France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Ninian Park was a football stadium in the Leckwith area of Cardiff, Wales. The site is now a development with the same name. Between 1910 and 2009 the Ninian Park stadium was the ground of Cardiff City F. C. Ninian Park stadium was demolished and the site was redeveloped with residential housing. Ninian Park is named after Lieutenant-Colonel Lord Ninian Crichton-Stuart, son of John Patrick Crichton-Stuart, the ground featured large floodlights in each corner and a plasma-screen television showed highlights during the game. The stadium hosted a number of Welsh international fixtures, including the Wales v Scotland World Cup qualifier on 10 September 1985, at which Scotland manager Jock Stein collapsed and died. The last ever Cardiff City football match played at Ninian Park was a 3-0 defeat to Ipswich Town, the club relocated to their new all-seater stadium for the 2009-10 season, and the 99-year-old Ninian Park was demolished in 2009 to make way for a housing development. This left Corneli Primary Schools manager, lifelong Cardiff fan Alex Clarke, the stadium featured four stands, the Spar Family Stand, the John Smiths Grange End, the Popular Bank and the Grandstand.
The Grandstand was a two-tier, all-seater stand, with old-fashioned wooden seats in the upper tier and this stand had several supporting poles holding up the roof. This stand housed the area in which the player dressing rooms and tunnel were incorporated, as well as housing the dugouts, the V. I. P. area and the press/media benches. The Popular Bank had a mixture of covered seating to the rear of the stand and it had several supporting poles, and one section housed the away fans. The away section had terracing to the back and seating at the front, in between the home and away fans was a gap separating opposing fans from home fans. There was netting in the middle just in case anybody wanted to get to the side or throw anything. This gap in between the fans came in in 2005 where before there was just a metal fence separating home. It was officially opened on 1 September 1928 before a match against Burnley by the Lord Mayor of Cardiff. The area behind the goal where the stand was built was previously an earth embankment, in the 1946/1947 season a spectator fell through the roof of the Grange End during a game with Bristol City.
The Spar Family Stand was a covered, all-seated stand with several supporting poles along the width of the stand. The club ticket office was located within this stand where an exterior entrance was provided
Jack Taylor (referee)
John Keith Jack Taylor, OBE was an English football referee, famous for officiating in the 1974 FIFA World Cup Final during which he awarded two penalties in the first 30 minutes. The first of these penalty kicks, awarded after just a minute of play and he was again selected for the 1974 tournament for which he became most noted. Taylor was inducted into the FIFA Hall of Fame on 1 February 1999 in Barcelona, on 25 September 2013, he became the first referee inducted into the English Football Hall of Fame. Taylor was awarded the final between hosts West Germany and the Netherlands, the kick off had to be delayed when Taylor spotted the ground staff had forgotten to put the corner flags out on the pitch. They had been removed to accommodate the closing ceremony took place before the final. After just a minute of play he created World Cup history when he awarded a penalty kick, in the 26th minute, he awarded a second penalty, this time to West Germany, penalising Dutch midfielder Wim Jansen for tripping German left midfielder Bernd Hölzenbein.
Taylor has said of the incidents, The first penalty wasnt difficult to call, all I remember is thinking it was a 100% correct decision. As the ball went on the spot the whole stadium went quiet, the German skipper, came to me and said Taylor, youre an Englishman. The kick went in and there was complete euphoria, what really does annoy me is the suggestion that I gave to even things up. It was a trip or a trip and the laws of the game are thats a penalty. Taylor grew up above the shop next to Wolverhampton Wanderers Molineux home. After closing his butchers shop he spent two seasons refereeing in Brazil before returning to England to become Commercial Director at Wolverhampton Wanderers in 1979 and he was sacked in August 1982 when a new consortium took charge of the club. Taylor became a coach in South Africa and Saudi Arabia. He died at his Shropshire home on 27 July 2012, aged 82, nick Owen in his column in the Luton Town programme refers to one of Taylors favourite anecdotes. Taylor was hit by a flying penny thrown from the crowd as he left the pitch after one match at Kenilworth Road and it cut his face and he had to have six stitches.
Fan and director of Luton Town Eric Morecambe went to see him to ask if he was OK, when Taylor confirmed he wasnt, Morecambe replied Good, now can I have my penny back. World Cup Final changed my life Soccer Refereeing, A Personal View, Jack Taylor ISBN 0-571-11299-4, Jack Taylor, World Soccer Referee, David Jones & Jack Taylor ISBN 0-7207-0890-7
Denis Law CBE is a Scottish former footballer who played as a forward. His career as a player began at Second Division Huddersfield Town in 1956. After four years at Huddersfield, he was signed by Manchester City for a fee of £55,000. Law spent one year there before Torino bought him for £110,000, although he played well in Italy, he found it difficult to settle there and signed for Manchester United in 1962, setting another British record transfer fee of £115,000. Law spent 11 years at Manchester United, where he scored 237 goals in 404 appearances and his goals tally places him third in the clubs history, behind Wayne Rooney and Bobby Charlton. He was nicknamed The King and The Lawman by supporters, and he is the only Scottish player to have won the Ballon dOr award, doing so in 1964, and helped his club win the First Division in 1965 and 1967. He missed their European Cup triumph in 1968 through injury, Law left Manchester United in 1973 to return to Manchester City for a season, and represented Scotland at the 1974 FIFA World Cup.
He retired at the start of the 1974–75 season, Law played for Scotland a total of 55 times and jointly holds the Scottish international record goal tally with 30 goals. Law holds a United record for scoring 46 competitive goals in a single season, Law was born in Aberdeen, Scotland, to George Law, a fisherman, and his wife, Robina, he was the youngest of seven children, four boys and three girls. The Law family were not well off and lived in a flat at Printfield Terrace in Aberdeen. He supported Aberdeen and watched them when he had money to do so. His obsession with football led to him turning down a place at Aberdeen Grammar School, instead, he attended Powis Academy in Aberdeen. Despite having a serious squint, he showed great promise once he was moved from full back to inside-left, in the 1954–55 season, he was spotted by Archie Beattie, a scout for Huddersfield Town, who invited 14 year-old Law to go for a trial. When he got there, the said, The boys a freak. Never did I see a less likely football prospect – weak, however, to Laws surprise, they signed him on 3 April 1955.
While he was at Huddersfield, he had an operation to correct his squint, which greatly enhanced his self-confidence. Huddersfields relegation to what was the Second Division made it easier for Law to get a game, and he made his debut on 24 December 1956, aged only sixteen, in a 2–1 win over Notts County. Manchester Uniteds manager Matt Busby shortly offered Huddersfield £10,000 for Law, an amount of money for a teenage footballer at that time
Wales national football team
The Wales national football team represents Wales in international football. It is controlled by the Football Association of Wales, the body for football in Wales. During their history, Wales have qualified for two international tournaments. They reached the quarter-finals of the 1958 FIFA World Cup and they reached the semi-finals of UEFA Euro 2016 after beating Belgium in the quarter-final match on 1 July 2016. This was, the first time that Wales had reached the semi-final of a major tournament, Wales progressed through UEFA Euro 1976 qualifying to the quarter-final, which was played on a home and away leg basis but they did not feature in the finals tournament. At all levels including the teams the Welsh national team draws players primarily from clubs in the English football league system. The main professional Welsh clubs play in the English leagues, with some full-time and part-time professional clubs playing in the Welsh football league system. Wales played its first competitive match on 25 March 1876 against Scotland in Glasgow, Scotland took the spoils winning 2–0.
Wales first match against England came in 1879 – a 2–1 defeat at the Kennington Oval, London and in 1882 Wales faced Ireland for the first time, the associations of the four Home Nations met in Manchester on 6 December 1882 to set down a set of worldwide rules. This meeting saw the establishment of the International Football Association Board to approve changes to the rules, the 1883–84 season saw the formation of the British Home Championship, a tournament which was played annually between England, Scotland and Wales, until 1983–84. Wales were champions on 12 occasions, winning seven times whilst sharing the title five times. As a result, Wales did not enter the first three World Cups, in 1932 Wales played host to the Republic of Ireland, the first time they played against a side from outside the four home nations. A year later, Wales played a match outside the United Kingdom for the first time when they travelled to Paris to take on France in a match which was drawn 1–1. The top two teams were to qualify for the finals in Brazil, but Wales finished bottom of the group.
The 1950s were an age for Welsh football with stars such as Ivor Allchurch, Cliff Jones, Alf Sherwood, Jack Kelsey, Trevor Ford, Ronnie Burgess, Terry Medwin. Wales made its only World Cup finals tournament appearance in the 1958 FIFA World Cup in Sweden, their path to qualification was unusual. In the Asian/African qualifying zone Egypt and Sudan had refused to play against Israel following the Suez crisis, as a result, FIFA proclaimed Israel winners of their respective group. However, FIFA did not want a team to qualify for the World Cup finals without actually playing a match and so lots were drawn of all the second placed teams in UEFA
James Connolly Jimmy Johnstone, nicknamed Jinky, was a Scottish football player. Johnstone was best known for his time with Celtic, and was voted their best ever player by the fans in 2002. He scored 129 goals for Celtic in 515 appearances, Johnstone was the youngest of five children born to Matthew and Sarah Johnstone. He grew up in the home on Old Edinburgh Road in Viewpark, North Lanarkshire. In 2003, Johnstone stated that he was a Catholic and his footballing ability first came to note at primary school, playing for the St Columbas team that won three trophies between 1953–54. Cassidy used his connections to get Johnstone a role as a boy at Celtic. At home, he used to dribble around milk bottles every day in the hallway for hours to perfect his dribbling skills. On reading that Stanley Matthews used to walk to Blackpools ground wearing heavy boots to strengthen his leg muscles, Johnstone began wearing pit boots and would sprint and he said that this probably added about three yards on to my pace.
Despite the thrill of being involved with Celtic as a ball boy, as a result, he left Celtic to play for his local Boys Guild team. As well as playing locally, the team travelled down to play Manchester Uniteds boys team, Johnstones ability caught the eye of the English giants, but upon his return to Scotland, Celtic scout John Higgins persuaded him to sign for Celtic. In order to experience, he was farmed out for a spell to junior club Blantyre Celtic. Johnstone made his first team debut for Celtic on 27 March 1963 in a 6–0 defeat away against Kilmarnock in the league and his next appearance came a month away against Hearts. He was again on the side, Celtic losing 4–3. Despite the defeats, Johnstones performances won him a place in the starting XI for the Scottish Cup Final on 4 May 1963 against Rangers, the young winger turned in a fine performance, helping Celtic to a credible 1–1 draw with his confident dribbling. He scored a goal but it was disallowed due to a foul moments earlier by team-mate John Hughes, Johnstone was dropped for the replay and Celtic were completely outclassed by Rangers who ran out comfortable 3–0 winners.
The following season saw Johnstone establish himself as a regular in the side and he played in 25 league games, scoring six goals. Celtic, lost 4–0 in the match in Hungary and were knocked out on aggregate. Celtic were struggling throughout the 1960s until Jock Stein arrived at the club in 1965, by this time Johnstone was struggling to hold down a regular spot in the first team
Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon. The country lies within the temperate zone and has a changeable. Welsh national identity emerged among the Celtic Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Llywelyn ap Gruffudds death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of Englands conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr briefly restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century. The whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh Liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism, Welsh national feeling grew over the century, Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925 and the Welsh Language Society in 1962.
Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, two-thirds of the population live in south Wales, mainly in and around Cardiff and Newport, and in the nearby valleys. Now that the countrys traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales economy depends on the sector and service industries. Wales 2010 gross value added was £45.5 billion, over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, and the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west. From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the land of song, Rugby union is seen as a symbol of Welsh identity and an expression of national consciousness. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Celtic Britons in particular, the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, and Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales and these words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning fellow-countrymen.
The use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, in particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh. The word came into use as a self-description probably before the 7th century and it is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh, until c.1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales, Welsh
Cardiff is the capital and largest city in Wales and the eleventh-largest city in the United Kingdom. The city is the chief commercial centre, the base for most national cultural and sporting institutions, the Welsh national media. The unitary authority areas mid-2011 population was estimated to be 346,100, the Cardiff metropolitan area makes up over a third of the total population of Wales, with a mid-2011 population estimate of about 1,100,000 people. Cardiff is a significant tourist centre and the most popular destination in Wales with 18.3 million visitors in 2010. In 2011, Cardiff was ranked sixth in the world in National Geographics alternative tourist destinations, the city of Cardiff is the county town of the historic county of Glamorgan. Cardiff is part of the Eurocities network of the largest European cities, the Cardiff Urban Area covers a slightly larger area outside the county boundary, and includes the towns of Dinas Powys and Penarth. A small town until the early 19th century, its prominence as a port for the transport of coal following the arrival of industry in the region contributed to its rise as a major city.
Cardiff was made a city in 1905, and proclaimed the capital of Wales in 1955, since the 1980s, Cardiff has seen significant development. A new waterfront area at Cardiff Bay contains the Senedd building, home to the Welsh Assembly, sporting venues in the city include the Millennium Stadium, SWALEC Stadium, Cardiff City Stadium, Cardiff International Sports Stadium and Cardiff Arms Park. The city was awarded the title of European City of Sport twice, due to its role in hosting major sporting events, first in 2009. The Millennium Stadium hosted 11 football matches as part of the 2012 Summer Olympics, including the opening event. Caerdydd derives from the earlier Welsh form Caerdyf, the change from -dyf to -dydd shows the colloquial alteration of Welsh f and dd, and was perhaps driven by folk etymology. This sound change had probably first occurred in the Middle Ages, Caerdyf has its origins in post-Roman Brythonic words meaning the fort of the Taff. The fort probably refers to that established by the Romans, the anglicised form Cardiff is derived from Caerdyf, with the Welsh f borrowed as ff /f/, as happens in Taff and Llandaff.
As English does not have the vowel the final vowel has been borrowed as /ɪ/, although some sources repeat this theory, it has been rejected on linguistic grounds by modern scholars such as Professor Gwynedd Pierce. A group of five Bronze Age tumuli is at the summit of The Garth, four Iron Age hill fort and enclosure sites have been identified within Cardiffs present-day county boundaries, including Caerau Hillfort, an enclosed area of 5.1 hectares. The fort was one of a series of military outposts associated with Isca Augusta that acted as border defences, the fort may have been abandoned in the early 2nd century as the area had been subdued. However, by this time a settlement, or vicus, was established
Roger Hunt, MBE is an English former footballer. He was a member of the England team which won the 1966 World Cup. Born in Glazebury, Hunt played for Stockton Heath, Stockton for a time, Devizes Town. This goal was the first of many - he would go on to score 286 goals for the club,245 of them in the league, after Bill Shankly replaced Taylor and his fellow Boot Room coaching staff embarked upon a clear out of 24 players. Hunt however was retained and was a factor in the Reds success in the 1960s. Liverpool gained promotion to the First Division in 1962, after the club had finished 3rd or 4th, Hunt appeared in 41 of the 42 league games and scored 41 goals in season 1961–1962, averaging one goal per game. It was a story in 1963–64 and 1965–66 as Liverpool were English League champions. Hunt again the top scorer scoring 31 goals from 41 games and 30 goals from 37 appearances respectively, in between the two titles, in 1965 he was instrumental in the side winning the FA Cup for the first time. He would score Liverpools only goal in the final of the Cup Winners Cup the following year as they went down 2-1 after extra time to Borussia Dortmund.
On 22 August 1964, Hunt scored against Arsenal after 11 minutes in a 3–2 home win and he became Liverpools record goalscorer on 7 November 1967 in an Inter-Cities Fairs Cup tie against TSV Munich of West Germany, in which he scored his 242nd goal for the club. His final tally for the club was 286 goals by the time he left the club in 1969 to join Bolton Wanderers, a record which was not broken until Ian Rush 23 years later. Hunt was capped 34 times for his country, with his debut given to him by Walter Winterbottom whilst he was still a Second Division player on 4 April 1962 and he scored on his international debut as England won 3-1. He went to the 1962 World Cup finals in Chile, England had been given the go ahead to host the 1966 FIFA World Cup and Hunt, along with club mates Ian Callaghan and Gerry Byrne were selected for the 22 man squad by manager Alf Ramsey. Hunt was one of three selected for the tournament. He initially partnered Tottenham Hotspur striker Jimmy Greaves up front but following a leg injury to Greaves he played alongside Geoff Hurst of West Ham United.
Hunt played in all six games, scoring three times, as England went on to win the Jules Rimet trophy after a 4–2 extra time win over West Germany in the World Cup Final at Wembley. Only Ian Rush has since surpassed his total for Liverpool, though Rush scored fewer League goals than Hunt. Their other six teammates, plus manager Alf Ramsey, had already received honours of one form or another, Roger Hunt was inducted into the English Football Hall of Fame in 2006, recognising his achievements in the English game
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
William John Willie Irvine is a former professional footballer who played as a centre forward. Born in Eden, County Antrim, into a large family and he did well at school, but chose to pursue a career in professional football and initially played for local club Linfield. After a spell in football, Irvine travelled to England for a trial with Burnley at the age of 16. He was offered a deal and spent three years playing for the youth and reserve teams, before making his senior debut at the end of the 1962–63 season. Over the following seasons, Irvine became a feature of the Burnley team and in the 1965–66 campaign. Irvine lost his place in the Burnley team after suffering a leg during a cup tie in 1967. He was transfer listed, and joined local rivals Preston North End in March 1968, when Alan Ball was named Preston manager in the summer of 1970, Irvine found himself out of the team. He joined Brighton & Hove Albion in July 1971 after impressing during a loan spell earlier in the year and he moved to Halifax Town midway through the 1972–73 season, but left the club after six months.
Irvine ended his career with a spell at semi-professional Great Harwood. In addition to playing football, Irvine represented the Northern Ireland national football team. He won 23 caps for his country, scoring eight goals, after retiring from football, he ran his own do-it-yourself shop but suffered from severe depression when the business collapsed. Irvine spent time in hospital after taking an overdose of medication, as of 2010, he works full-time in an aerospace factory, and gives guided tours of Burnleys stadium, Turf Moor, on matchdays. Willie Irvine was born on 18 June 1943 in the village of Eden, County Antrim and he was born to Alex and Agnes Irvine, and had 17 half-brothers and half-sisters from his mothers previous marriages. Irvine was 11 months old when his father, who had played football for Distillery and he came from a poor background and when he was young the family resided in a small wooden bungalow that had neither electricity nor running water. His mother worked often, and Irvine was looked after by his elder siblings, at the age of one, he started to attend Eden School so that he could be looked after by the teachers while his sisters earned money.
When he was seven years old, the moved to the Sunnylands estate in nearby Carrickfergus after his mother was sent to Omagh Prison for falsely claiming benefits. Irvine soon warmed to his new neighbourhood, he enjoyed visiting Carrickfergus Castle, in 1950, he moved to Sunnylands Primary School and began to play football seriously. He initially concentrated on playing as a goalkeeper for the school team, in 1953, the team reached the final of the County Cup, but were defeated 0–3 by an older side from Carrick Technical School
Hampden Park is a football stadium in the Mount Florida area of Glasgow, Scotland. The 51, 866-capacity venue serves as the stadium of football in Scotland. It is used for concerts and other sporting events. There were two 19th century stadia called Hampden Park, built on different sites, a stadium on the present site was first opened on 31 October 1903. Hampden was the biggest stadium in the world when it was opened and this was increased further between 1927 and 1937, reaching a peak of 150,000. The record attendance of 149,415, for a Scotland v England match in 1937, is the European record for a football match. Tighter safety regulations meant that the capacity was reduced to 81,000 in 1977, the stadium has been fully renovated since then, with the most recent work being completed in 1999. The stadium houses the offices of the Scottish Football Association and Scottish Professional Football League, Hampden has hosted prestigious sporting events, including three Champions League finals, two Cup Winners Cup finals and a UEFA Cup final.
Hampden is a UEFA category four stadium and it is served by the nearby Mount Florida, Queens Park, the oldest club in Scottish football, have played at a venue called Hampden Park since October 1873. The first Hampden Park was overlooked by a terrace named after Englishman John Hampden. Queens Park played at the first Hampden Park for 10 years beginning with a Scottish Cup tie on 25 October 1873, the ground hosted the first Scottish Cup Final, in 1874, and a Scotland v England match in 1878. The club moved to the second Hampden Park,150 yards from the original, a lawn bowling club at the junction of Queens Drive and Cathcart Road marks the site of the first Hampden. The second Hampden Park opened in October 1884 and it became a regular home to the Scottish Cup Final, but Celtic Park shared some of the big matches including the Scotland v England fixture in 1894. In the late 1890s, Queens Park requested more land for development of the second Hampden Park and this was refused by the landlords, which led to the club seeking a new site.
Henry Erskine Gordon agreed to sell 12 acres of land off Somerville Drive to Queens Park in November 1899, james Miller designed twin grandstands along the south side of the ground with a pavilion wedged in between. The natural slopes were shaped to form banks of terracing, designed by Archibald Leitch, construction of the new ground took over three years to complete, during construction, a disaster occurred at Ibrox in which part of the wooden terraces collapsed. In response, the terraces at Hampden were firmly set in the earthwork, Third Lanark A. C. took over the second Hampden Park in 1903 and renamed it Cathkin Park. The club rebuilt the ground from scratch due to a failure to agree a fee for the whole stadium, Third Lanark went out of business in 1967 and Cathkin Park is now a public park with much of the original terracing still evident