Fudbalski klub Partizan known as Partizan Belgrade or Partizan, is a Serbian professional football club based in Belgrade. It forms a major part of the Partizan multi-sport club; the club plays in the Serbian SuperLiga and has spent its entire history in the top tier of Yugoslav and Serbian football having won a total of 45 official trophies: 27 national championships, 15 national cups, 1 national supercup, 1 Mitropa Cup, 1 Uhrencup finishing in the Yugoslav league all-time table as second. Partizan was founded by young high officers of the Yugoslav People's Army in 1945 in Belgrade, as part of the Yugoslav Sports Association Partizan, their home ground is the Partizan Stadium in Belgrade, where they have played since 1949. Partizan holds records such as playing in the first European Champions Cup match on 4 September, 1955, as well as becoming the first Balkan and Eastern European football club to reach the European Champions Cup final, when it did so in 1966. Partizan was the first Serbian club to compete in the group stage of the UEFA Champions League.
The club has a long-standing rivalry with Red Star Belgrade. Matches between these two clubs are known as the Eternal Derby and rate as one of the greatest cross-town clashes in the world. In September 2009, the British newspaper Daily Mail ranked the Red Star–Partizan derby fourth among the ten greatest football rivalries of all time; the club is very popular in Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Bosnian Serb entity of Republika Srpska. Partizan has many supporters in all the other former-Yugoslav republics and in the Serbian diaspora. Partizan youth academy is one of the most export-oriented in Europe. CIES Football Observatory report of November 2015 ranks Partizan Belgrade at the top place of training clubs out of the 31 European leagues surveyed. Partizan was founded on 4 October 1945 in Belgrade, as a football section of the Central House of the Yugoslav Army "Partizan", was named in honour of the Partisans, the communist military formation who fought against fascism during World War II in Yugoslavia.
The club was formed and managed by the group of young high officers of the Yugoslav People's Army and veterans of the Spanish Civil War. Among them were Svetozar "Tempo" Vukmanović, Koča Popović, Peko Dapčević, Bogdan Vujošević, Mijalko Todorović, Otmar Kreačić and Ratko Vujović. Two days after its establishment, Partizan made its first step on the football scene, with the friendly match against selection of Zemun that ended 4–2. Florijan Matekalo entered the record books as the first goal scorer in the history of Partizan, while Franjo Glazer was the first manager. Just three weeks Partizan went on the first of many international tours, travelling to Czechoslovakia where they beat the selection of Slovak Army with 3–1. At the time, just months after the World War II in Yugoslavia ended, no organized football competition was yet restored, so Partizan played only friendly games and tournaments both home and abroad; the club's first European engagement was a meeting against another army side, CSKA Moscow from what was Soviet Union, in 1975.
In late August, 1946, the new Yugoslav league started and Partizan played its first official match, beating Pobeda Skoplje 1–0. Since the club had the highest ambitions from the beginning, it attracted some of the best players from all over the country: Stjepan Bobek, Miroslav Brozović, Zlatko Čajkovski, Kiril Simonovski, Bela Palfi, Franjo Rupnik, Prvoslav Mihajlović, Aleksandar Atanacković, Miodrag Jovanović, Vladimir Firm, Ratko Čolić and Franjo Šoštarić. Prominent football expert Illés Spitz became the manager, spent next 14 years at various positions in the club, his implementation of top European training methods and playing tactics, combined with technically gifted squad, proved essential in winning the first championship in debut season, along with the first cup title, thus the first Double winner in the country. The second championship title was won in 1948–49 season. Partizan played its home games on the old BSK stadium until 1949, when its own stadium was built on the same site and named JNA Stadium.
In 1950, the club evolved from a football section of the Army into independent club under the umbrella organization JSD Partizan. The first club's president became Ratko Vujović. In 1953, the remaining formal connections between the club and the Army ceased. Although during the 1950s Partizan had a strong squad, led by national team players like Bobek, Čajkovski, Miloš Milutinović, Marko Valok, Bruno Belin, Tomislav Kaloperović and Branko Zebec, the club had a long break without winning a championship, only winning cup titles in 1952, 1954 and 1957. Despite the absence of domestic titles, Partizan's great performances on high quality tournaments throughout Europe gained them significant continental reputation. On 4 September 1955, Partizan participated in the first Champions Cup match, in Lisbon against Sporting CP; the final result was 3–3, with Miloš Milutinović becoming the first scorer in a most prestigious club competition in Europe. By the mid-1950s, the first big Partizan generation was well over its peak.
Only two titles and four cups in its first 15 years of existence were not enough for a club of Partizan's stature and popularity. In 1958, the club left way behind 13 years of playing in blue-red kits and adopted the now famous black and white colors; the change in the club's image and appearance was followed by radical changes in the playing squad. The number of young players, offspri
Fudbalski klub Sarajevo is a Bosnian professional football club based in Sarajevo, the capital city of Bosnia and Herzegovina and is one of the most successful clubs in the country. Founded on 24 October 1946, FK Sarajevo was the most successful club from SR Bosnia in former SFR Yugoslavia, winning two Yugoslav First League titles, being runners-up on two other occasions and finishing 6th in that competition's all-time table; the club's official colours are white. FK Sarajevo was the only major football club founded by the post-war Yugoslav authorities in the city of Sarajevo; the club entered the Yugoslav First League in the 1948–49 season, competed in all but two seasons in the top tier. After Bosnia and Herzegovina gained independence from Yugoslavia, FK Sarajevo became one the country's biggest ambassadors, departing on a large world tour during the Bosnian War with the goal of gaining international support for the country's cause. Today, FK Sarajevo is one of the most prominent members of the Premier League of Bosnia and Herzegovina, where it has won three Bosnian championships, five Bosnian Cups and one Bosnian Supercup.
Furthermore, the club was runners-up in the national championship another six times. It is ranked first in the Premier League of Bosnia and Herzegovina all-time table and is the country's most prominent representative in European competitions. FK Sarajevo is the most popular football club in the country, together with FK Željezničar, with whom it shares a strong rivalry that manifests itself in the Sarajevo derby; the club plays its home matches at the Asim Ferhatović Hase Stadium, named after legendary club striker Asim Ferhatović. The stadium has a capacity of 34.500. Since March 2019, FK Sarajevo is run by Vietnamese businessman Nguyễn Hoài Nam and the PVF Investment and Trading, JSC. FK Sarajevo was established on 24 October 1946 as the result of a merger between local Sarajevo football clubs Udarnik and Sloboda; the club first appeared on the Yugoslav sports scene in 1946 under the name SD Torpedo that represented an homage to Torpedo Moscow. The first chairman of the newly founded club was Safet Džinović, while the positions of vice-chairmen were granted to Vojo Marković and Alojz Stanarević respectively.
Furthermore, Josip Bulat was named manager. The newly formed team, which inherited the results and league standings of Udarnik, was joined by selected players from both Udarnik and Sloboda. Namely, Hodžić, Vlajičić, Šarenkapa, Pauković, Fizović, Konjević, Radović, Viđen and Mustagrudić from the former, Mantula, Glavočević, Tošić, Novo, Strinić, Đ. Lovrić and Alajbegović from the latter; the team played its first match on 3 November 1946. Another historical assembly was held on 5 October 1947 when it was decided, on the proposal of editor of the popular daily newspaper Oslobođenje, Mirko Ostojić, that the club name would be changed to SDM Sarajevo, before it was changed to the current name in 1949. In September 1948 SDM Sarajevo was joined by Yugoslav footballing legend Miroslav Brozović, who brought in a needed level of experience to the new team; the Mostar native wore the black and white jersey of FK Partizan, as well as captaining the Yugoslav national team. Brozović was offered the position of player-manager which he accepted, turning his attentions to promoting the team to the Yugoslav First League.
FK Sarajevo first entered the top-flight Yugoslav First League after eliminating Belgrade club Sloga. They drew the first match 3:3 in Novi Sad, but won the second match 5:1 in Sarajevo; the team were relegated after their first season in the First League, but were promoted back to the top-tier in 1950. From on FK Sarajevo played in every season of the First League apart from 1957 to 1958; the club's first taste of European competitions began during the 1960s when it took part in the 1960 Mitropa Cup and the 1961–63 Balkans Cup, while the first serious European competition the club took part in was the 1962–63 Intertoto Cup. 1966–67 Yugoslav First League table: A key player for Sarajevo in their early years was legendary striker Asim Ferhatović, nicknamed Hase, who played for the club from 1952 to 1967. In 1963–64, he was top scorer in the First League with nineteen goals, while the club finished fourth; the following year the club finished second. Sarajevo won their first Yugoslav First League title in 1966–67, becoming the first national champions from Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Sarajevo started the historic season with Brozović at the helm of the coaching staff. The team had a dream start with back to back wins against FK Sutjeska Nikšić and their city rivals FK Željezničar; this was followed by a draw against the European Cup runners-up, FK Partizan, in which Sarajevo squandered an early lead. With seven points from their first three fixtures, Sarajevo was still not considered a title favorite, but, to change after Brozović's boys returned from the Dalmatian coast with a win against Hajduk Split. Four days Sarajevo beat NK Olimpija 2:1 at a sold out Koševo stadium. Hard earned wins against HNK Rijeka and Red Star Belgrade followed, by the winter break Sarajevo had won 14 out of their first 20 league fixtures, finishing the year at pole position; the team opened the second part of the season away to Dinamo Zagreb in the last sixteen of the Yugoslav Cup winning 1:0 courtesy of a Boško Antić stunner. In the quarterfinals Sarajevo got the better of FK Napredak, but lost in the Cup final to Hajduk Split, played at the Stari plac stadium on May 24.
The team was back to winning ways, defeating Red Star Belgrade at the Marakana 3:1 with two goals by Antić and one by Prodanović. A week OFK Belgrade was def
The dinar was the currency of the three Yugoslav states: the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia between 1918 and 2006. The dinar was subdivided into 100 para. In the early 1990s, there was severe and prolonged hyperinflation due to a combination of economic mismanagement and criminality. Massive amounts of money were printed; the highest denomination banknote was 500 billion dinars. This hyperinflation caused five revaluations between 1990 and 1994. Six of the eight have been given distinguishing names and separate ISO 4217 codes; until 1918, the dinar was the currency of Serbia. It became the currency of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes, circulating alongside the krone in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, with 1 dinar = 4 kronen; the first coins and banknotes bearing the name of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes were issued in 1920, until which time Serbian coins and banknotes circulated. In 1929, the name of the country changed to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and this was reflected on the currency.
In 1931, an exchange rate of 56.4 dinara to the U. S. dollar was set, which changed to 44 dinara in 1933. In 1937, a tourist exchange rate of 250 dinara to the British pound was established. In 1941, Yugoslavia was invaded and split up, with the dinar remaining currency in Nedić's Serbia as Serbian dinar); the kuna was introduced in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina at par with the dinar, whilst the Bulgarian lev, Italian lira and German Reichsmark circulated in those part of Yugoslavia occupied by these countries. In 1944, as Yugoslavia began to be reconstituted, the Yugoslav dinar replaced the Serbian dinar, Independent State of Croatia kuna and other occupation currencies, with the rates of exchanged being 1 Yugoslav dinar = 20 Serbian dinara = 40 kuna. In May 1945, a peg of 50 dinara = 1 U. S. dollar was not maintained. On January 1, 1966, the first of five revaluations took place, at a ratio of 100 to 1; this currency was never stable, suffering from an inflation rate of 15 to 25 percent per year.
In the late 1980s the inflation rate accelerated, causing the currency to be revalued at the beginning of 1990. The second revaluation took place on January 1, 1990, at a ratio of 10,000 to 1. During this period, the constituent republics began to leave the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Four of the six republics issued their own currencies shortly after; this was the last dinar that bore the coat of arms and the name of the "Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia" in multiple languages. Serbian enclaves in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina issued currencies in dinar, equivalent to and revalued together with the Yugoslav dinar; these were the Republika Srpska dinar. The third revaluation took place on 1 July 1992, at a ratio of 10 to 1. Hyperinflation began to occur during this currency's period of circulation; this dinar was issued in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which consisted of the remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro. People started to use foreign hard currency, such as Deutschmarks, to mitigate some of the problems of hyperinflation.
Yugoslavia re-denominated the dinar for the fourth time on 1 October 1993, at a ratio of 1 million to 1. This did not mitigate the hyperinflation, the 1993 dinar lasted for only three months. Coinage became redundant; the 1993 dinar had the largest denomination out of all incarnations of Yugoslavian currency: the banknote, featuring Jovan Jovanović Zmaj had a face value of 500 billion dinara. Wages became worthless. Many businesses started to pay wages in goods instead, a simple barter system developed. Businesses with good connections to politicians could still get access to hard currency; some shops, instead of rewriting their prices several times a day, started pricing goods in "bods" equivalent to hard currency such as one Deutschmark. The winter of 1993 was hard for pensioners. Many people relied on connections in the countryside. Yugoslavia re-denominated the dinar for the fifth time on 1 January 1994, at a ratio of 1 billion to 1; the 1994 dinar was the shortest-lived out of all incarnations of Yugoslavian currency, as hyperinflation continued to intensify, only one coin was issued for it.
Towards the end of the 1994 dinar, the National Bank overprinted and reissued 10 million dinara banknotes from the 1992 dinar. On 24 January 1994, the novi dinar was introduced; this was not a revaluation of the dinar. Instead, the novi dinar was pegged at par to the Deutsche Mark. On the day of the introduction of the novi dinar, the exchange rate of the previous dinar to the Deutsche Mark, hence, to the novi dinar, was 1 DM = 13 million dinara. Despite not being pegged to the newest currency, the previous dinar did not fall further in value, remaining at about 1
FK Radnički Niš
Fudbalski klub Radnički known as Radnički Niš, is a professional football club based in Niš, Serbia. Its name means Labourers in Serbian and stems from the relationship with the Labour movement which the club had during the first half of the 20th century. Radnički Niš was one of the most stable clubs in the former Yugoslavia; the team spent a total of 29 seasons in the Yugoslav First League, achieved two 3rd place finishes in 1980 and 1981, one 3rd place finish in 2018. In international competition, Radnički Niš won the 1975 Balkans Cup, reached the final in 1989, played against Hamburger SV in the semi-finals of the UEFA Cup in 1982; the club was founded on April 24, 1923, in the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. One of its founders was the communist activist Miloš Marković. In the same year, the club played. Two years in the 1925–26 season, the club became part of the professional league of the Morava Banovina, won the championship on two occasions, in the 1924–25 and 1927–28 seasons. Following the proclamation of the royal dictatorship in 1929, the government began to persecute leftist activists, Radnički changed its name to Građanski.
As Građanski Niš, the club played in the 1935–36 Yugoslav Football Championship, played in a straight-knockout competition format, was eliminated in the round of sixteen by Građanski Skoplje. At the end of that season the club reinstated its original name, played until 1941, because of the war, the club ceased its activities and its members and players joined the resistance. At the beginning of World War II in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1941, the club terminated the activities, which were renewed in 1945, one year after the liberation from the occupation of Nazi Germany. In 1962, Radnički Niš were promoted to the Yugoslav First League for the first time in the club's history. On 23 September 1962, Radnički fans displayed their first big choreography on the first league match against Red Star Belgrade. A large banner reading "Real sa Nišave", which translates to "Real from Nisava" was raised on the east stand, the club bears this nickname to this day; the banner could be seen at every home game throughout the 1960s.
In following years, the club underwent major development and became one of the most stable football clubs in the country. In 1963, the club founded its youth school. In 1975, Radnički beat Turkish club Eskişehirspor and won its first trophy of European importance, the Balkans Cup. In 1980, Radnički finished the national championship in 3rd place, the best placement thus far, played for the first time in the UEFA Cup in the following season, during which Radnički reached the round of sixteen, but lost against Dutch club AZ Alkmaar. In 1981, the club was again third and qualified for the 1981–82 UEFA Cup season. In the first round, Radnički Niš were drawn against Napoli. In the first leg, the club from South Serbia achieved a 2–2 draw in front of 70.000 spectators at Stadio San Paolo, enough for Radnički to progress after a goalless match in Serbia because of the away goals rule. After eliminating the Azzurri, Radnički played the second round against Grasshopper Club Zürich; the Swiss club won the first match in Zürich by 2–0, but Radnički had equalized with a 2–0 and won convincingly 3–0 in the penalty shoot-out.
In the third round, the club played against Feyenoord from Rotterdam. In the first leg in Niš, the result was 2–0 for Radnički and at De Kuip the result was 1–0 for the Dutch club. However, it was a 2–1 victory on aggregate for the Serbian club and in the quarter-finals Radnički were drawn against Dundee United from Scotland. In the first leg, played in Dundee, Radnički suffered a 2–0 defeat. Although they were not seen as the favourites in the return leg, the Real from Nišava pulled off a convincing 3–0 win in front of its spectators, with an aggregate score of 3–2 they achieved their greatest success by reaching the semi-finals of this prestigious tournament; the semifinals provided a football holiday at Čair Stadium, due to the fact that German top club Hamburger SV, led by stars like Horst Hrubesch, Felix Magath, Lars Bastrup, Manfred Kaltz, Thomas von Heesen and Uli Stein would play in Niš. In the first leg, Radnički Niš won against the favored North Germans in front of 38,500 enthusiastic Radnički fans with 2–1, but they lost the second leg in Hamburg by 5–1.
After one year of absence from international football, the club qualified for the 1983–84 UEFA Cup season and reached the round of sixteen, as in 1981. After winning matches against St Gallen and FK Inter Bratislava, Radnički played against Hajduk Split, it was the first intra-Yugoslav fixture in UEFA cup. Hajduk won both progressed to the quarter-finals. Radnički Niš played a total of 22 matches across Europe between 1981 and 1984. During this time, Radnički lost only one UEFA Cup home match of a total of 11 across three seasons and only against a team from the domestic league. A major contribution was made by their enthusiastic support; the Čair Stadium was a tough ground for the opposition and the atmosphere created by Radnički fans in a roaring stadium always gave hope to the team that they could overcome anybody. After the golden years, Radnički Niš was unexpectedly relegated to in the Yugoslav Second League in 1985, after 23 continuous years in the first league. However, under coach Josip Duvančić, Radnički won the Yugoslav Second League in the following season and returned
A whistleblower is a person who exposes any kind of information or activity, deemed illegal, unethical, or not correct within an organization, either private or public. The information of alleged wrongdoing can be classified in many ways: violation of company policy/rules, regulation, or threat to public interest/national security, as well as fraud, corruption; those who become whistleblowers can choose to bring information or allegations to surface either internally or externally. Internally, a whistleblower can bring his/her accusations to the attention of other people within the accused organization such as an immediate supervisor. Externally, a whistleblower can bring allegations to light by contacting a third party outside of an accused organization such as the media, law enforcement, or those who are concerned. Whistleblowers, take the risk of facing stiff reprisal and retaliation from those who are accused or alleged of wrongdoing; because of this, a number of laws exist to protect whistleblowers.
Some third-party groups offer protection to whistleblowers, but that protection can only go so far. Whistleblowers face legal action, criminal charges, social stigma, termination from any position, office, or job. Two other classifications of whistleblowing are public; the classifications relate to the type of organizations someone chooses to whistle-blow on: private sector, or public sector. Depending on many factors, both can have varying results. However, whistleblowing in the public sector organization is more to result in criminal charges and possible custodial sentences. A whistleblower who chooses to accuse a private sector organization or agency is more to face termination and legal and civil charges. Deeper questions and theories of whistleblowing and why people choose to do so can be studied through an ethical approach. Whistleblowing is a topic of ongoing ethical debate. Leading arguments in the ideological camp that whistleblowing is ethical maintain that whistleblowing is a form of civil disobedience, aims to protect the public from government wrongdoing.
In the opposite camp, some see whistleblowing as unethical for breaching confidentiality in industries that handle sensitive client or patient information. Legal protection can be granted to protect whistleblowers, but that protection is subject to many stipulations. Hundreds of laws grant protection to whistleblowers, but stipulations can cloud that protection and leave whistleblowers vulnerable to retaliation and legal trouble. However, the decision and action has become far more complicated with recent advancements in technology and communication. Whistleblowers face reprisal, sometimes at the hands of the organization or group they have accused, sometimes from related organizations, sometimes under law. Questions about the legitimacy of whistleblowing, the moral responsibility of whistleblowing, the appraisal of the institutions of whistleblowing are part of the field of political ethics. U. S. civic activist Ralph Nader is said to have coined the phrase, but he in fact put a positive spin on the term in the early 1970s to avoid the negative connotations found in other words such as "informer" and "snitch".
However, the origins of the word date back to the 19th century. The word is linked to the use of a whistle to alert the public or a crowd about a bad situation, such as the commission of a crime or the breaking of rules during a game; the phrase whistle blower attached itself to law enforcement officials in the 19th century because they used a whistle to alert the public or fellow police. Sports referees, who use a whistle to indicate an illegal or foul play were called whistle blowers. An 1883 story in the Janesville Gazette called a policeman who used his whistle to alert citizens about a riot a whistle blower, without the hyphen. By the year 1963, the phrase had become whistle-blower; the word began to be used by journalists in the 1960s for people who revealed wrongdoing, such as Nader. It evolved into the compound word whistleblower. Most whistleblowers are internal whistleblowers, who report misconduct on a fellow employee or superior within their company through anonymous reporting mechanisms called hotlines.
One of the most interesting questions with respect to internal whistleblowers is why and under what circumstances do people either act on the spot to stop illegal and otherwise unacceptable behavior or report it. There are some reasons to believe that people are more to take action with respect to unacceptable behavior, within an organization, if there are complaint systems that offer not just options dictated by the planning and control organization, but a choice of options for absolute confidentiality. Anonymous reporting mechanisms, as mentioned help foster a climate whereby employees are more to report or seek guidance regarding potential or actual wrongdoing without fear of retaliation; the coming anti-bribery management systems standard, ISO 37001, includes anonymous reporting as one of the criteria for the new standard. External whistleblowers, report misconduct to outside persons or entities. In these cases, depending on the information's severity and nature, whistleblowers may report the misconduct to lawyers, the media, law enforcement or watchdog agencies, or other local, state, or federal agencies.
In some cases, external whistleblowing is encouraged by offering monetary reward. The third party service involves utilizing an external agency to inform the individuals at the top of the organizational pyramid of misconduct, without disclosing the identity of the whistleblower; this is a new phenomenon and has been developed due to whistlebl
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Yugoslav First League
The Yugoslav First Federal Football League, was the premier football league in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The First League Championship was one of two national competitions held annually in Yugoslavia, the Yugoslav Cup being the other; the league became professional in 1967. The UEFA recognised successor league of the Yugoslav First League, the First League of FR Yugoslavia, despite the succession and same name "Prva savezna liga", it is covered in a separate article; this was the first club competition on a national level for clubs from Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The league was started in 1923 and the first four seasons had a cup tournament format, while the first round-robin league competition was held in 1927. In the period from 1927 to 1940 seventeen seasons were completed, with all the titles won by clubs from Croatia or Serbia, it was governed at first by the Croatian-named Nogometni Savez Jugoslavije, founded in April 1919 in Zagreb, until in late 1929 disagreements arose between the Zagreb and Belgrade branches of the association.
This resulted in the association headquarters being moved to Belgrade in May 1930 where it adopted the Serbian name Fudbalski Savez Jugoslavije and continued operating the league until it was suspended due to the outbreak of World War II. With the moving of headquarters, Croatian players and coaches boycotted Yugoslav national team. With the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia, separate Croatian and Serbian leagues were established, which operated during the World War II. Serbian Football League, in Serbia *Known as BSK Belgrade before 1957 Top 12 only: Table only shows best-finish achievements in major European/Intercontinental competitions during the SFR Yugoslavia period. No minor European tournaments included. Table sorted by success at European Cup / UEFA Champions League foremost. While the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup is recognised as the predecessor to the UEFA Cup, it was not organised by UEFA. UEFA do not consider clubs' records in the Fairs Cup to be part of their European record. However, FIFA do view the competition as a major honour.
Complete list of players who scored 100 goals or more in the 1946-1992 SFR Yugoslavia period. Source: RSSSF. Among these were: The 1990-91 season was the last season held in its usual format, with clubs from all federative units participating in the championship; the breakup of the country broke up its top-flight league into several smaller ones. In June 1991 Slovenia declared Croatia followed suit in October of the same year; this meant that their football associations separated from the Football Association of Yugoslavia so they both started their own football leagues. The Slovenian PrvaLiga was launched in late 1991, while the Croatian Prva HNL saw its first edition in 1992. Affected by the ongoing war in Croatia, the season was held over the course of a single calendar year, from February to June 1992. Both leagues have been going on since; the 1991-92 season was the last season held under the name of SFR Yugoslavia though Slovenian and Croatian clubs have abandoned the competition to play in their own leagues.
Clubs from the remaining four federative units all took part in the competition, but since the Bosnian War broke out towards the end of the season, Bosnian clubs never finished it, with Željezničar of Sarajevo only managed to play 17 out of 33 scheduled fixtures, while Sloboda Tuzla and Velež Mostar ended the season with a few games short of completing the season. Still, since most of the games were played as planned, Crvena Zvezda of Belgrade is credited with winning the last Yugoslav First League championship. Macedonian clubs abandoned the competition after the 1991-92 season because the new Macedonian First League was launched the following season. For the 1992-93 season Bosnian clubs were all on hiatus due to full blown fighting that developed there, with the sole exception of Borac of Banja Luka which temporarily moved to Belgrade and joined the newly formed league featuring clubs from Serbia and Montenegro, this time restyled as the First League of FR Yugoslavia; the league lasted under that name until the 2002-03 season, when the country changed its name so the league was renamed First League of Serbia and Montenegro.
In June 2006 Montenegro declared independence and peacefully departed the union, so from the 2006-07 season onwards Montenegro started operating separate top-flight football league supervised by its football association. On the other hand, as the legal successor of Serbia-Montenegro state union, Serbia got the continuity of the country's league, formed as Prva liga in 1992, renamed and rebranded as Superliga in summer 2005. Bosnia and Herzegovina proclaimed independence in late winter 1992, in April same year N/FSBiH applied for membership with FIFA and UEFA. Meanwhile, due to the outbreak of Bosnian War in April 1992 no games w