1929 Los Angeles mayoral election
The 1929 election for Mayor of Los Angeles took place on June 9, 1929. Incumbent George E. Cryer did not contest the election, won by John Clinton Porter. Office of the City Clerk, City of Los Angeles
1911 Los Angeles mayoral election
The 1911 election for Mayor of Los Angeles took place on October 31, 1911, with a run-off election on December 5, 1911. Incumbent George Alexander was re-elected. Office of the City Clerk, City of Los Angeles
1921 Los Angeles mayoral election
The 1921 election for Mayor of Los Angeles took place on June 7, 1921. Incumbent Meredith P. Snyder was defeated by George E. Cryer. Office of the City Clerk, City of Los Angeles
1965 Los Angeles mayoral election
The 1965 election for Mayor of Los Angeles took place on April 6, 1965. Incumbent Sam Yorty was re-elected. Office of the City Clerk, City of Los Angeles
An electoral swing analysis shows the extent of change in voter support from one election to another, expressed as a positive or negative percentage. A multi-party swing is an indicator of a change in the electorate's preference between candidates or parties. A swing can be calculated for the electorate as a whole, for a given electoral district or for a particular demographic. A swing is useful for analysing change in voter support over time, or as a tool for predicting the outcome of elections in constituency-based systems. Swing is usefully deployed when analysing the shift in voter intentions revealed by opinion polls or to compare polls concisely which may rely on differing samples and on markedly different swings and therefore predict extraneous results. A swing is calculated by comparing the percentage of the vote in a particular election to the percentage of the vote belonging to the same party or candidate at the previous election. One-party swing = Percentage of vote − percentage of vote.
Examples include the comparison between the 2007 Ukrainian Parliamentary elections. The above charts show the change in voter support for each of the six major political parties by electoral district and nationwide vote results. In many nation states' media, including in Australia and the United Kingdom, swing is expressed in terms of two parties; this practice is most useful where most governments tend to be from an existing two-party system but other candidates do sometimes run, is used to predict the outcome of elections in constituency-based systems where different seats are held with different previous levels of support. An assumption underlies extrapolated national calculations: that all districts will experience the same swing as shown in a poll or in a place's results; the advantage of this swing is the fact that the loss of support for one party will in most cases be accompanied by smaller or bigger gain in support for the other, but both figures are averaged into one. Employing the two assumptions allows the analyst to compute an electoral pendulum, predicting how many seats will change hands given a particular swing, what size uniform swing would therefore bring about a change of government.
In Australia, the term "swing" refers to the change in the outcome of an election from the viewpoint of specific political parties in the preferential voting system. The UK uses the two-party swing, adding one party's increase in share of the vote to the percentage-point fall of another party and dividing the total by two. So if Party One's vote rises by 4 points and Party Two's vote falls 5 points, the swing is 4.5 points. For disambiguation suffixes such as: must be added where three parties stand. Otherwise a problem when deciding which swing is meant and which swing is best to publish arises where a lower party takes first or second. Originating as a mathematical calculation for comparing the results of two constituencies, any of these figures can be used as an indication of the scale of voter change between any two political parties, as shown below for the 2010 United Kingdom general election: Swing in the United States can refer to swing state, those states that are known to shift an outcome between Democrats and Republican Parties, equivalent on a local level to marginal seats.
By contrast, a non-swing state is the direct equivalent of a safe seat, as it changes in outcome. The extent of change in political outcome is influenced by the voting system in use; some websites provide a pie chart based or column-based multi party swingometer where ± x%, ± x%, ± x% and so on is displayed or can be input for three parties. This tool or illustration provides outcomes wherever more than two political parties have a significant influence on which politicians are elected. Swing vote Swingometer Notes References
1925 Los Angeles mayoral election
The 1925 election for Mayor of Los Angeles took place on May 5, 1925. Incumbent George E. Cryer was re-elected. Office of the City Clerk, City of Los Angeles
1937 Los Angeles mayoral election
The 1937 election for Mayor of Los Angeles took place on April 6, 1937, with a run-off election on May 4, 1937. Incumbent Frank L. Shaw was re-elected. Office of the City Clerk, City of Los Angeles