Socialist Republic of Croatia
The Socialist Republic of Croatia was a constituent republic and federated state of Yugoslavia. By its constitution, modern-day Croatia is its direct continuation. Along with five other Yugoslav republics, it was formed during World War II and became a socialist republic after the war, it had four full official names during its 48-year existence. By territory and population, it was the second largest republic in Yugoslavia, after the Socialist Republic of Serbia. In 1990, the government dismantled the single-party system of government – installed by the Communist Party – and adopted a multi-party democracy; the newly elected government of Franjo Tuđman moved the republic towards independence, formally seceding from Yugoslavia in 1991 and thereby contributing to its dissolution. Croatia became part of the Yugoslav federation in 1943 after the Second Session of the AVNOJ and through the resolutions of the ZAVNOH, Croatia's wartime deliberative body, it was founded as the Federal State of Croatia on May 9, 1944, at the 3rd session of the ZAVNOH.
Yugoslavia was called the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia, it was not a constitutionally socialist state, or a republic, in anticipation of the conclusion of the war, when these issues were settled. On November 29, 1945, the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia became the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, a socialist People's Republic. Accordingly, the Federal State of Croatia became the People's Republic of Croatia. On April 7, 1963, the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia was renamed into the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia abandoned Stalinism after the Tito-Stalin split in 1948. In 1963 the People's Republic of Croatia accordingly became the Socialist Republic of Croatia. On December 22, 1990, a new Constitution was adopted, under which the Socialist Republic of Croatia was renamed as the Republic of Croatia, it was under this constitution that Croatia became independent on June 25, 1991. In the first years of the war, Yugoslav Partisans in Croatia did not have support of Croats.
The majority of partisans on the territory of Croatia were Croatian Serbs. However, in 1943 Croats started to join partisans in larger numbers. In 1943, number of Croat partisans in Croatia increased, so in 1944 they composed 61% of partisans on the territory of Croatia, while Serbs made 28%. On 13 June 1943 in Otočac, Croatian partisans founded the ZAVNOH, a legislative body of the future Croatian republic within the Yugoslavia, its first president was Vladimir Nazor. Croatian partisans had their autonomy along with the Macedonian partisans. However, on 1 March 1945 they were put under the command of Supreme Command of the Yugoslav Army, thus losing their autonomy. Partisans of Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina did not have such autonomy; because of partisan victories and increased territory held by partisans, AVNOJ decided to hold the second session in Jajce at the end of November 1943. At that session, the Yugoslav communist leadership decided to reestablish Yugoslavia as federal state. On November 29, 1945 the Yugoslav Constituent Assembly held a session where it was decided that Yugoslavia would be composed of six republics: Slovenia, Croatia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Macedonia.
Not long after, the Communist Party started to prosecute those who opposed the communist one-party system. On January 30, 1946, the Constituent Assembly made the Constitution of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia. Croatia was the last of the republics to make its constitution, which were the same; the Constitution of the People's Republic of Croatia was adopted by the Constituent Parliament of the PR Croatia on January 18, 1947. In their constitutions, all republics have been deprieved of gaining independence. Republics had only formal autonomy; the Communist Party's officials were, at the same time, state officials, while the Party's Central Committee was de iure, the highest organ of the state. The governments of the republics were only part of the mechanism in approval of Politburo's decisions. In post-war Yugoslavia, communists had a struggle for power with the opposition that supported King Peter. Milan Grol was leader of the opposition; the Croatian Peasant Party, part of the opposition, had divided into three branches: one supporting the Ustaše, the other supporting the communists and the third supporting Vladko Maček.
However, communists had the majority in parliament and control over the army, leaving the opposition without any real power. Šubašić had his own supporters within the HSS and he tried to unite the party once again, believing that, once united, it would be a major political factor in the country. The Croatian Republican Peasant Party, a split party of the HSS, wanted to enter the People's Front, a suprapolitical organization controlled by the Communist Party of Yugoslavia. Šubašić knew that this would put the HSS under control of the communists and ended the negotiations about the unification. In the election campaign, the opposition parties wanted to unite with the Serbian Radi
Yugoslav First League
The Yugoslav First Federal Football League, was the premier football league in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The First League Championship was one of two national competitions held annually in Yugoslavia, the Yugoslav Cup being the other; the league became professional in 1967. The UEFA recognised successor league of the Yugoslav First League, the First League of FR Yugoslavia, despite the succession and same name "Prva savezna liga", it is covered in a separate article; this was the first club competition on a national level for clubs from Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The league was started in 1923 and the first four seasons had a cup tournament format, while the first round-robin league competition was held in 1927. In the period from 1927 to 1940 seventeen seasons were completed, with all the titles won by clubs from Croatia or Serbia, it was governed at first by the Croatian-named Nogometni Savez Jugoslavije, founded in April 1919 in Zagreb, until in late 1929 disagreements arose between the Zagreb and Belgrade branches of the association.
This resulted in the association headquarters being moved to Belgrade in May 1930 where it adopted the Serbian name Fudbalski Savez Jugoslavije and continued operating the league until it was suspended due to the outbreak of World War II. With the moving of headquarters, Croatian players and coaches boycotted Yugoslav national team. With the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia, separate Croatian and Serbian leagues were established, which operated during the World War II. Serbian Football League, in Serbia *Known as BSK Belgrade before 1957 Top 12 only: Table only shows best-finish achievements in major European/Intercontinental competitions during the SFR Yugoslavia period. No minor European tournaments included. Table sorted by success at European Cup / UEFA Champions League foremost. While the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup is recognised as the predecessor to the UEFA Cup, it was not organised by UEFA. UEFA do not consider clubs' records in the Fairs Cup to be part of their European record. However, FIFA do view the competition as a major honour.
Complete list of players who scored 100 goals or more in the 1946-1992 SFR Yugoslavia period. Source: RSSSF. Among these were: The 1990-91 season was the last season held in its usual format, with clubs from all federative units participating in the championship; the breakup of the country broke up its top-flight league into several smaller ones. In June 1991 Slovenia declared Croatia followed suit in October of the same year; this meant that their football associations separated from the Football Association of Yugoslavia so they both started their own football leagues. The Slovenian PrvaLiga was launched in late 1991, while the Croatian Prva HNL saw its first edition in 1992. Affected by the ongoing war in Croatia, the season was held over the course of a single calendar year, from February to June 1992. Both leagues have been going on since; the 1991-92 season was the last season held under the name of SFR Yugoslavia though Slovenian and Croatian clubs have abandoned the competition to play in their own leagues.
Clubs from the remaining four federative units all took part in the competition, but since the Bosnian War broke out towards the end of the season, Bosnian clubs never finished it, with Željezničar of Sarajevo only managed to play 17 out of 33 scheduled fixtures, while Sloboda Tuzla and Velež Mostar ended the season with a few games short of completing the season. Still, since most of the games were played as planned, Crvena Zvezda of Belgrade is credited with winning the last Yugoslav First League championship. Macedonian clubs abandoned the competition after the 1991-92 season because the new Macedonian First League was launched the following season. For the 1992-93 season Bosnian clubs were all on hiatus due to full blown fighting that developed there, with the sole exception of Borac of Banja Luka which temporarily moved to Belgrade and joined the newly formed league featuring clubs from Serbia and Montenegro, this time restyled as the First League of FR Yugoslavia; the league lasted under that name until the 2002-03 season, when the country changed its name so the league was renamed First League of Serbia and Montenegro.
In June 2006 Montenegro declared independence and peacefully departed the union, so from the 2006-07 season onwards Montenegro started operating separate top-flight football league supervised by its football association. On the other hand, as the legal successor of Serbia-Montenegro state union, Serbia got the continuity of the country's league, formed as Prva liga in 1992, renamed and rebranded as Superliga in summer 2005. Bosnia and Herzegovina proclaimed independence in late winter 1992, in April same year N/FSBiH applied for membership with FIFA and UEFA. Meanwhile, due to the outbreak of Bosnian War in April 1992 no games w
FK Budućnost Podgorica
Fudbalski Klub Budućnost Podgorica is a football club from Podgorica, Montenegro competing in the Montenegrin First League. Its colours are white. Founded in 1925, Budućnost was the Montenegrin club with most appearances in the Yugoslav First League, debuting in 1946. Due to the city being renamed during the communist rule in Yugoslavia, Budućnost was known as Budućnost Titograd throughout that era. Since Montenegrin independence in 2006, the club has won three Montenegrin First League titles and one Montenegrin Cup, they are the Montenegrin club with the most games and seasons in European competitions, winning the UEFA Intertoto Cup in 1981. FK Budućnost is a part of Budućnost Podgorica sports society; the club was founded in June 1925, as a Workers' sports club Zora. After two years, club was named as RSK Budućnost. In historical - first team of RSK Zora / RSK Budućnost, in period between 1925 and 1928, played Musaja Čelebičić, Vaso Vukadinović, Bećo Abdomerović, Vaso Čarapić, Vlado Kirsanov, Đorđe Kešeljević, Vaso Kulić, Blažo Prelević, Duljo Džaferadžović, Blažo Šutulović, Buto Krkanović, Luka Bulatović, Tahir Čelebić, Ilija Ivanović, Milo Pajović, Milovan Radulović, Vuko Vuksanović, Dušan Krcunović, Đorđije Vučeljić, Branko Rajković, Smail Bibezić, Šećir Kapadžić and Arso Marković.
First coach was Slovenian-born Karlo Vugrinec. First game in the history of FK Budućnost was friendly match against local rival GSK Balšić, played on 1925. Budućnost won the game, with result 2-1. During the end of 20's, RSK Budućnost played their first games in official competitions, but significant results came during the beginning of the next decade. In Autumn 1931, Budućnost for the first time played in final game of Montenegrin football championship, but lost against SK Crnogorac Cetinje. At 1932, Budućnost played their first international game, against KS Vllaznia away. In Autumn 1932, Budućnost won their first title of Montenegrin champion. In the finals, team from Podgorica defeated FK Lovćen. During that season, FK Budućnost played their first official game against FK Sutjeska and, the first edition of Montenegrin Derby - the greatest rivalry in the history of Montenegrin football. Next season, Budućnost defended the trophy - opponent in the final game, were FK Lovćen. Third trophy of Montenegrin champion before Second World War, FK Budućnost won at 1934.
Opponent in the finals, was FK Lovćen. Last time, Budućnost played in Championship final at 1935. At the beginning of 1937, as a team which supported workers' ideas, together with FK Lovćen, FK Budućnost was abandoned by regime of that time. During the next years, the club, under the temporary name RSK Crna Gora, played only few friendly, illegal games, against Lovćen and FK Velež from Mostar. With the beginning of World War II, all sports' activities of the club were suspended. All the players went to Partisan movement and many of them died during the battles. Outside of Podgorica City Stadium, there is a memorial table in respect to all FK Budućnost players which participated in WWII. After the war, club was refounded under the name FK Budućnost. First game they played on 1 May 1945, against FK Lovćen at Cetinje. In January 1946, Budućnost played first international friendly game after war, against KF Tirana in Podgorica. Soon after that, team from Podgorica won first official football competition after the World War II - 1946 Montenegrin Republic League, which meant placement to the inaugural season of the Yugoslav First League.
Historical first game in First Yugoslav League, FK Budućnost played on 25 August 1946 against Dinamo Zagreb, in front of 5,000 spectators in Podgorica, equal with town population of that time. During the season, on 16 March 1947, Budućnost defeated NK Nafta 9-0; until today, it remained biggest home victory of Budućnost in the First League. During the SFR Yugoslavia era, Budućnost played 26 seasons in top-division. Best placement in Yugoslav First League was sixth place, Budućnost played in the top-tier competition during the decades, they were most successful Montenegrin team in that era, among 14 all-time best teams in SFR Yugoslavia. In the same period, the club reached two Yugoslav Cup finals. First time, Budućnost played as a member of Yugoslav Second League, they lost a game against Dinamo Zagreb. In their first Cup final, Budućnost played with following team: Hajduković, Folić, Gardašević, Pavlović, Savković, Kovačević, Šaković, Todorović, Šorban, Ćerić, Franović. Next time, they participated in Cup final 1977.
Rivals were Budućnost and Hajduk Split. This time, they were defeated in extra-time. On final game, Budućnost sterted with the following team: Vujačić, Janković, Folić, J. Miročević, Vukčević, Milošević, Kovačević, Bošković, Radonjić, A. Miročević, Ljumović; these two appearances in the Yugoslav Cup finals are considered the greatest achievements of FK Budućnost in period 1945-2006. The period, known as a golden era of football in Podgorica is 1975-1985. At that time, a majority of First League matches in Podgorica were attended by more than 10,000 spectators, with the record against Hajduk Split. During the 80's, Budućnost made two future great stars of European football - Dejan Savićević and Predrag Mijatović; the best placement of FK Budućnost in the Yugoslav First League was sixth place in seasons 1978-79 and 1980-81. Budućnost represented SFR Yugoslavia in the 1981 Intertoto Cup, finishing as a first-pl
Fudbalski Klub Vardar known as FK Vardar or Vardar, is a football club based in the capital city of Skopje, in North Macedonia. The club was founded in 1947 and they have been members of the Macedonian First Football League since its inception in 1992; the Philip II Arena has been the home ground of FK Vardar since 1947. Vardar is the most popular and renowned Macedonian football club both domestically and abroad, having won 10 national championships and 5 national cups. A football club named Vardar after the river of Vardar was established in 1911 but existed in the shadow of other major clubs in Skopje in the pre-WWII period. After the WW2 FK Vardar was established with the merger of city rivals FK Pobeda and FK Makedonija, in the hall of cinema "Vardar" on 22 July 1947; the foundation assembly had decided the club color to be blue and it was, but at the next assembly the decision was changed to red and white. FK Pobeda has competed in the first season of the Federal League after the World War II, finished at the 8th place and won the relegation play–offs against FK Sloga from Novi Sad, FK Vardar was a member of the Federal league from the beginning.
However, during the following decade they were several times promoted back again. The present recognizable red and black color was adopted after the 1963 Skopje earthquake; the club won its first major trophy in the 1960–61 Yugoslav Cup. Many famous players from the region started their careers at Vardar, their triumph in the Yugoslav Cup was a highlight; the leader of that particular generation of players was Andon Dončevski, who coached the team from 1985 to 1988. Due to massive irregularities during the last 34th week of fixtures, the 1985–86 Yugoslav First League season ended notoriously. Football Association of Yugoslavia headed by Slavko Šajber voided the last week results ordering a replay of all 9 fixtures. Twelve clubs were docked 6 points due to alleged participation in the match-fixing scandal. All teams agreed to replay their games but FK Partizan, who had won the title with a 4–0 over FK Željezničar Sarajevo, after which the game was awarded 3–0 to FK Željezničar Sarajevo, which gave Red Star Belgrade the title.
Red Star Belgrade played in the 1986–87 European Cup. However, after a sequence of legal processes, the original final table, with FK Partizan as champions, was recognized in 1987; the following 1986-87 Federal League season saw 10 teams starting with −6 points. Vardar Skopje, who had not been deducted 6 points, won the title, participated in the 1987–88 European Cup, but the points deduction was annulled after more legal proceedings, the title was given to FK Partizan, who headed the table with the deduction, but for UEFA, Vardar was recognized as a champion. In 1986–87 Federal League team had a group of wonderful players, led by the talented Darko Pančev and including Ilija Najdoski, Dragi Kanatlarovski and Vujadin Stanojković. FK Vardar went on to spend 33 seasons in the Federal top flight from 1947 to 1992 and is ranked 11th on the all-time table. Vardar celebrated Macedonia independence by winning three consecutive titles including going unbeaten in the inaugural season. During the 90's they remained at the top of Macedonian football reaching five Cup finals.
After a lean spell by their standards, they bought the league again in 2001–02 and the following season just missed out on qualifying for the 2003–04 UEFA Champions League group stage. A remarkable achievement, in the Second qualifying round they eliminated CSKA Moscow and came within a goal of getting past Sparta Prague. In 2011, Vardar was relegated from the Macedonian First Football League, but after a buying the license from Miravci it stayed; the following season they brought the league again after nine years. To date they have 17 major honors to their name. In 2012, with the new transformation FK Vardar became the first team in Macedonia organized as a joint stock company incorporated under the companies act. FK Vardar went on to spend 24 seasons in the Macedonian First Football League from 1992 to 2017 and is ranked 1st on the all-time table. In their history, FK Vardar has had many memorable matches. First big one came in 1961 against Dunfermline from Scotland, victory at home ground 2:0 glorious moments in Cup winners Cup.
Among those, the one that stands out the most was defeating FK Partizan by a score of 5–0. In early history, the 2–1 victory over Varteks in the Yugoslav Cup final is remembered by the club as its first major trophy win. A game that had the highest attendance was a match up against Trepča where FK Vardar won 2–1 and earned promotion to the Yugoslav First League. Other matches to remember came against the great four Red Star Belgrade, Partizan Belgrade, Dinamo Zagreb and Hajduk Split. 1985 home ground victory over Dinamo Bucurset from Romania 1:0 in UEFA Cup competition. At the beginning of the Macedonian First Football League the most memorable matches were all the wins against rival Pelister, including the first Macedonian Football Cup final in 1993 where FK Vardar won 1–0 at the old City Stadium; the biggest international achievement of the club came in 2003 when FK Vardar came one goal short of qualifying for the UEFA Champions League group stage. They had great match against Barry Town from Wales and 3–0 victory at home ground another glorious 2–1 away win over Russian heavy weights CSKA Moscow.
In 2004 UEFA Intertoto Cup they destroyed Ethnikos Achnas from Cyprus in both matches home and away with identical victories of 5–1 1–0 victory against Belgian side Gent at home ground. In the 2017–18 Champions League second qualifying round, Vardar were drawn against Swedish side Malmö FF, in the first leg away, they have played a draw and
Red Star Belgrade
Fudbalski klub Crvena zvezda known in English as Red Star Belgrade or Red Star, is a Serbian professional football club based in Belgrade, the major part of the Red Star multi-sport club. They are the only Serbian and ex-Yugoslav club to have won the European Cup, having done so in 1991, the only team to have won the Intercontinental Cup in 1991. With 28 national championships and 24 national cups between Serbian and the former Yugoslav competitions, Red Star was the most successful club in former Yugoslavia and finished first in the Yugoslav First League all-time table, is the most successful club in Serbia. Since the 1991–92 season, Red Star's best results are in the UEFA Champions League group stage and UEFA Europa League knockout phase. According to 2008 polls, Red Star Belgrade is the most popular football club in Serbia, with 48.2% of the population supporting them. They have many supporters in the Serbian diaspora, their main rivals are fellow Belgrade side Partizan. The championship matches between these two clubs are known as The Eternal derby.
According to the International Federation of Football History & Statistics' list of the Top 200 European clubs of the 20th century, Red Star is the highest-ranked Serbian and ex-Yugoslavian club, sharing the 27th position on the list with Dutch club Feyenoord. In February 1945, during World War II, a group of young men, active players and members of the Serbian United Antifascist Youth League, decided to form a Youth Physical Culture Society, to become Red Star Belgrade on 4 March; as of December 1944, all pre-war Serbian clubs were abolished, on 5 May 1945, communist Secretary of Sports Mitra Mitrović-Djilas signed the decree dissolving formally all pre-war clubs on the territory of Socialist Republic of Serbia. The clubs were dissolved because during the German occupation, there was an attempt to organize the league so all the clubs were labelled collaborators by Josip Broz Tito's communist regime. Two of the most popular clubs from Belgrade were BSK Belgrade. Red Star was formed on the remains of SK Jugoslavija and they were given SK Jugoslavija's stadium, offices and their red and white colours, along with the logo with addition of a red star.
The entire BSK Belgrade squad joined along with some other players from Belgrade and Central Serbia. The name Red Star was assigned after a long discussion. Other ideas shortlisted by the delegates included "People's Star", "Blue Star", "Proleter", "Stalin", "Lenin", etc; the initial vice presidents of the Sport Society – Zoran Žujović and Slobodan Ćosić – were the ones who assigned it. Red Star was soon adopted as a symbol of Serbian nationalism within Yugoslavia and a sporting institution which remains the country's most popular to this day. On that day, Red Star played the first football match in the club's history against the First Battalion of the Second Brigade of KNOJ and won 3–0. Red Star's first successes involved small steps to recognition. In the first fifteen years of existence, Red Star won six Yugoslav championships, five Yugoslav Cups, one Danube Cup and reached the semi-finals of the 1956–57 European Cup; some of the greatest players during this period were Kosta Tomašević, Branko Stanković, Rajko Mitić, Vladimir Beara, Bora Kostić, Vladica Popović, Vladimir Durković and Dragoslav Šekularac.
As champions, Red Star were Yugoslavia's entrants into the 1957–58 European Cup where they were famously beaten 5–4 on aggregate by English champions Manchester United in the quarter-finals. Manchester United, managed by Matt Busby defeated Red Star 2–1 in the first leg in England before drawing 3–3 with them in Yugoslavia in the return match on 5 February at JNA Stadium; the second leg is notable for being the last match played by the Busby Babes: on the return flight to England the following day, the plane crashed in Munich, resulting in the deaths of 23 people, including eight Manchester United players. During the Miljan Miljanić era, Red Star won four Yugoslav championships, three Yugoslav Cups, one Mitropa Cup and reached the semi-finals of the 1970–71 European Cup. A new generation of players emerged under Miljanić's guidance, led by Dragan Džajić and Jovan Aćimović. Red Star eliminated Liverpool in the second round of the 1973–74 European Cup and Real Madrid in the quarter-finals of the 1974–75 European Cup Winners' Cup.
Branko Stanković, whose reign as head coach was to last four years, brought Red Star three trophies and the first great European final. After eliminating teams like Arsenal, West Bromwich Albion and Hertha BSC, Red Star made for the first time the UEFA Cup final. There, Red Star met Borussia Mönchengladbach, who played five European finals from 1973 to 1980; the Germans fell behind one goal from Miloš Šestić, but Ivan Jurišić’s own goal gave Gladbach a psychological advantage before the rematch. This game was played at the Rheinstadion in Düsseldorf, where the Italian referee Alberto Michelotti gave a questionable penalty to the Germans, the Danish player Allan Simonsen sealed Red Star's fate; the Foals won 2–1 on aggregate. After the 1970s, historical matches against Udo Lattek's Barcelona followed during the 1982–83 European Cup Winners' Cup. In both matches, Barcelona were the better team and Red Star was eliminated. Remarkably, when Barça's Diego Maradona scored his second goal in front of 100,000 spectators at the Marakana, the Belgrade audience were so excited about the goal that the loyal Belgrade fans applauded Maradona.
Gojko Zec returned to the team in 1983, finding only one player from the champions gener
Borivoje "Bora" Kostić was a former Serbian footballer. A prolific left winger, Kostić is regarded as one of finest Yugoslav players of his generation and was well known for powerful shot and free kick ability. During his club career he played for Lanerossi Vicenza and St. Louis Stars, he earned 33 caps and 26 goals for the Yugoslavia national football team, participated in the 1960 European Nations' Cup. Kostić was no less prolific at the club level with Red Star Belgrade, for whom he remains to this day the all-time leading marksman with 158 league strikes. Bora Kostić at National-Football-Teams.com Bora Kostić at FootballDatabase.eu Bora Kostić at WorldFootball.net Profile at Serbian national football team page
Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers and the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain and the Balkans; the urban area of the City of Belgrade has a population of 1.23 million, while nearly 1.7 million people live within its administrative limits. One of the most important prehistoric cultures of Europe, the Vinča culture, evolved within the Belgrade area in the 6th millennium BC. In antiquity, Thraco–Dacians inhabited the region and, after 279 BC, Celts settled the city, naming it Singidūn, it was conquered by the Romans under the reign of Augustus and awarded Roman city rights in the mid-2nd century. It was settled by the Slavs in the 520s, changed hands several times between the Byzantine Empire, the Frankish Empire, the Bulgarian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary before it became the seat of the Serbian king Stefan Dragutin. In 1521, Belgrade was conquered by the Ottoman Empire and became the seat of the Sanjak of Smederevo.
It passed from Ottoman to Habsburg rule, which saw the destruction of most of the city during the Austro-Ottoman wars. Belgrade was again named the capital of Serbia in 1841. Northern Belgrade remained the southernmost Habsburg post until 1918. In a fatally strategic position, the city was razed 44 times. Belgrade was the capital of Yugoslavia from its creation in 1918 to its dissolution in 2006. Belgrade has special administrative status within Serbia and it is one of the five statistical regions that make up the country, its metropolitan territory is divided into each with its own local council. The city of Belgrade covers 3.6% of Serbia's territory, around 24% of the country's population lives within its administrative limits. It is classified as a Beta-Global City. Chipped stone tools found in Zemun show that the area around Belgrade was inhabited by nomadic foragers in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic eras; some of these tools are of Mousterian industry—belonging to Neanderthals rather than modern humans.
Aurignacian and Gravettian tools have been discovered near the area, indicating some settlement between 50,000 and 20,000 years ago. The first farming people to settle in the region are associated with the Neolithic Starčevo culture, which flourished between 6200 and 5200 BC. There are several Starčevo sites including the eponymous site of Starčevo; the Starčevo culture was succeeded by the Vinča culture, a more sophisticated farming culture that grew out of the earlier Starčevo settlements and named for a site in the Belgrade region. The Vinča culture is known for its large settlements, one of the earliest settlements by continuous habitation and some of the largest in prehistoric Europe. Associated with the Vinča culture are anthropomorphic figurines such as the Lady of Vinča, the earliest known copper metallurgy in Europe, a proto-writing form developed prior to the Sumerians and Minoans known as the Old European script, which dates back to around 5300 BC. Within the city proper, on Cetinjska Street, a skull of a Paleolithic human was discovered in 1890.
The skull is dated to before 5000 BC. Evidence of early knowledge about Belgrade's geographical location comes from a variety of ancient myths and legends; the ridge overlooking the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers, for example, has been identified as one of the places in the story of Jason and the Argonauts. In the time of antiquity, the area was populated by Paleo-Balkan tribes, including the Thracians and the Dacians, who ruled much of Belgrade's surroundings. Belgrade was at one point inhabited by the Thraco-Dacian tribe Singi. In 34–33 BC, the Roman army, led by Silanus, reached Belgrade, it became the romanised Singidunum in the 1st century AD and, by the mid-2nd century, the city was proclaimed a municipium by the Roman authorities, evolving into a full-fledged colonia by the end of the century. While the first Christian Emperor of Rome —Constantine I known as Constantine the Great—was born in the territory of Naissus to the city's south, Roman Christianity's champion, Flavius Iovianus, was born in Singidunum.
Jovian reestablished Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire, ending the brief revival of traditional Roman religions under his predecessor Julian the Apostate. In 395 AD, the site passed to the Eastern Byzantine Empire. Across the Sava from Singidunum was the Celtic city of Taurunum. In 442, the area was ravaged by Attila the Hun. In 471, it was taken by king of the Ostrogoths, who continued into Italy; as the Ostrogoths left, another Germanic tribe, the Gepids, invaded the city. In 539 it was retaken by the Byzantines. In 577, some 100,000 Slavs poured into Thrace and Illyricum, pillaging cities and more permanently settling the region; the Avars, under Bayan I, conquered the whole region and its new Slavic population by 582. Following Byzantine reconquest, the Byzantine chronicle De Administrando Imperio mentions the White Serbs, who had stopped in Belgrade on their way back home, asking the strategos for lands. In 829, Khan Omurtag was able to add its environs to the First Bulgarian Empire.
The first record of the name Belograd appeared on April, 16th, 878, in