University of Montana
The University of Montana is a public research university in Missoula, Montana, in the United States. Founded in 1893, the university is the second largest of the Montana University System, second to Montana State University, the main campus is at the foot of Mount Sentinel, the hill bearing Missoulas most recognizable landmark, a large hillside letter M. The University of Montana ranks 17th in the nation and fifth among universities in producing Rhodes Scholars. The University of Montana has 11 Truman Scholars,14 Goldwater Scholars and 40 Udall Scholars to its name, the University of Montanas Maureen and Mike Mansfield Library houses the earliest authorized edition of the Lewis and Clark journals. Rolling Stone labelled the university the most scenic campus in America and Outside magazine called it among the top 10 colleges nationally for combining academic quality, an act of Congress of February 18,1881 dedicated 72 sections in Montana Territory for the creation of the University. Montana was admitted to the Union on November 8,1889, the cities bids were supported by the rival Copper Kings, William A.
Clark and Marcus Daly, respectively. Missoula won the vote for the new university at the Third Montana Legislative Assembly in February 1893. The University was formally opened in 1895, while plans for a university campus were progressing, classes were temporarily held at nearby Willard School. The South Missoula Land Company, owned by A. B. Hammond, Richard Eddy and Marcus Daly, in June 1898 the cornerstone for A. J. Gibson designed University Hall was laid and Missoula became the University City, the University of Montana comprises eleven full colleges and schools, College of Humanities & Sciences, Phyllis J. The Phyllis J. Washington College of Education and Human Sciences is divided into five academic departments, in 1914, the University of Montana School of Law became a member of The Association of American Law Schools and in 1923, the School received accreditation from the American Bar Association. For the fall 2014 term, University of Montana offered admission to 4,956 freshmen out of 5,345 applicants, the first set of buildings were set up around the oval in 1895.
Since that time, various plans and architectural styles have been used. Today the campus consists of 220 acres and is bordered to the east by Mount Sentinel, landmarks include, The Oval A3 acres swath of grass running east to west, marking the traditional center of the university. Today it is divided into quadrants by two intersecting paths, though originally the oval was solid grass and forbidden to be crossed by students. A double row of trees was planted around the oval on Arbor Day 1896, the original gravel driveway that once surrounded the Oval has been replaced by sidewalk. The original master plan of the university called for all buildings to face the center of the oval, but this proved difficult. On the western extreme of the Oval is a grizzly bear statue created by ceramic artist
Missoula /mᵻˈzuːlə/ is a city in the U. S. state of Montana and is the county seat of Missoula County. In 2015, the United States Census Bureau estimated the population at 71,022. In the 1990s, Missoula overtook Great Falls as Montana’s second‑largest city, Missoula is home to the University of Montana, a public research university. Missoula was founded in 1860 as Hellgate Trading Post while still part of Washington Territory, by 1866, the settlement had moved east,5 miles upstream, and renamed Missoula Mills, shortened to Missoula. The mills provided supplies to settlers traveling along the Mullan Road. The establishment of Fort Missoula in 1877 to protect settlers further stabilized the economy, the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railway in 1883 brought rapid growth and the maturation of the local lumber industry. In 1893, the Montana Legislature chose the city as the site for the states first university, along with the U. S. Forest Service headquarters founded in 1908, lumber and the university remained staples of the local economy for the next hundred years.
The city is governed by a government with twelve city council members. Notable residents include the first woman in the U. S. Congress, Jeannette Rankin, archaeological artifacts date the Missoula Valleys earliest inhabitants to the end of the last ice age 12,000 years ago with settlements as early as 3500 BCE. From the 1700s until European settlements began a years later, it was primarily the Salish, Pend dOreille, Blackfeet. Hell Gate would remain the name of the area until it was renamed Missoula in 1866, the Lewis and Clark Expedition brought the first U. S. citizens to the area. They twice stopped just south of Missoula at Travelers Rest and they camped there the first time on their westbound trip in September 1805. When they stayed there again on their return in June–July 1806, Clark left heading south along the Bitterroot River and Lewis traveled north, through Hellgate Canyon. The desire for a more convenient water supply to power a lumber, the Missoula Mills replaced Hell Gate Village as the economic power of the valley and replaced it as the county seat in 1866.
The name Missoula came from the Salish name for the Clark Fork River, Fort Missoula was established in 1877 to help protect further arriving settlers. Growth accelerated with the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railway in 1883, in 1893, Missoula was chosen as the location of the states first university, the University of Montana. The continued economic windfall from railroad construction and lumber mills led to a boom in Missoulas population. A. B. Hammond and Copper Kings Marcus Daly and William A. Clark competed fiercely in the region over lumber share, the United States Forest Service work in Missoula began in 1905
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
University of Montana Grizzly Marching Band
The University of Montana Grizzly Marching Band is the school band of the University of Montana. As of 2015, the band had about 140 members, the band was started in the late 1800s. It largely specializes in contemporary corps-style outdoor marching, playing at home game. The group travels to several games in the Northwest and has accompanied the football team to four Division I-AA National Championships. In addition to the entertainment, it makes several appearances in the community each season. University of Montana Grizzly Marching Band website Videos of Grizzly Marching Band in 2008 season
Western Athletic Conference
The Western Athletic Conference is an American collegiate athletic conference formed on July 27,1962 and affiliated with the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I. The WAC thus became the first Division I conference to drop football since the Big West in 2000, the WAC added mens soccer and became one of the NCAAs eleven Division I non-football conferences. The following institutions are the members of the WAC for the 2016–17 academic year. Notes With the elimination of football as a WAC-sponsored sport, New Mexico States football program has joined the Sun Belt as an associate member, in July 2015, UTPA merged with the University of Texas at Brownsville to create the new University of Texas Rio Grande Valley. The University of Texas System stated in July 2014 that the UTPA athletics program will be converted into the program at UTRGV. On November 5,2014, UTRGVs new nickname of Vaqueros was announced, the founding date for UTRGV listed in this table reflects that of Edinburg College, the institution that eventually became UTPA.
According to U. S. News & World Report, RNP means a ranking was calculated, unranked means not enough information was provided to make a calculation. Chicago States continued membership is problematic, considering the schools current strained financial situation and the needs of the athletic program, in April 2016, the University Budget Committee recommended that the Athletic Department. Study the benefits of being Division I or another division, championships title totals are through Spring 2016. The following 11 schools field programs in the WAC for sports not sponsored by their primary conferences. Notes Four schools became members in mens soccer in July 2013, the WAC announced on January 9,2013 that it would reinstate the sport. Because the conference dropped football, it was necessary to add a new mens team sport to maintain its Division I status, three of these schools have past WAC connections—former full members Air Force, UNLV and San Jose State. After the WAC announced it would add mens soccer, the conference gained an eighth soccer school for the 2013 season when UMKC, which already sponsored the sport, joined.
In addition, Utah Valley added the sport for 2014, UT-Pan American added it for 2015, and Chicago State is slated to add it for 2016. Four schools became members in mens swimming and diving in July 2013, the WAC announced on May 16,2013 that it would reinstate the sport. Northern Colorado joined the WAC for baseball for the 2014 season, north Dakota joined the WAC for baseball in the 2014 season, but dropped the sport after the 2016 season. Sacramento State was formerly a member of the WAC in baseball from 1992–93 to 1995–96. Championships title totals are through Fall 2014, north Dakota will leave the WAC entirely in July 2017 after dropping its remaining WAC sports of mens and womens swimming & diving
Albertsons Stadium is an outdoor athletic stadium in the western United States, located on the campus of Boise State University in Boise, Idaho. It is the field of the Boise State Broncos of the Mountain West Conference. Known as Bronco Stadium for its first 44 seasons, it was renamed in May 2014 when Albertsons, opened 47 years ago in 1970, it was a track & field stadium and hosted the NCAA track & field championships twice, in 1994 and 1999. Albertsons Stadium is widely known for its unusual blue playing surface, installed in 1986 and it was the first non-green playing surface in football history and remained the only one among NCAA Division I FBS schools for over 20 years. Since 1997, it has hosted the Famous Idaho Potato Bowl, Albertsons Stadium is located at the east end of the BSU campus, bordered by Broadway Avenue to the east, University Drive to the south, and the Boise River to the north. The elevation of its field is 2,695 feet above sea level. Albertsons Stadium is the first venue to hold its name, when it was Bronco Stadium, it was the fourth venue and second of the same name at Boise State, the three on-campus stadiums were built in 1940,1950, and 1970, respectively.
During its first years at its campus, BJC football was played at Public School Field. The site was the home of East Junior High School from 1953 to 2009, after the college moved to its present campus in 1940, College Field opened in September 1940 with lights and a seating capacity of 1,000. Also called Chaffee Field, it was used through 1949 for junior college football, in the 1950s it became the baseball field, until right field was displaced by the construction of the Student Union Building, which opened in 1967. The baseball field migrated slightly east, until it was eliminated in 1980 by the construction of the BSU Pavilion and it was in approximately the same location as the present stadium, but aligned northwest to southeast. The 45° offset was designed to keep the sun of mid-October out of the players eyes. From the 1920s through 1968, the University of Idaho Vandals usually played one game per season in Boise. After Boise State joined the Big Sky in 1970, Idaho discontinued its practice of scheduling games in Boise.
The Boise College football program upgraded from college to four-year status in 1968. The school became Boise State College in 1969 and the Broncos were accepted into the NCAA in October, a month the school was voted into the Big Sky Conference, effective fall 1970. Following the 1969 football season, the first Bronco Stadium was razed in November, Boise State began NCAA competition in 1970 in the College Division in a brand new venue. The first game at the new Bronco Stadium was on September 11, the $2.2 million concrete stadium opened with a seating capacity of 14,500 and a green AstroTurf playing field, configured in the traditional north-south direction, and an all-weather running track
Colorado State Rams football
Rams football teams have had relative success over the years, including winning or sharing the Mountain West title in 1999,2000 and 2002. The Rams completed a 49-season tenure at Sonny Lubick Field at Hughes Stadium, located four miles west of the campus in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. The university is building a new on-campus venue tentatively known as Colorado State Stadium, the Rams have long-standing rivalries with Colorado and Air Force. Colorado State football dates back to 1893, when it was known as Colorado Agricultural University and its first football coach was W. J. Forbes, who led the team in 1899 to a 1-2-1 record. He was succeeded by George Toomey in 1900, who led the Rams to a record of 1-3, Harry W. Hughes helped build Colorado Field, the first sodded football field in Colorado history, replacing Durkee Field. Colorado Field was the home of the Colorado Aggies and Colorado State Rams from 1912 to 1967, Harry Hughes won eight conference championships in the Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference in 1915,1916,1919,1920,1925,1927,1933, and 1934.
He was a member of the NCAA National Rules Committee beginning in 1926 until his retirement, Hughes coached the Aggies from 1911 to 1941 in football and remained as the Athletic Director until his retirement in 1953. In the early 1930s Hughes was given the nickname Dean of American Football Coaches by sportswriters and he was famously known as one of the most fair and sportsmanlike football coaches in America. He coached football from 1911 to 1941 and after resigning as coach in 1946. Upon his retirement he was inducted into the Helms Football Hall of Fame on Harry Hughes Day, known as a tough but fair coach, Hughes was a strict disciplinarian who developed a play in 1914 known as the Million Dollar Play. This triple pass was an end around play based on the single wing formation, some of Hughes greatest players were Ralph Sag Robinson, Kenneth Hyde and Glenn Morris. Hughes broke the barrier in modern Colorado football in 1939 when he played John Mosley between 1939 and 1942. When Colorado State University built their new stadium in 1968.
Hughes final record at CSU was 126-92-18, Bob Davis was named as the head coach of football, replacing the legendary Hughes, on January 6,1947. Bob Davis utilized the T formation and veterans returning from World War II to turn around a 2-7 Aggies team in 1946 to an 8-2 team in 1948, placing second in the Skyline Conference. Colorado A & M was invited to and played in the January 1,1949 Raisin Bowl in Fresno, only losing 21-20 in the last minutes of the game, Davis 1949 team went on to a 9-1 record and placed second again. Bob Davis was a revolutionary coach utilizing classroom football along with practice, Davis played black athletes in a predominantly white school such as Eddie Hanna, George Jones and Alex Burl. Several of Bob Davis players went on to the National Football League including Dale Dodrill, Thurman Fum McGraw, Jim David, Don Burroughs, Jack Christiansen, Alex Burl, three of his players were All-Americans, Thurman Fum Mcgraw, Harvey Achziger and Gary Glick
New Mexico Lobos football
The New Mexico Lobos football team is the intercollegiate football team at the University of New Mexico. The Lobos compete as a member of the Mountain West Conference and they have a cumulative record of 449–513–31. Their official colors are cherry and silver, the team is currently coached by Bob Davie. The Lobos play their games at University Stadium. The first New Mexico Lobos football team took the field in 1892, the team didnt have a head coach from 1892-1893 and in 1899. The Lobos didnt field a team from 1895-1898,1900 and 1902. Ralph Hutchinson served as the Lobos head coach from 1911-1916, who compiled yearly records of 0–5, 3–3, 3–1–2 4–1, from 1920-1930, the Lobos were coached by Roy Johnson, who is credited with building the first athletics facilities on campus for the Lobos throughout the 1920s. Chuck Riley became the football coach for the New Mexico Lobos. Under head coach Gwinn Henry, the Lobos posted an 8–1 record in 1934, but they fell off in the next two seasons, posting records of 6–4 in 1935 and 2–7 in 1936.
Under head coach Ted Shipkey, who was hired to succeed Henry, the Lobos posted yearly records of 4–4–1, 8–3, 8–2, 5–4, Shipkey resigned after five seasons as head coach. The 1938 season was capped with a 26-0 loss in the 1939 Sun Bowl to Utah, New Mexico was held to 59 yards passing, and was intercepted four times. Furthermore, they were unable to cross Utahs 40-yard line during the entire game, Utah, on the other hand, racked up 366 yards rushing, and outgained the Lobos 384–212. From 1942-1946, the Lobos were led by head coach Willis Barnes, Barnes 1945 team won the Sun Bowl and his 1946 team tied in the Harbor Bowl. His final record at UNM is 16–18–5, as the head football coach at UNM, Berl Huffman struggled to find success on the football field. His three-year tenure produced a record of 8–22–1 that included no winning seasons, the Lobos best season under his watch was a 4–5 mark in 1947. Huffman was fired after three seasons, dudley DeGroot, previously head football coach at West Virginia, was hired to take over the Lobos football program after Huffmans firing.
Under DeGroots watch, the Lobos compiled a record of 13–17 in three seasons, which saw the Lobos fortunes improve on the field, DeGroot saw how limited his talents were and decided to concentrate and gamble on an all-out defense. Every facet of defense DeGroot had coached over 30 years came into being at practices, a dedicated and aggressive defense devised by DeGroot and his relentless assistants brought UNM unofficial Defensive Team of the Year honors by all of the major wire services
Montana Grizzlies football
The Montana Grizzlies football program represents the University of Montana in the Division I Football Championship Subdivision of college football. The Grizzlies have competed in the Big Sky Conference, where it is a founding member and they play their home games on campus in Missoula at Washington-Grizzly Stadium, where they had an average attendance of 24,380 in 2013. The Grizzlies had a season from 1986–2011. In Washington-Grizzly Stadium they have a percentage of.890 including playoffs. They hold the records for most playoff appearances in a row, Big Sky Conference titles in a row and their success made them the most successful program in all college football in the 2000s and third most successful team in FCS in the 1990s. The University of Montanas first football season was in 1897 where they won a game against future rival Montana State. The team played only schools from Montana until it helped found the Northwest Intercollegiate Athletic Association in 1902, in addition to Montana, this original Northwest Conference included Washington, Washington State, Oregon State and Whitman College.
Despite the associations stated goal of increasing intercollegiate athletics, Montana continued to only the nearest teams. More unfortunate for the team, it would not win a game against a conference opponent until a 10-0 win over Washington State in 1914, Montana joined the conference in 1924 and remained through the 1949 season. Montana won only nine games, and never played a home game against a team from the state of California. No team was organized in 1918, due to World War I, Record, vs. CatsDoug Fessenden was the first Montana coach to last more than five years and was the first to end his career with a winning record that coached more than two years. The program was on hiatus for the 1943 and 1944 seasons, of the six teams in the northern division of the PCC, only Washington continued through the war. In 1948, the Montana board of education announced that it was de-emphasizing athletics at the state university, the conference was only preferable to having no conference affiliation. In 1951, Montana joined the Mountain States Conference, popularly known as the Skyline Conference and it would compete here until the conference dissolved in 1962, never having a winning season and not winning more than three games until 1960.
In 1963, Montana joined Gonzaga, Idaho State, Weber State, following a 1–9 season in 1966, University of Montana president Robert T. Pantzer announced in December the hiring of Jack Swarthout, a former quarterback/halfback/end from Montana. Swarthout brought on Jack Elway as an assistant and they improved the team immediately to 7–3 in their first season, within two years, Swarthout guided the team to back-to-back undefeated regular seasons in 1969 and 1970 and Montanas first Big Sky Conference titles. Continued success was expected, but a season in 1971 was followed by a work-study scandal that eventually led to Swarthouts resignation. Though Swarthout was found innocent, the charges hurt recruiting and the government decided to withdraw financial support for athletic programs