The Sacramento Kings are an American professional basketball team based in Sacramento, California. The Kings compete in the National Basketball Association as a member of the Western Conference's Pacific Division; the Kings are the only team in the major professional North American sports leagues located in Sacramento. The team plays its home games at the Golden 1 Center; the Kings are one of the oldest continuously operating professional basketball franchises in the nation. They originated in Rochester, New York, as the Rochester Seagrams in 1923 and joined the National Basketball League in 1945 as the Rochester Royals, they jumped to the Basketball Association of America, forerunner of the NBA, in 1948. As the Royals, the team was successful on the court, winning the NBA championship in 1951; the team, found it difficult to turn a profit in the comparatively small market of Rochester and relocated to Cincinnati in 1957, becoming the Cincinnati Royals. In 1972 the team relocated to Kansas City and was renamed the Kansas City-Omaha Kings because it split its home games between Kansas City and Omaha, Nebraska.
In 1975, the Kings ceased playing home games in Omaha and became the Kansas City Kings. The team again failed to find success in its market and moved to Sacramento in 1985; the Royals defected to the NBL's rival, the Basketball Association of America, in 1948. In 1949, as a result of that year's absorption of the NBL by the BAA, the Royals became members of the newly formed NBA along with the Fort Wayne Pistons, Minneapolis Lakers, Indianapolis Jets. A year the BAA absorbed the remaining NBL teams to become the National Basketball Association; the move to the BAA took away Rochester's profitable exhibition schedule, placed it in the same Western Division that Minneapolis was in. Of the two best teams in pro basketball, only one of them could play in the league finals from 1949 to 1954. Minneapolis, with George Mikan, was always a little better at playoff time than the Royals. With their smallish arena and now-limited schedule, the Royals became less profitable as Harrison maintained a remarkably high standard for the team, which finished no lower than second in its division in both the NBL and BAA/NBA from 1945 to 1954.
Harrison knew that the NBA was outgrowing Rochester, spent most of the 1950s looking for a buyer for his team. The Royals won the NBA title in 1951 by defeating the New York Knicks 4–3, it is the only NBA championship in the franchise's history. The title, did not translate into profit for the Royals; the roster turned over except for Bobby Wanzer. Now a losing team filled with rookies, the Royals still did not turn a profit. Meanwhile, the NBA was putting pressure on Harrison to relocate his team to a larger city. With this in mind, the 1956–57 season was the Royals' last in Rochester; the Royals' stay in Rochester featured the services of nine future members of the Basketball Hall of Fame, one member of the Pro Football Hall of Fame, a Hollywood Walk of Famer: Al Cervi, Bob Davies, Alex Hannum, Les Harrison, Red Holzman, Arnie Risen, Maurice Stokes, Jack Twyman, Bobby Wanzer, Otto Graham, Chuck Connors and Jack McMahon. In April 1957, the Harrison brothers moved the Royals to Cincinnati; this move followed a well-received regular season game played at Cincinnati Gardens on February 1, 1957.
The change of venue had been said to have been suggested by Jack Twyman and Dave Piontek, who were two of several roster players on the new Royals from that region. Cincinnati, which had a strong college basketball fan base and no NFL franchise to compete with, was deemed the best choice for the Harrisons; the Royals name continued to fit in Cincinnati known as the "Queen City". During the team's first NBA draft in Cincinnati, the team acquired Clyde Lovellette and guard George King, they teamed with the 1–2 punch of Maurice Stokes and Twyman to produce a budding contender in the team's first season in the Queen City. Injury to Marshall and the loss of star guard Si Green to military service dropped the team into a tie for second place in the NBA Western Division during the 1957–58 season's second half. In the season's finale, All-Pro star Maurice Stokes struck his head when he fell after pursuing a rebound, he shook off the effects of the fall as he had been unconscious. After Game One in the playoffs three days Stokes' head injury was aggravated by airplane cabin pressure during the flight back to Cincinnati for Game Two.
He suffered a seizure and was permanently hospitalized, a tragedy that shook the team. Stokes, a tremendous talent who could play center and guard, was 2nd in the NBA in rebounds and 3rd in assists, a double-feat only Wilt Chamberlain has matched for a full season. Without Stokes, the team nearly folded. Fellow All-Star Twyman rose to All-Pro level the next two seasons for Cincinnati as the team posted two 19-win seasons; the 1958–59 Cincinnati team featured five rookies, with Lovellette and other key players having left the team in the wake of Stokes' tragic injury. The Harrisons, under pressure to sell to a local group, sold to a local ownership headed by Thomas Woods; the fact that Stokes was dumped by the team and the new ownership infuriated many. Jack Twyman came to the aid of his teammate, legally adopted Stokes. Raising funds for Stokes' medical treatment, Twyman helped him until his death in April 1970; the 1973 feature film Maurie, which co-starred actors Bernie Casey and Bo Svenson, dramatized their story.
Shooting for the beleaguered team, Twyman was the second NBA player to average 30 points per game for an NBA season. Twyman and Stokes were late
Personal foul (basketball)
In basketball, a personal foul is a breach of the rules that concerns illegal personal contact with an opponent. It is the most common type of foul in basketball. A player fouls out on reaching a limit on personal fouls for the game and is disqualified from participation in the remainder of the game. Players initiate illegal contact to purposely affect the play, hoping it is seen as too minor to be ruled a foul; the threshold varies among officials and from game to game. Most contact fouls are not regarded as unsportsmanlike. However, excessive or unjustified contact is penalized more severely; the NBA refers to these as flagrant fouls. Basketball has always had the concept of fouls. In 1891, James Naismith's original 13 rules defined a foul as: running with the ball, holding the ball with the arms or body, striking the ball with the fist, holding, striking or tripping in any way of an opponent. Only the fourth definition remains. Running with the ball and striking it with the fist are now violations.
Holding the ball with the arms or body is now rare but legal. On a player's second foul, the player would be removed without substitution until the next successful goal. Before long, free throws were introduced worth three points each one. Any team member was allowed to shoot free throws. In 1924, the rules were changed; the victim of a contact foul used to be given three attempts at a free throw, the offense retained possession of the basketball. Now, a player fouled in the act of shooting gets from one to three shots and the other team tends to get possession afterwards. Personal contact does not constitute a personal foul, unless it gives a player an advantage or puts the opponent at a disadvantage. In FIBA, the cylinder principle gives each player exclusive rights within an imaginary cylinder defined: in the front by the palms of the hands, when the arms are bent at the elbows so that the forearms and hands are raised, but no farther in front than the feet, in the rear by the buttocks, at the sides by the outside edge of the arms and legs.
The cylinder extends from the floor to the ceiling. A player can occupy any cylinder not occupied by the opponent. No one else is allowed to reach into this cylinder. A player must not extend his limbs or bend his body in a way, not normal. If there is a breach of this principle that places the opponent at a disadvantage, the official may penalise it; the NBA does not use the cylinder principle to judge contact. The elements of time and distance concern the reaction time and distance of another person, they apply only to players without the ball, not to the ball carrier. For example, a player cannot step in front of a sprinting player without invading the cylinder. Another example is when a player sets a screen directly behind a player: the player would not physically be able to react to the screen in enough time to avoid it; when significant illegal contact between the ball-carrier and a defender occurs, it means that either — The defender committed a blocking foul, or The ball-carrier committed the offensive foul of charging.
Deciding between the two is complex subjective, controversial. The ball-carrier committed a charge if all of the following are true: The defender was still, or moving sideways or backward but not forward, when contact occurred; the defender took a legal guarding position before the contact, that is, one with both feet on the floor. The defender was hit on the torso. In the NBA, in contact during a move to the basket, officials do not consider the position of the defender's feet, but decide whether the defensive player's torso was set in position before the offensive player began his upward motion. A charging foul is not called if the ball-handler is within a 4-foot radius around the center of the basket; that is, if the ball-carrier is under the basket, the defense cannot restrict his or her movement by drawing a charge. An exception is made if the offensive player receives the ball within an area close to the basket known as the "lower defensive box." A related call is the player control foul.
StrategyApart from using hands in neutral space to shield or deflect a pass or a shot, the defender uses his or her body to impede the ball-carrier's advance toward the basket. The defender's only absolute way to achieve this is to stand directly in the ball-carrier's path and "draw a charge." Short of this, the defender's use of the body may make the ball-carrier change tactics. Both opponents are restrained by their desire not to commit a foul, it is not a foul to grab for the ball, or to touch a hand of the ball-carrier, on the ball, but the ball-carrier in the act of shooting, can cause greater contact, a blocking foul against the defender. Once contact is made, the defender may fall to the ground to exaggerate the force of the collision and induce a foul to be called. Overt deception is penalized at every level of basketball. ScreeningA screen is an attempt by an offensive player to stop a defender from guarding the ball-carrier. For example, John Stockton and Karl Malone were well known for their pick and roll (or screen
In basketball, an official enforces the rules and maintains order in the game. The title of official applies to the scorers and timekeepers, as well as other personnel that have an active task in maintaining the game. Basketball is regarded as among the most difficult sports to officiate due to the speed of play, complexity of rules, the case-specific interpretations of rules, the instantaneous decision required. There is one lead referee and one or two umpires, depending on whether there is a two- or three-person crew. In the NBA, the lead official is called the other two officials are referees. In FIBA-sanctioned play, two-man crews consist of a referee and an umpire, three-man crews contain a referee and two umpires. Regardless, both classes of officials have equal rights to control all aspects of the game. In most cases, the lead official performs the jump ball to begin the contest, though NFHS and NCAA have allowed the referee to designate which official shall perform the jump ball. In American high school and college basketball, officials wear black-and-white-striped shirts with black side panels, black pants, black shoes.
Some state high school association allow officials to wear grey shirts with black pin-stripes instead of black-and-white-striped shirts. NBA officials wear light grey shirts with black shoes; the NBA shirt is light grey with one black colored stripe on either shoulder, a black stripe on either side, the official's number in the center at the top on the back, the NBA logo above the breast. NBA officials sometimes wear alternate uniforms consisting of a white shirt with light gold shoulders and black stripes. NBA Summer League officials wear the same light grey shirt but with blue shoulders; the WNBA referee shirt is similar to the NBA referee shirt except that its shoulder and sleeve colors are orange, the WNBA logo takes the place of the NBA logo. FIBA officials wear a grey and black shirt, black trousers, black socks, black shoes. Officials in competitions organized by Euroleague Basketball – the Euroleague and Eurocup – wear an orange shirt. Officials in the Israel Basketball Association wear the Euroleague's orange shirt but sometimes wear royal blue shirts for contests between two Israeli teams.
NBL officials wear orange stripes on the sides. The NBL logo is atop the breast and a sponsor's name is on the back. Shirts are V-neck, without a collar, pants lack belts. All officials wear a whistle, used to stop play as a result of a foul or a violation on the court. Hand signals are used to administer the game. In higher levels of college and professional basketball, officials wear a timing device on the belt-line called PTS; the device is used by on court officials to start and stop the game clock in a timely manner, rather than waiting for the scoreboard operator to do so. The officials must ensure that the game runs smoothly, this encompasses a variety of different responsibilities, from calling the game to player and spectator management, they carry a duty of care to the players they officiate and to ensure that the court and all equipment used is in a safe and usable condition. Should there be an issue that inhibits the safe playing of the game it is the job of the officials to rectify the problem.
Quite the job of an official surpasses that of the game at hand, as they must overcome unforeseen situations that may or may not have an influence on the game. There are two standard methods for officiating a basketball game, either "two-person" or "three-person" mechanics depending on how many officials are available to work the game. In "two-person" mechanics, each official works either the trail position; the lead position is along the baseline of the court, with the trail position having its starting point at the free throw line extended on the left side of the court facing the basket. Officials change position during the game to cover the area in the best possible way; as the game transitions from one end of the court to the other, the lead becomes the trail and vice versa. Between the two positions, each is responsible for a specific part of the court as well as two each of the side, base or back court lines. Officials change position after certain calls; this allows officials to alternate between positions to increase the speed of play.
This prevents one official from always working one particular team's basket throughout the course of the game. In "three-person" mechanics, the court is further divided among three officials, with the lead official determining the position of the other two officials; the lead official will move to the side of the court in which the ball is located if there is a "post-up" player in that position. The official, on the same sideline as the lead official takes up a position level with the top of the three-point line and becomes the "trail" official, while the third official will stand across the court near the free throw line in what is called the center position; this creates a triangle coverage of the court. The lead will switch sides of the baseline during a play, requiring the trail to move down to be level with the free-throw line and become the new center, while the center will move up and become the trail; as the ball moves to the other end of the court in transition, the lead will become the trail, the trail will b
In basketball, free throws or foul shots are unopposed attempts to score points by shooting from behind the free throw line, a line situated at the end of the restricted area. Free throws are awarded after a foul on the shooter by the opposing team; each successful free throw is worth one point. Free throws can be shot at a high percentage by good players. In the NBA, most players make 70–80% of their attempts; the league's best shooters can make 90% of their attempts over a season, while notoriously poor shooters may struggle to make 50% of them. During a foul shot, a player's feet must both be behind the foul line. If a player lines up with part of his or her foot on or forward of the line, a violation is called and the shot does not count. Foul shots are worth one point. There are many situations; the first and most common is. If the player misses the shot during the foul, the player receives either two or three free throws depending on whether the shot was taken in front of or behind the three-point line.
If, despite the foul, the player still makes the attempted shot, the number of free throws is reduced to one, the basket counts. This is known depending on the value of the made basket; the second is. This happens when, in a single period, a team commits a set number of fouls whether or not in the act of shooting. In FIBA, NBA and NCAA women's play, the limit is four fouls per quarter. In the WNBA, the fouled player shoots two free throws starting with the opponent's fifth foul, or second team foul in the final minute if that team has committed under 5 fouls in a period. In FIBA and NCAA women's basketball, the fouled player shoots two free throws starting with the opponent's fifth foul in a period, considering that team fouls accrue from the fourth period on, as all overtimes are extensions of it for purposes of accrued team fouls. In NCAA men's basketball, beginning with the seventh foul of the half, one free throw is awarded; this is called shooting a "one-and-one". Starting with the tenth foul of the half, two free throws are awarded.
In addition, overtime is considered an extension of the second half for purposes of accumulated team fouls. Free throws are not awarded for offensive fouls if the team fouled is in the bonus; the number of fouls that triggers a penalty is higher in college men's basketball because the game is divided into two 20-minute halves, as opposed to quarters of 12 minutes in the NBA or 10 minutes in the WNBA, college women's basketball, or FIBA play. As in professional play, a foul in the act of shooting is a two- or three-shot foul, depending on the value of the shot attempt, with one free throw being awarded if the shot is good. If a player is injured upon being fouled and cannot shoot free throws, the offensive team may designate any player from the bench to shoot in the place of the injured player in college. If a player fouled takes exception to the foul, starts or participates in a fight, gets ejected, he or she is not allowed to take his or her free throws, the opposing team will choose a replacement shooter.
In all other circumstances, the fouled player must shoot her own foul shots. If a player, coach, or team staff shows poor sportsmanship, which may include arguing with a referee, or commits a technical violation that person may get charged with a more serious foul called a technical foul. In the NBA, a technical foul results in one free throw attempt for the other team. In FIBA play, technical fouls result in two free throws in all situations. Under NCAA rules, technical fouls are divided into "Class A" and "Class B". Class A technicals result in two free throws, Class B technicals result in one. At all levels, the opposing team may choose any player, on the court to shoot the free throws, is awarded possession of the ball after the free throws. Since there is no opportunity for a rebound, these free throws are shot with no players on the lane. If a referee deems a foul aggressive, or that it did not show an attempt to play the ball, the referee can call an more severe foul, known as an "unsportsmanlike foul" in international play or a "flagrant foul" in the NBA and NCAA basketball.
This foul is charged against the player, the opponent gets two free throws and possession of t
Kenneth Robert Sears was an American professional basketball player. He was the first basketball player on the cover of Sports Illustrated magazine, appearing on the December 20, 1954 issue. A 6'9" forward from Santa Clara University, Sears played eight seasons in the National Basketball Association as a member of the New York Knicks and San Francisco Warriors, he averaged 13.9 points per game and 7.8 rebounds per game in his NBA career, appearing as an NBA All-Star in 1958 and 1959. Sears led the NBA in field goal percentage twice. Sears spent the 1961–62 season in the short-lived American Basketball League
Rising Stars Challenge
The Rising Stars Challenge is a basketball exhibition game held by the National Basketball Association on the Friday before the annual All-Star Game as part of the All-Star Weekend. The players are first- and second-year players selected by the NBA's assistant coaches. Two people designated as "general managers" draft players for the two opposing teams; the Rookie Challenge, established in 1994, was competed by two randomly selected teams composed of first-year players. This format was continued until 1996, when it was changed to pit rookie teams of both the Eastern and the Western Conference against each other. In 1999, the game was cancelled as a result of the NBA lockout. Since the 1998 rookie class did not compete that year, the game was revamped and featured a team of standout first-year players against a team of standout second-year players. For 2012 and 2013, the format was changed to having two teams drafted by Basketball Hall of Famers Charles Barkley and Shaquille O'Neal. In 2014, the two teams were drafted by Grant Hill.
The format of the game and name was changed to the Rising Stars Challenge in 2012. The game format changed in 2015 to Team USA vs Team World, where each team should choose at least three Rookies and three Sophomores, the squad of each team should have four back courts, four front courts and two swingmen. Unlike regular NBA games, the game was divided into two twenty-minute halves plus multiple five-minute overtime periods, similar to college basketball; the participating players were chosen by voting among the league's assistant coaches. In the game, players wear their respective regular team uniforms, except for 2009, in which players wore fan-designed jerseys; the head coaches of the two teams are the lead assistant coaches of the NBA All-Star Game coach. Starting in 2009, two active NBA players were added to the game coaching staffs; the game is sponsored by Mtn Dew Kickstart. Before 2012, the event was known as the Rookie Challenge named the T-Mobile Rookie Challenge and Youth Jam. To celebrate the first time the NBA holds the All-Star game outside of the USA, the game makes the World Team the home team instead of Team USA.
Team USA won 157–154 in the highest scoring game in Rising Stars Challenge history. Zach LaVine was named MVP, leading all of the USA team with 30 points while recording 7 rebounds and 4 assists. Jordan Clarkson, D'Angelo Russell, Devin Booker all scored over 20 points, with Russell recording 7 assists. Kristaps Porziņģis and Emmanuel Mudiay led the way for Team World with 30 points each, with Andrew Wiggins scoring 29 points; the World team won against the U. S. 121-112 at the Rising Stars Challenge at All-Star weekend. Canada's Andrew Wiggins scored 22 points, Rudy Gobert added 18 points, 12 rebounds and three blocks. Brooklyn's Bojan Bogdanovic of Croatia, Chicago's Nikola Mirotić of Montenegro added 16 points each for the World team. Victor Oladipo of the Orlando Magic and Zach LaVine of the Minnesota Timberwolves led the U. S. team with 22 points each. Andrew Wiggins, the 2014 NBA draft 1st overall pick, won the game's MVP award. Shortly before the draft for the rosters, Norris Cole and Jeremy Lin were added to the original player pool.
A few days before the game, Tiago Splitter was replaced by Derrick Favors. Lin played only nine minutes in the game, at his request, due to exhaustion from his rise to stardom that month; the 2007 Rookie Challenge took place on Friday, February 16 at the Thomas & Mack Center in Las Vegas. Final Score: East:150 West: 167 The 2006 Rookie Challenge took place February 17 at the Toyota Center in Houston. Rookie Roster: Head Coach: Sidney Lowe Assistant Coach: Elvin Hayes Sophomore Roster: Head Coach: Del Harris Assistant Coach: Moses Malone Did not play due to injury The 2005 Rookie Challenge took place February 18 at the Pepsi Center in Denver. Rookie Roster: Head Coach: P. J. Carlesimo Assistant Coach: Alex English Sophomore Roster: Head Coach: Bob McAdoo Assistant Coach: Doug Moe Did not play due to injury The 2004 Rookie Challenge took place February 13 at the Staples Center in Los Angeles. Rookie Roster: Head Coach: Doug Collins Assistant Coach: A. C. Green Sophomore Roster: Head Coach: Michael Cooper Assistant Coach: Kareem Abdul-Jabbar Said to be the most exciting Rookie Challenge in history due to all the highlight-reel dunks.
Much of the hype centered on rookie phenoms LeBron James and Carmelo Anthony, who had 33 and 17 points respectively. Amar'e Stoudemire set a Rookie Challenge record with 36 points; the 2003 Rookie Challenge took place February 8 at the Philips Arena in Atlanta. This was the last time. Rookie Roster: Head Coach: Cotton Fitzsimmons Assistant Coach: Lou Hudson Sophomore Roster: Head Coach: Mike Fratello Assistant Coach: Bob Pettit The 2002 Rookie Challenge took place February 9 at the First Union Center in Philadelphia. Rookie Roster: Head Coach: Chuck Daly Assistant Coach: Darryl Dawkins Sophomore Roster: Head Coach: Billy Cunningham Assistant Coach: Bobby Jones The 2001 Rookie Challenge took place February 10 at the Verizon Center in Washington, D. C.. Rookie Roster: Head Coach: Kevin Loughery Assistant Coach: Jack Marin Sophomore Roster: Head Coach: Elvin Hayes Assistant Coach: Phil Chenier The 2000 Rookie Challenge took place February 11 at the Oakland Arena in Oakland. Rookie Roster: Head Coach: Al Attles Assistant Coach: Nate Thurmond Sophomore Roster: Head Coach: Bill Russell Assistant Coach: K. C. Jones **Did not play due to injury The 1998 Rookie Challenge took place February 8 at the Madison Square Garden in New York.
East Roster: Head Coach: Willis Reed West Roster: Head Coach: Dave DeBusschere The 1997 Rookie Challenge
The Three-Point Contest is a National Basketball Association contest held on the Saturday before the annual All-Star Game as part of All-Star Weekend. The 2019 iteration of the contest involved ten participants. From its introduction in 1986 to 2002, in 2017 and 2018, eight participants were selected to participate in each season's shootout. Between 2003 and 2016, the contest was open to just six competitors. Joe Harris of the Brooklyn Nets is the most recent winner of the event, held at the Spectrum Center in Charlotte, North Carolina. In this contest, participants attempt to make as many three-point field goals as possible from five positions behind the three-point arc in one minute. Players begin shooting from one corner of the court, move from station to station along the three-point arc until they reach the other corner. At each shooting station is a rack with five basketballs. Out of the five balls, four are worth the fifth one is worth two points; the goal of this contest is to score as many points as possible within one minute.
A perfect score used to be 30 points. Since the 2014 contest, a rack consisting only of "money balls" has been added, can be placed on any of the 5 spots of the player's choice, bringing up the maximum possible score to 34 points. In the qualifying round, each player has a chance to score as many points as possible; the three players with the top scores advance to the finals. The final round is played in the same way as the qualifying round, but players shoot according to the ascending order of their first-round scores. In each round, the shots and the score are confirmed by the referee and the television instant replay system; the final round will be shot in reverse direction. In the case of a tie, multiple extra rounds of 30 seconds are played to determine the winner. Larry Bird, the inaugural winner of this contest, Craig Hodges have each won three consecutive times, while Mark Price, Jeff Hornacek, Peja Stojaković and Jason Kapono have each won two consecutive times. Craig Hodges holds the record for most shots made in one round, as well as most consecutive shots made.
Devin Booker holds the record with 28 points, albeit in the newer 34-point format. Detlef Schrempf and Michael Jordan share the record for the fewest points scored in any round with five in 1988 and 1990 respectively. Kyrie Irving is the youngest player to win the contest at the age of 20. Rimas Kurtinaitis is the only non-NBA player to participate in the contest. Dirk Nowitzki is the only 7-foot player to win the contest. Sources: a The 1999 All-Star Game was cancelled due to the 1998–99 NBA lockout. B Denote contests; the final score given here came from the tiebreaker. C Starting with the 2014 Three-Point Contest, the format includes four extra "money balls". D C. J. McCollum was named as a replacement to Chris Bosh due to the latter being unable to participate in the event with a calf injury. E It is unknown how many of the five "money balls" Hodges hit during his round. General"Shootout All-Time Winners". NBA.com. Turner Sports Interactive, Inc. Retrieved December 17, 2008. "Shootout Round-by-Round Results: 2000–08".
NBA.com. Turner Sports Interactive, Inc. Retrieved December 17, 2008. "Shootout Round-by-Round Results: 1990–98". NBA.com. Turner Sports Interactive, Inc. Retrieved December 17, 2008. "Shootout Round-by-Round Results: 1986–89". NBA.com. Turner Sports Interactive, Inc. Retrieved December 17, 2008. "Shootout Records". NBA.com. Turner Sports Interactive, Inc. Retrieved December 17, 2008. "All-Star Game Contests". Basketball-reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 19, 2008. Specific