soldiers to be wounded and one general to be killed. In response, the French attacked by ship, bombarding the city from the coast, landing troops inside the town, which caused severe damage to the town and 15,000 dead and wounded bodies; the French claimed. This began the process of colonization, although French control of Casablanca was not formalised until 1910. Under the French rule, Muslim anti-Jewish riots occurred in 1908; the famous 1942 film Casablanca, although filmed in Los Angeles, is supposed to have been set in Casablanca.
The film underlined the city's colonial status at the time—depicting it as the scene of a power s