Idaho State Bengals football
The Idaho State Bengals football program represents Idaho State University in college football and plays its home games at Holt Arena, an indoor facility on campus in Pocatello, Idaho. Idaho State is a member of the Big Sky Conference in NCAA Division I Football Championship Subdivision. Through the 2011 season, the Bengals have a record of 451–472–20. After a winless 0–11 season in 1979, Bud Hake was fired three years and a 5–28 record. Dave Kragthorpe was hired as coach for the 1980 season. The following season, ISU won the Division I-AA Championship, following two playoff victories at home, the Bengals defeated Eastern Kentucky 34–23 in the Pioneer Bowl at Memorial Stadium in Wichita Falls, Texas. The quarterback during the 12–1 championship season was senior Mike Machurek, Machurek spent over three seasons with the Detroit Lions, and had treatment for skin cancer during the second. Idaho State returned to the I-AA playoffs in 1983, but lost 27–20 at home in the first round to conference champion Nevada-Reno, the Bengals have not made another playoff appearance, although they were tri-Big Sky champions in 2002, all at 5–2 in conference play.
ISU was passed over for the playoffs, for Montana and Montana State, following the 2010 season, head coach John Zamberlin was fired after four seasons and Mike Kramer was hired as ISUs 25th head football coach. During his first season in 2011 the Bengals won only two games, Kramer was formerly the head coach at Eastern Washington and Montana State. Among his assistants are former University of Alabama football players Todd Bates and Rudy Griffin, on March 30,2017, Kramer resigned as head coach of the Bengals. The Idaho State Athletic Department promoted offensive coordinator Rob Phenicie to head coach, Idaho State formerly had spirited intrastate rivalries with both the University of Idaho and Boise State University, when all three schools were members of the Big Sky Conference. The Bengals claim a rivalry with the Montana Grizzlies of Missoula and they were National Champions in 1981. The Bengals have had five two-time All-Americans, wide receiver Ed Bell, defensive end Josh Hays, placekicker Pete Garces, defensive end Jared Allen, Allen won the prestigious Buck Buchanan Award in 2003 as the top defensive player in the nation in Division 1-AA.
Wide receiver Rodrick Rumble was an All-American in 2011, a season in which he broke the Big Sky conference record for receptions with 112, return specialist Tavoy Moore was given first-team All-American honors by the American Football Coaches Association for the 2010 season. Punter Jon Vanderwielen earned several All-American honors in 2009, the Bengals play home games in Holt Arena, an indoor multi-purpose athletic stadium located on the north end of the ISU campus. Completed in September 1970, Holt Arena is the oldest enclosed stadium on a campus in the United States. Only the Houston Astrodome, completed in 1965, predates it, the indoor arena was conceived by ISU athletic director Milton W. Dubby Holt in 1966
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Kalamazoo /ˌkæləməˈzuː/ is a city in the southwest region of the U. S. state of Michigan. It is the county seat of Kalamazoo County, as of the 2010 census, Kalamazoo had a total population of 74,262. Kalamazoo is the city of the Kalamazoo-Portage Metropolitan Statistical Area. Kalamazoo is equidistant from the major American cities of Chicago and Detroit, one of Kalamazoos most notable features is the Kalamazoo Mall, an outdoor pedestrian shopping mall. The city created the mall in 1959 by closing part of Burdick Street to auto traffic, Kalamazoo is home to Western Michigan University, a large public university, Kalamazoo College, a liberal arts school, and Kalamazoo Valley Community College, a two-year community college. Originally known as Bronson in the township of Arcadia, the names of both the city and the township were changed to Kalamazoo in 1836 and 1837, the Kalamazoo name comes from a Potawatomi word, first found in a British report in 1772. However, the Kalamazoo River, which passes through the city of Kalamazoo, was located on the route between Detroit and Fort Saint-Joseph.
French-Canadian traders and military personnel were quite familiar with this area during the French era, the name for the Kalamazoo River was known by Canadians and French as La rivière Kikanamaso. The name Kikanamaso was recorded by Father Pierre Potier, a Jesuit missionary for the Huron-Wendats at the Assumption mission, while en route to Fort Saint-Joseph during the fall of 1760. Legend has it that Ki-ka-ma-sung, meaning boiling water, referring to a footrace held each fall by local Native Americans, still another theory is that it means the mirage or reflecting river. Another legend is that the image of boiling water referred to fog on the river as seen from the hills above the current downtown, the name was given to the river that flows almost all the way across the state. The name Kalamazoo, which sounds unusual to English-speaking ears, has become a metonym for exotic places, today, T-shirts are sold in Kalamazoo with the phrase Yes, there really is a Kalamazoo. The area on which the city of Kalamazoo stands was once home to Native Americans of the Hopewell culture.
Evidence of their early residency remains in the form of a mound in downtowns Bronson Park. The Hopewell civilization began to decline after the 8th century and was replaced by other groups, the Potawatomi culture lived in the area when the first European explorers arrived. René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, passed just southeast of the present city of Kalamazoo in late March 1680, the first Europeans to reside in the area were itinerant fur traders in the late 18th and early 19th century. There are records of several traders wintering in the area, during the War of 1812, the British established a smithy and a prison camp in the area. The 1821 Treaty of Chicago ceded the territory south of the Grand River to the United States federal government, the area around present-day Kalamazoo was reserved as the village of Potawatomi Chief Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish
Merlin Olsen Field at Maverik Stadium is an outdoor American football stadium in Logan, Utah, on the campus of Utah State University. It is the field of the Utah State Aggies of the Mountain West Conference. It opened in 1968 as Romney Stadium and currently has a capacity of 22,059. Its AstroTurf GameDay Grass playing field runs in the traditional north-south configuration, previously named for Dick Romney, Utah States all-time most successful football coach and former athletics director, Maverik Stadium was officially dedicated on September 27,1969. The first game in the stadium came a season earlier in 1968, the partnership was hailed as a catalyst for the stadium renovation which was said would commence immediately with the demolition of the west side press box and a section of the west side seating. The partnership with Utah State and Maverik is a multi-year agreement, the venue will feature a Maverik concession outlet that will sell a number of Maverik proprietary food products. Richard stated, What grandpa accomplished at Utah State will never be duplicated in todays society and we know his name will remain prominent and continue to have a strong legacy at Utah State.
His story will not be forgotten, prior to the construction of the first Romney Stadium and intramural competition took place on a makeshift field east of Old Main. This area, which would become the Quad, served the needs of the college’s football. Simmonds, it “was the responsibility of players to pick the rocks off the field before matches. ”Student Phebe Nebeker recalled the field’s appearance after accompanying her future husband, Elmer G. Peterson. “It wasn’t anything like what we think of today as a football stadium and it was merely a somewhat flat area - with a little grass here and there - that was very muddy when it rained and very hard when it didn’t. One small set of bleachers had been erected near the southeast corner of Old Main, although Adams Field represented an improvement, it did not provide the type of facility which could launch the Aggies into competitive intercollegiate play. The sparse facilities became more obvious after the College employed Coach Lowell “Dick” Romney in 1918, the original Romney Stadium was built in 1927 on the grounds where the Health, Physical Education and Recreation building now stands.
That facility was dedicated on Oct.8,1927 in recognition of Coach E. L, Dick Romneys lasting contributions to Utah State football. That structure served as Utah State’s home for 41 seasons, Utah State played its final game in the old complex on Nov.11,1967, when the Aggies defeated Montana, 20-14. The stadium retained the Romney name as it was relocated farther north on Utah States campus to its present location. The first game in the current location was played on Sept.14,1968 when the Aggies defeated New Mexico State, 28-12, and the facility was officially dedicated on Sept.27,1969. Thanks to a volunteer effort in 1980,10,000 seats were added to the southern bowl which brought the capacity of the stadium to 25,513
Big Sky Conference
The Big Sky Conference is a collegiate athletic conference affiliated with the NCAAs Division I, with football competing in the Football Championship Subdivision. Member institutions are located in the western United States in the nine states of Arizona, Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, four affiliate members each participate in one sport. Two schools from California are football-only participants, and two schools from the Northeast participate only in mens golf, the name Big Sky came from the popular 1947 western novel by A. B. Guthrie Jr. The 2012–13 season marked the completion of 50 years of competition and 25 years sponsoring women’s collegiate athletics. Before the season the league introduced a new logo to celebrate this, the 25th season of women’s athletics marked a first for the league, as Portland State won the league’s inaugural softball championship. Womens sports were conducted in the Mountain West Athletic Conference. The Big Sky sponsors championships in 16 sports, including men’s and women’s cross country, golf and outdoor track and field, there are championships in football, and in women’s volleyball and softball.
All 12 of the Big Skys full members will play football in the conference once Idaho drops from the FBS to FCS in 2018, North Dakota will leave the non-football side of the Big Sky in 2018 to join the Summit League. The football team remain in the Big Sky until 2020. Notes Gonzaga, which has not fielded a team since 1941, was a charter member in 1963. Each core member institution is required to participate in all of the 13 core sports, mens core sports are basketball, cross country, indoor track and field, outdoor track and field, and tennis. Womens core sports are basketball, cross country, indoor track and field, outdoor track and field, cal Poly San Luis Obispo and UC Davis participate as football-only affiliates, otherwise participating in the Big West Conference. Binghamton and Hartford are affiliates in mens golf only, otherwise participating in the America East Conference, before the 2014–15 school year, the latter two schools had participated in mens golf alongside five full Big Sky members in the single-sport America Sky Conference.
The return of Idaho brought the number of participating in mens golf to six. The Big Sky is unusual among Division I all-sports conferences in not sponsoring baseball, the conference originally sponsored baseball, with all members participating. When Boise State and Northern Arizona arrived for the 1971 season, competition was split into two divisions of four each, with the winners in a best-of-three championship series. Montana State and Montana soon dropped the sport and by the 1973 season, only six teams remained but the divisions were kept, in May 1974, the Big Sky announced its intention to discontinue five of its ten sponsored sports. It retained football, cross-county and wrestling, and dropped conference competition in baseball, tennis, swimming, of the eleven Big Sky baseball titles, four each went to Idaho and Gonzaga, and three to Weber State
Ogden /ˈɒɡdɛn/ is a city and the county seat of Weber County, United States, approximately 10 miles east of the Great Salt Lake and 40 miles north of Salt Lake City. The population was 84,316 in 2014, according to the US Census Bureau, the city served as a major railway hub through much of its history, and still handles a great deal of freight rail traffic which makes it a convenient location for manufacturing and commerce. Ogden is known for its historic buildings, proximity to the Wasatch Mountains. Ogden is a city of the Ogden–Clearfield, Utah Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Weber, Davis. The 2010 Census placed the Metro population at 597,159, in 2010, Forbes rated the Ogden-Clearfield MSA as the 6th best place to raise a family. Ogden has had a Sister City relationship to Hof since 1954, originally named Fort Buenaventura, the city of Ogden was the first permanent settlement by people of European descent in the region that is now Utah. It was established by the trapper Miles Goodyear in 1846 about a mile west of where downtown Ogden is currently located, in November 1847, Fort Buenaventura was purchased by the Mormon settlers for $1,950.
There is some confusion in which Ogden was the first to set foot in the Utah city, peters older brother Samuel Ogden traveled though the western United States on an exploration trip in 1818. The site of the original Fort Buenaventura is now a Weber County park, Ogden is the closest sizable city to the Golden Spike location at Promontory Summit, where the First Transcontinental Railroad was joined in 1869. Railroad passengers traveling west to San Francisco from the eastern United States typically passed through Ogden, in 1972, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints completed construction of and dedicated the Ogden Utah Temple in Ogden. The temple was built to serve the large LDS population in the area, in 2010, the LDS Church announced a major renovation of the Ogden Temple and the adjacent Tabernacle. The Temple was rededicated in 2014, because Ogden has historically been the second largest city in Utah, it is home to a large number of historic buildings. However, by the 1980s, several Salt Lake City suburbs, the Defense Depot Ogden Utah operated in Ogden from 1941 to 1997.
Some of its 1,128 acres has since converted into a commercial and industrial park called the Business Depot Ogden. Ogden is located at 41°13′11″N 111°58′16″W, at the foot of the Wasatch Mountains, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 26.6 square miles, all land. Elevations in the city range from about 4,300 to 5,200 feet above sea level, the Ogden and Weber Rivers, which originate in the mountains to the east, flow through the city and meet at a confluence just west of the city limits. Pineview Dam is located in the Ogden River Canyon 7 miles east of Ogden, the reservoir behind the dam provides over 110,000 acre feet of water storage and water recreation for the area. Prominent mountain peaks near Ogden include Mount Ogden to the east, Ogden experiences a dry summer continental climate
Billings is the largest city in the state of Montana, and is the principal city of the Billings Metropolitan Area with a population of 166,855. It has an area of over half a million people. Billings is located in the portion of the state and is the seat of Yellowstone County. The 2015 Census estimates put the Billings population at 110,263, the city is experiencing rapid growth and a strong economy, it has had and is continuing to have the largest growth of any city in Montana. Parts of the area are seeing hyper growth. From 2000 to 2010 Lockwood, an suburb of the city, saw growth of 57. 8%. Billings has avoided the economic downturn that affected most of the nation 2008–2012 as well as avoiding the housing bust, Billings was nicknamed the Magic City because of its rapid growth from its founding as a railroad town in March 1882. The city is named for Frederick H. Billings, a president of the Northern Pacific Railroad. Billings is the destination for much of the same area. With more hotel accommodations than any area within a region, the city hosts a variety of conventions, sporting events.
Area attractions include Pompeys Pillar, Pictograph Cave, Chief Plenty Coups State Park, Zoo Montana, the downtown core and much of the rest of Billings is in the Yellowstone Valley which is a canyon carved out by the Yellowstone River. Around 80 million years ago, the Billings area was on the shore of the Western Interior Seaway, the sea deposited sediment and sand around the shoreline. As the sea retreated it left behind a layer of sand. Over millions of years this sand was compressed into stone that is known as Eagle Sandstone, over the last million years the river has carved its way down through this stone to form the canyon walls that are known as the Billings Rimrocks or the Rims. About five miles south of downtown are the Pictograph Caves and these caves contain over 100 pictographs, the oldest of which is over 2,000 years old. Approximately 30,000 artifacts have been excavated from the site and these excavations have indicated that the area has been occupied since at least 2600 BCE until after 1800 CE.
The Crow Indians have called the Billings area home since about 1700, the present-day Crow Nation is just south of Billings. In July 1806, William Clark passed through the Billings area, on July 25 he arrived at what is now known as Pompeys Pillar and wrote in his journal
Logan is a city in Cache County, United States. As of the 2010 census the population was 48,174, Logan is the county seat of Cache County and the principal city of the Logan, UT-ID Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Cache County and Franklin County, Idaho. The Logan metropolitan area contained 125,442 people as of the 2010 census, in 2005 and 2007, Morgan Quitno declared the Logan metropolitan area the safest in the United States. Logan is the location of the campus of Utah State University. The town of Logan was founded in 1859 by settlers sent by Brigham Young to survey for the site of a fort near the banks of the Logan River and they named their new community Logan for Ephraim Logan, an early fur trapper in the area. Logan was incorporated on 17 January 1866, Brigham Young College was founded here in 1878, and Utah State University – called the Agricultural College of Utah – was founded in 1888. Logans growth reflects settlement and post-war booms along with other changes incident to conditions in the West, Logan grew to about 20,000 in the mid-1960s, and according to Census estimates, exceeded 50,000 in 2015.
Logan is located in northern Utah,47 miles north of Ogden and it is about 82 miles north of Salt Lake City. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 18.5 square miles, of which 18.0 square miles is land and 0.58 square miles. The city lies near the edge of Cache Valley on the western slopes of the Bear River Mountains. Mount Logan rises to an elevation of 9,710 feet immediately to the east, the Logan River cut down through these sedimentary deposits following the draining of Lake Bonneville approximately 14,500 years ago. This created an area with very steep slopes that reach into the rest of town. To the west of Logan lie flatlands that contain both farmland and marshes, to the north and south of Logan are rapidly growing residential suburbs. Logan has a continental climate with very warm though usually dry summers. Precipitation tends to be heaviest in the spring months, similar to other areas in northern Utah, during mid-winter high pressure systems often situate themselves over Cache Valley, leading to strong temperature inversions.
These temperature inversions trap cold air and pollutants and allow thick smog to accumulate in the valley about three percent of the time and this can result in the worst air-pollution levels in the U. S. reducing air quality to unhealthy level. Logans city grid originates from its Main and Center Street block, with Main Street running north and south, each block north, south, or west of the origin accumulates in additions of 100, though some streets have non-numeric names. This street grid is typical of towns and cities that were founded by Latter-day Saints in the Mormon Corridor
Salt Lake City
Salt Lake City, often shortened to Salt Lake or SLC, is the capital and the most populous municipality of the U. S. state of Utah. With an estimated population of 190,884 in 2014, the city lies at the core of the Salt Lake City metropolitan area, Salt Lake City is further situated within a larger metropolis known as the Salt Lake City-Ogden-Provo Combined Statistical Area. This region is a corridor of contiguous urban and suburban development stretched along an approximately 120-mile segment of the Wasatch Front and it is one of only two major urban areas in the Great Basin. The city was founded in 1847 by Brigham Young, Isaac Morley, George Washington Bradley and numerous other Mormon followers, who extensively irrigated and cultivated the arid valley. Due to its proximity to the Great Salt Lake, the city was originally named Great Salt Lake City—the word great was dropped from the name in 1868 by the 17th Utah Territorial Legislature. Today, less than half the population of Salt Lake City proper are members of the LDS Church.
It was traversed by the Lincoln Highway, the first transcontinental highway, in 1913, Salt Lake City has since developed a strong outdoor recreation tourist industry based primarily on skiing, and hosted the 2002 Winter Olympics. It is the banking center of the United States. Before Mormon settlement, the Shoshone and Paiute had dwelt in the Salt Lake Valley for thousands of years. The land was treated by the United States as public domain, the first U. S. explorer in the Salt Lake area is believed to be Jim Bridger in 1825, although others had been in Utah earlier, some as far north as the nearby Utah Valley. Frémont surveyed the Great Salt Lake and the Salt Lake Valley in 1843 and 1845, the Donner Party, a group of ill-fated pioneers, had traveled through the Great Salt Lake Valley in August 1846. The first permanent settlements in the date to the arrival of the Latter-day Saints on July 24,1847. Upon arrival at the Salt Lake Valley, president of the church Brigham Young is recorded as stating, This is the right place, Brigham Young claimed to have seen the area in a vision prior to the wagon trains arrival.
They found the broad valley empty of any human settlement, four days after arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, Brigham Young designated the building site for the Salt Lake Temple, which would eventually become a famous Mormon and Salt Lake City landmark. The Salt Lake Temple, constructed on the block that would be called Temple Square, construction started in 1853, and the temple was dedicated on 6 April 1893. The temple has become an icon for the city and serves as its centerpiece, in fact, the southeast corner of Temple Square is the initial point of reference for the Salt Lake Meridian, and for all addresses in the Salt Lake Valley. The Mormon pioneers organized a new state called Deseret and petitioned for its recognition in 1849, the United States Congress rebuffed the settlers in 1850 and established the Utah Territory, vastly reducing its size, and designated Fillmore as its capital city. Great Salt Lake City replaced Fillmore as the capital in 1858