1856 United States presidential election in California
In the 1856 United States presidential election, California voted for the Democratic nominee, former Secretary of State James Buchanan, over the American Party nominee, former Whig President Millard Fillmore, the Republican nominee, former U. S. Senator and Military Governor of California John C. Frémont. None of the three candidates took to the stump; the Republican Party opposed the extension of slavery into the territories — in fact, its slogan was "Free speech, free press, free soil, free men, Frémont and victory!" The Republicans thus crusaded against the Slave Power. Democrats counter-crusaded by warning; the Republican platform opposed the repeal of the Missouri Compromise through the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which enacted the policy of popular sovereignty, allowing settlers to decide whether a new state would enter the Union as free or slave. The Republicans accused the Pierce administration of allowing a fraudulent territorial government to be imposed upon the citizens of the Kansas Territory, thus engendering the violence that had raged in Bleeding Kansas.
They advocated the immediate admittance of Kansas as a free state. Along with opposing the spread of slavery into the continental territories of the United States, the party opposed the Ostend Manifesto, which advocated the annexation of Cuba from Spain. In sum, the campaign's true focus was against the system of slavery, which they felt was destroying the Republican values that the Union had been founded upon; the Democratic platform supported popular sovereignty. The party supported the pro-slavery territorial legislature elected in Kansas, opposed the free-state elements within Kansas, castigated the Topeka Constitution as an illegal document written during an illegal convention; the Democrats supported the plan to annex Cuba, advocated in the Ostend Manifesto, which Buchanan helped devise while serving as minister to Britain. The most influential aspect of the Democratic campaign was a warning that a Republican victory would lead to the secession of numerous southern states; this would prove the last occasion the Democratic Party carried Alameda County until Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1932, the last in which the Democrats carried Santa Cruz County and Placer County until Woodrow Wilson in 1916, the last when Napa and Marin Counties voted Democratic until Wilson in 1912.
California's electoral votes would never be again carried by the Democratic Party until 1880
Hubert Horatio Humphrey Jr. was an American politician who served as the 38th vice president of the United States from 1965 to 1969. He twice served in the United States Senate, representing Minnesota from 1949 to 1964 and 1971 to 1978, he was the Democratic Party's nominee in the 1968 presidential election, losing to Republican nominee Richard Nixon. Born in Wallace, South Dakota, Humphrey attended the University of Minnesota. At one point he helped run his father's pharmacy, he earned a master's degree from Louisiana State University and worked for the Works Progress Administration, the Minnesota war service program, the War Manpower Commission. In 1943, he became a professor of political science at Macalester College and ran a failed campaign for mayor of Minneapolis, he helped found the Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party in 1944. In 1945, he won election as mayor of Minneapolis, serving until 1948 and co-founding the liberal anti-communist group Americans for Democratic Action in 1947.
In 1948, he was elected to the U. S. Senate and advocated for the inclusion of a proposal to end racial segregation in the 1948 Democratic National Convention's party platform. Humphrey served three terms in the Senate from 1949 to 1964, he was the Senate Majority Whip from 1961 to 1964. During his tenure, he was the lead author of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, introduced the first initiative to create the Peace Corps, sponsored the clause of the McCarran Act that threatened concentration camps for "subversives", proposed making Communist Party membership a felony, chaired the Select Committee on Disarmament, he unsuccessfully sought his party's presidential nomination in 1952 and 1960. After Lyndon B. Johnson acceded to the presidency, he chose Humphrey as his running mate, the Democratic ticket was elected in the landslide 1964 election. In March 1968 Johnson made his surprise announcement that he would not seek reelection, Humphrey launched his campaign for the presidency. Loyal to the Johnson administration's policies on the Vietnam War, he saw opposition from many within his own party and avoided the primaries to focus on winning the delegates of non-primary states at the Democratic Convention.
His delegate strategy succeeded in clinching the nomination, he chose Senator Edmund Muskie as his running mate. In the general election, he nearly matched Nixon's tally in the popular vote but lost the electoral vote by a wide margin. After the defeat, he returned to the Senate until his death in 1978. Humphrey was born in a room over his father's drugstore in South Dakota, he was the son of Ragnild Kristine Sannes, a Norwegian immigrant, Hubert Horatio Humphrey Sr.. Humphrey spent most of his youth in South Dakota, on the Dakota prairie, his father was a licensed pharmacist who served as a town council member. In the late 1920s, a severe economic downturn hit Doland. After his son graduated from Doland's high school, Hubert Sr. left Doland and opened a new drugstore in the larger town of Huron, South Dakota, where he hoped to improve his fortunes. Because of the family's financial struggles, Humphrey had to leave the University of Minnesota after just one year, he earned a pharmacist's license from the Capitol College of Pharmacy in Denver and helped his father run his store from 1931 to 1937.
Both father and son were innovative in finding ways to attract customers: "to supplement their business, the Humphreys had become manufacturers... of patent medicines for both hogs and humans. A sign featuring a wooden pig was hung over the drugstore to tell the public about this unusual service. Farmers got the message, it was Humphrey's that became known as the farmer's drugstore." One biographer noted, "while Hubert Jr. minded the store and stirred the concoctions in the basement, Hubert Sr. went on the road selling'Humphrey's BTV', a mineral supplement and dewormer for hogs, and'Humphrey's Chest Oil' and'Humphrey's Sniffles' for two-legged sufferers." Humphrey wrote, "we made'Humphrey's Sniffles', a substitute for Vick's Nose Drops. I felt. Vick's used mineral oil, not absorbent, we used a vegetable-oil base, which was. I added benzocaine, a local anesthetic, so that if the sniffles didn't get better, you felt it less." The various "Humphrey cures... worked well enough and constituted an important part of the family income... the farmers that bought the medicines were good customers."
Over time Humphrey's Drug Store became the family again prospered. While living in Huron, Humphrey attended Huron's largest Methodist church and became the scoutmaster of the church's Boy Scout group, Troop 6, he "started basketball games in the church basement... although his scouts had no money for camp in 1931, Hubert found a way in the worst of that summer's dust-storm grit and depression to lead an overnight."Humphrey did not enjoy working as a pharmacist, his dream remained to earn a doctorate in political science and become a college professor. His unhappiness was manifested in "stomach pains and fainting spells", though doctors could find nothing wrong with him. In August 1937, he told his father. Hubert Sr. tried to convince his son not to leave by offering him a full partnership in the store, but Hubert Jr. refused and told his father "how d
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
United States presidential election
The election of president and vice president of the United States is an indirect election in which citizens of the United States who are registered to vote in one of the 50 U. S. states or in Washington, D. C. cast ballots not directly for those offices, but instead for members of the U. S. Electoral College, known as electors; these electors in turn cast direct votes, known as electoral votes, for president, for vice president. The candidate who receives an absolute majority of electoral votes is elected to that office. If no candidate receives an absolute majority of the votes for President, the House of Representatives chooses the winner; the Electoral College and its procedure are established in the U. S. Constitution by Article II, Section 1, Clauses 2 and 4. Under Clause 2, each of the states casts as many electoral votes as the total number of its Senators and Representatives in Congress, per the Twenty-third Amendment ratified in 1961, Washington, D. C. casts the same number of electoral votes as the least-represented state, three.
Under Clause 2, the manner for choosing electors is determined by each state legislature, not directly by the federal government. Many state legislatures selected their electors directly, but over time all of them switched to using the popular vote to help determine electors, which persists today. Once chosen, electors cast their electoral votes for the candidate who won the plurality in their state, but at least 21 states do not have provisions that address this behavior. In modern times and unpledged electors have not affected the ultimate outcome of an election, so the results can be determined based on the state-by-state popular vote. Presidential elections occur quadrennially with registered voters casting their ballots on Election Day, which since 1845 has been the first Tuesday after November 1; this date coincides with the general elections of various other federal and local races. The Electoral College electors formally cast their electoral votes on the first Monday after December 12 at their respective state capitals.
Congress certifies the results in early January, the presidential term begins on Inauguration Day, which since the passage of the Twentieth Amendment has been set at January 20. The nomination process, consisting of the primary elections and caucuses and the nominating conventions, was not specified in the Constitution, but was developed over time by the states and political parties; these primary elections are held between January and June before the general election in November, while the nominating conventions are held in the summer. Though not codified by law, political parties follow an indirect election process, where voters in the 50 U. S. states, Washington, D. C. and U. S. territories, cast ballots for a slate of delegates to a political party's nominating convention, who in turn elect their party's presidential nominee. Each party may choose a vice presidential running mate to join the ticket, either determined by choice of the nominee or by a second round of voting; because of changes to national campaign finance laws since the 1970s regarding the disclosure of contributions for federal campaigns, presidential candidates from the major political parties declare their intentions to run as early as the spring of the previous calendar year before the election.
Article Two of the United States Constitution established the method of presidential elections, including the Electoral College. This was a result of a compromise between those constitutional framers who wanted the Congress to choose the president, those who preferred a national popular vote; each state is allocated a number of electors, equal to the size of its delegation in both houses of Congress combined. With the ratification of the 23rd Amendment to the Constitution in 1961, the District of Columbia is granted a number of electors, equal to the number of those held by the least populous state. However, U. S. territories are not represented in the Electoral College. Constitutionally, the manner for choosing electors is determined within each state by its legislature. During the first presidential election in 1789, only six of the 13 original states chose electors by any form of popular vote. Throughout the years, the states began conducting popular elections to choose their slate of electors.
In 1800, only five of the 16 states chose electors by a popular vote. This gradual movement toward greater democratization coincided with a gradual decrease in property restrictions for the franchise. By 1840, only one of the 26 states still selected electors by the state legislature. Under the original system established by Article Two, electors could cast two votes to two different candidates for president; the candidate with the highest number of votes became the president, the sec
1912 United States presidential election in California
The 1912 United States presidential election in California refers to how California participated in the 1912 United States presidential election. California narrowly voted for the Progressive nominee, former Republican president Theodore Roosevelt, over the Democratic nominee, New Jersey Governor Woodrow Wilson, though two electors cast their votes for Wilson; the incumbent, Republican William Howard Taft, did not appear on the ballot and was a write-in candidate. This was the closest presidential election in California history, with Roosevelt winning by just 174 votes out of 677,944 cast, a margin of 0.02567 percent. It remains the fourth-closest presidential race in any state in history, with the only closer one since being the controversial Florida election of 2000, the only others being two in Maryland in 1832 and 1904, the latter of which involved Roosevelt. Although Wilson narrowly failed to win the state, he did become the first Democrat to carry Napa and Marin Counties since James Buchanan in 1856, the first to carry Sacramento County and Sierra County since Stephen A. Douglas in 1860, the first to win San Diego County since 1868, the first to carry Ventura County, created in 1872, the first to carry Sutter County since 1876.
Since this election, Solano County has voted Democratic in all but six Republican landslide elections of 1920, 1924, 1928, 1972, 1980 and 1984. With 41.83% of the popular vote, California would prove to be Roosevelt's second strongest state in terms of popular vote percentage in the 1912 election after South Dakota
1968 United States presidential election in California
The 1968 United States presidential election in California refers to how California participated in the 1968 United States presidential election. California narrowly voted for the Republican nominee, former Vice President Richard Nixon of New York, over the Democratic nominee, Vice President Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota; the American Independent Party candidate, former Alabama governor George Wallace, performed rather well in California despite being miles away from his base in the Deep South. Although Nixon was born and raised California, he had moved to New York following his failed 1962 gubernatorial bid, thus identified New York as his home state in this election. After he won the election, Nixon moved his residency back to California. Nixon is the last Republican candidate to carry Santa Cruz County by a majority of the popular vote, although Republicans in 1972 and 1980 carried the county by plurality, whilst Humphrey is the last Democrat to carry Kings County; as of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election where California did not have the most number of electoral votes
1852 United States presidential election in California
In the 1852 United States presidential election, its first election after becoming a state in 1850, California voted for the Democratic nominee, New Hampshire Senator Franklin Pierce, over the Whig nominee, United States Army general Winfield Scott