Munster Senior Hurling Championship
It is one of the most prestigious hurling tournaments in Ireland and the most prestigious inter-county hurling competition in the province of Munster. The championship has been awarded every year since 1889, the championship has always been played on a straight knockout basis whereby once a team loses they are eliminated from the championship. The Munster Championship is an part of the wider GAA Hurling All-Ireland Senior Championship. The winners of the Munster final, like their counterparts in the Leinster Championship, are rewarded by advancing directly to the stage of the All-Ireland series of games. The losers of the Munster final enter the All-Ireland series at the quarter-final stage, five teams currently participate in the Munster Championship. Two of the most successful teams in hurling, namely Cork and Tipperary, between them, these teams have won the provincial title on 92 occasions during its history while they have claimed 56 All-Ireland titles. The title has been won at least once by all six of the Munster counties, the all-time record-holders Cork, who have won the competition 51 times.
Hurling is the prominent of the two Gaelic games in Munster. As such the Munster Championship is regarded as the most skillful, the Munster final, particularly when played in Semple Stadium in Thurles, is considered one of the biggest and best sporting occasions in Ireland. The Munster Championship is a tournament with pairings drawn at random - there are no seeds. Each match is played as a single leg, if a match is drawn there is a replay. Drawn replays are now settled with extra time, however, if both sides are level at the end of extra time a second replay takes place. If the lone quarter-final is a draw, extra time is played immediately as replays are only permitted for provincial semi-finals and finals, the format has remained virtually the same since the very first Munster Championship in 1888. For years Cork and Tipperary, recognised as the big two in the province, were drawn at opposite sides of the championship and this was viewed, however, as a mean of penalising the other teams. While it might be possible to one of these teams it was deemed near impossible to beat both in a single championship season.
This practice was abolished and now a draw is made in which three of the five teams automatically qualify for the semi-final stage of the competition. Two other teams play in a lone quarter-final with the joining the other three teams at the semi-final stage. Once a team is defeated they are eliminated from the championship, the Munster Championship has wider implications for the GAA All-Ireland Hurling Senior Championship
For more details of Offaly GAA see Offaly Senior Football Championship or Offaly Senior Hurling Championship. The Offaly County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association or Offaly GAA is one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland, separate county boards are responsible for the Offaly inter-county teams. As a result, the county won six Leinster titles in the 1980s, the county has since gone on to win three other All-Irelands. Perhaps Offalys most famous win came in the All-Ireland Final of 1994 in what has come to be remembered as the five minute final. Limerick looked set to win their first All-Ireland title since 1973 until Offaly staged one of the greatest comebacks of all time and they defeated Limerick by 3-16 to 2-13. The Vocational Schools team has made it to 12 All-Ireland Vocational Schools Championship finals but have never won one. The match was a repeat of the years final, not only that. Kerry were winning by two points with two minutes to go when Séamus Darby came on as a substitute and scored one of the most famous goals in Gaelic football of all time.
Kerry fumbled the counterattack which allowed Offaly to win by one point with a score of 1-15 to 0-17. Offaly won their first major titles in 2002 when they won the second division of the National Camogie League. Drumcullen reached the final of the All Ireland club junior championship in 2003, kinnity owon the Division 3 shield at Féile na nGael in 1997, Drumcullen won the Coiste Chontae an Chláir Shield in 1997. Notable players include soaring star award winners Karen Brady, Elaine Dermody, Audrey Kennedy, Michaela Morkan, Fiona Stephens, miriam O’Callaghan served as president of the Camogie Association). Under Camogie’s National Development Plan 2010-2015, “Our Game, Our Passion, ” five new camogie clubs are to be established in the county by 2015
For a list of honours won by Tipperary in hurling, football and handall competitions see Tipperary GAA honours. For a history of GAA in Tipperary in see History of Tipperary inter county teams, County Tipperary holds an honoured place in the history of the GAA as the organisation was founded in Hayes Hotel, Thurles, on 1 November 1884. Tipperary are currently sponsored by Intersport/Elverys, a sponsorship that covers both the hurling and football codes and includes all grades from minor to senior inter-county teams, Tipperary GAA has jurisdiction over the area that is associated with the traditional county of County Tipperary. There are 9 officers on the Board including the Cathaoirleach, Sean Nugent, the original colours of Tipperary GAA were a white jersey with a green diagonal sash. This jersey design is associated with Tipperarys most historic match in either code, the current jersey is blue with a gold central band. This crest was used until the late 1990s when the current crest, four Tipperary men have served as President of the GAA.
Maurice Davin is the man to have served two terms as President while Seán Ryan represented Dublin from 1928 to 1932, though a native of Kilfeacle. Mr. Ryan a solicitor based in the capital, was the Associations legal advisor over a period and played a central role in the acquisition and vesting of many club. Maurice Davin 1884–1887 Maurice Davin 1888–1889 Seán Ryan 1928–1932 Séamus Gardiner 1943–1946 Séamus ORíain 1967–1970 In the All-Ireland series and this rivalry has lasted since Kilkennys coming to power in the early 20th century. Tipp are the team to have beaten Kilkenny in the All Ireland senior hurling championship more times than they have lost. Another rival of Tipperary is Cork in the Munster Championship and these teams have met 80 times in the championship, more than any other rivalry in hurling. They have met them countless times in the National League, a Tipp and Cork Munster hurling final in Semple Stadium is often claimed by supporters of both counties to be the most traditional Munster final and the games between them are nearly always close.
The draw and replay games of 1987 and 1991 and the 1949–1954 rivalry encapsulates this rivalry and this is one of the few rivalries in the provincial championships that is contested by two teams of similar stature whose honours and titles complement each other on a fairly equal basis. Kilkenny and Wexford in hurling have major difference in titles and in football, the football teams of Galway and Mayo enjoy a similar rivalry and whose honours are divided in equal measure. Tipperarys team colors are blue and gold. Tipperary wear blue jerseys with a gold bar across the center along with white shorts. The Tippeary team crest features the Rock of Cashel prominently with two crossed hurleys and a Gaelic football below, in the year 1884 when Tipperary GAA was founded is in the center of the crest. The teams of the Tipperary County Board, together with Kilkenny GAA, the Boards teams have won 27 All-Ireland titles as of 2016 - the third most successful of all county boards
Referee (association football)
In association football, the referee is the person responsible for enforcing the Laws of the Game during the course of a match. At higher levels of play the referee may be assisted by an official who supervises the teams technical areas. Referees remuneration for their services varies between leagues, Referees are licensed and trained by the same national organisations that are members of FIFA. Each national organisation recommends its top officials to FIFA to have the honour of being included on the FIFA International Referees List. International games between national teams require FIFA officials, the local national organisation determines the manner of training and advancement of officials from the youngest youth games through professional matches. The referees powers and duties are described by Law 5 of the Laws of the Game, as per Law 9 of the game, if during the game the ball hits the referee there is no stoppage in play. However the officials would be expected to position themselves such that this would be unlikely to occur.
Modern day referees and their assistants wear a uniform consisting of a jersey, badge and socks, since then, most referees have worn either yellow or black, but the colours and styles adopted by individual associations vary greatly. For international contests under the supervision of FIFA, Adidas uniforms are worn because Adidas is the current sponsor, FIFA allows referees to wear five colours, red, yellow and blue. Along with the jersey, referees are required to wear shorts, black socks. The badge, which displays the referees license level and year of validity, is affixed to the left chest pocket. All referees carry a whistle, a watch, penalty cards, a wallet with pen and paper. Most are encouraged to have more than one of each on them in case they drop a whistle or a pen runs out, referees utilize two watches so that they can use one to calculate time lost for stoppages for the purposes of added time. In matches with goal-line technology, the referee will have on their person a device to receive the systems alerts, Referees use a whistle to help in match control.
The whistle is sometimes needed to stop, start or restart play but should not be used for all stoppages, fIFAs Laws of the Game document gives guidance as to when the whistle should and should not be used. Overuse of the whistle is discouraged since, as stated in the Laws, the whistle is an important tool for the referee along with verbal and eye communication. Before the introduction of the whistle, referees indicated their decisions by waving a white handkerchief, the whistles that were first adopted by referees were made by Joseph Hudson at Mills Munitions in Birmingham, England. The Acme Whistle Company first began to mass-produce pea whistles in the 1870s for the Metropolitan Police Force, Referees in football are first described by Richard Mulcaster in 1581
Leinster Senior Hurling Championship
It is one of the most prestigious hurling tournaments in Ireland and the most prestigious inter-county hurling competition in the province of Leinster. The championship has been awarded every year since 1888, originally played on a straight knockout basis, in the current format the four weaker teams play in an initial qualifier group. The top two teams in the group and the seeded teams complete the championship on a straight knockout basis whereby once a team loses they are eliminated. The Leinster Championship is an part of the wider GAA Hurling All-Ireland Senior Championship. The winners of the Leinster final, like their counterparts in the Munster Championship, are rewarded by advancing directly to the stage of the All-Ireland series of games. The losers of the Leinster final enter the All-Ireland series at the quarter-final stage, nine teams currently participate in the Leinster Championship, including Galway from Connacht and Kerry from Munster. The most successful team in hurling, namely Kilkenny, play their provincial hurling in the Leinster Championship and they have won the provincial title on 71 occasions during their history while claiming 36 All-Ireland titles, both of these are all-time records.
The title has been won at least once by six counties, the Leinster Championship begins with an initial qualifier group and becomes a straight knock-out competition. The draw is made in October of the previous year. The competition has become more competitive since the emergence of Dublin as a hurling power, each match is played as a single leg. If a match is drawn there is a replay, drawn replays are now settled with extra time, however, if both sides are still level at the end of extra time a second replay takes place and so on until a winner is found. If the quarter-finals end in draws, extra time is played immediately as replays are only permitted for provincial semi-finals and finals, the format had remained virtually the same since the very first Leinster Championship in 1888. The biggest change to the format took place in 2009. Antrim GAA, being the only Tier 1 team in the Ulster Championship, however, will still compete in the Ulster Championship which will be run as a separate tournament to the All-Ireland Hurling Championship.
In 2014 the five counties in the Leinster championship played in a qualifier group before the main championship. This was reduced to four in 2015, nine counties currently participate in the Leinster Championship — Carlow, Galway, Kilkenny, Offaly and Wexford. Qualifier Group Stage The four weaker counties in the play a round robin group stage. Every team plays the three teams once
The county board is responsible for the Wexford inter-county teams. Wexford is one of the few counties to have won the All-Ireland Senior Championship in both football and hurling, Wexford have won five Football Championships, with the most recent in 1918. Hurling has been played in Wexford from medieval times, evidence of this can be found in the hurling ballads of the 15th and 16th centuries. Others have said that King George III shouted come on the yellow bellies at a match near London. Wexford had one of the greatest football teams in the history of the GAA in the 1910s, winning six Leinster, the team was trained by 1900 star James the Bull Roche, who had fought for the World Heavyweight boxing Championship. Ned Wheeler, Aidan Doyle and the OKennedy brothers, the latter was the team captain. The feat of six Leinster titles in a row was only equalled in 1931 when Kildare won the sixth in a sequence began in 1926. Wexfords last major success was winning the Leinster title in 1945. From on, hurling took precedence in Wexford and as a consequence the Wexford footballers suffered, more recently, Wexford have had a strong team.
The team reached the Division 1 League final of 2005 under the management of Pat Roe but were beaten by a strong Armagh team that day. In April 2008, in Jason Ryans first year as manager of the team and this proved to be the first success of what would be a historic year for Wexford football, as they reached their first Leinster final in over 50 years. Along the way they stunned Meath by coming from ten points down to win their quarter-final in Carlow and this was Wexfords 5th consecutive appearance in the provincial semi-final, but their first victory. In the final they were beaten by a strong Dublin team. However, Wexford recovered from their humiliation and came through the door, beating Down by seven points in a shock result to reach the last eight. From here, they produced one of the shocks of the championship and they were beaten by 6 points by Tyrone, having been within two points of the eventual champions in the closing stages. Wexford again reached the Leinster final in the 2011 Leinster Championship, Wexford had an easier run to the final than in 2008, facing Offaly and Carlow.
In the final they faced Dublin again, but ran them much closer, Wexford entered Round 4 of the qualifiers where they faced Limerick, but they were beaten by a single point, on a score of 1–18 to 1–17. This is in evidence in several one-sided results over the years, the Antrim team were beaten by 12–17 to 2–3 in a 1954 All-Ireland semi-final
Christy Ring Cup
The Christy Ring Cup is the second tier senior inter-county championship in hurling after the All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship. Each year, the team in the Christy Ring Cup is promoted to the All-Ireland Championship. The Christy Ring Cup was introduced for the 2005 season and it replaced the All-Ireland Senior B Hurling Championship. The winners of the championship receive the Christy Ring Cup, named after former Cork hurler Christy Ring who many regard as the greatest hurler of all time, in the 2016 season and Antrim tied in the final. For history before 2004, see All-Ireland Senior B Hurling Championship In 2003 the Hurling Development Committee was charged with restructuring the entire hurling championship. The committee was composed of chairman Pat Dunny, Liam Griffin, P. J. OGrady, Ger Loughnane, Cyril Farrell, Jimmy OReilly, Willie Ring, Pat Daly and Nicky English. Over the course of three months they held discussions with managers and officials, while taking a submission from the Gaelic Players Association.
The basic tenet of the proposals was to structure the hurling championship into three tiers in accordance with 2004 National Hurling League status. The top tier was confined to 12 teams, while the ten teams would contest the second tier which was to be known as the Christy Ring Cup. There would be promotion-relegation play-offs between the three championship tiers, the HDC suggested that these games would be played as curtain raisers to All-Ireland quarter-finals and semi-finals. The proposal were accepted at the 2005 GAA Congress, the Christy Ring Cup and the Nicky Rackard Cup competitions were launched at Croke Park on 8 December 2004. The ten participating teams were divided into two groups of five and played in a round-robin format, each team was guaranteed at least four games each. The eventual group winners and runners-up qualified for the knock-out semi-finals of the competition, the bottom two teams of both groups were involved in a four-way relegation play-off with the eventual loser being relegated to the Nicky Rackard Cup.
In 2006 the relegation play-off was limited to just the teams in both groups, while in 2007 there was no relegation. The competition was expanded to twelve teams. The participating teams were divided into four groups of three and played in a format, thus limiting each team to just two games each. The eventual group winners and runners-up qualified for the knock-out quarter-finals of the competition, the bottom team in each group went into the relegation play-offs. The eventual losers were relegated to the Nicky Rackard Cup, however, in 2009 a double elimination format was introduced, thus guaranteeing each team at least two games before being eliminated from the competition
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland, in 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.4 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.6 million live in the Republic of Ireland, the islands geography comprises relatively low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland. The island has lush vegetation, a product of its mild, thick woodlands covered the island until the Middle Ages. As of 2013, the amount of land that is wooded in Ireland is about 11% of the total, there are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is moderate and classified as oceanic.
As a result, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, summers are cooler than those in Continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant, the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century CE, the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the Norman invasion in the 12th century, England claimed sovereignty over Ireland, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, with the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s and this subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures, especially in the fields of literature.
Alongside mainstream Western culture, an indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music. The culture of the island shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, and sports such as association football, horse racing. The name Ireland derives from Old Irish Eriu and this in turn derives from Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, which is the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning fat, during the last glacial period, and up until about 9000 years ago, most of Ireland was covered with ice, most of the time