Anthony Tony Dalton Roche, AO MBE is a former professional Australian tennis player, native of Tarcutta. He played junior tennis in the New South Wales regional city of Wagga Wagga and he won one Grand Slam singles title and thirteen Grand Slam doubles titles, and was ranked as high as World No.2 by Lance Tingay of The Daily Telegraph in 1969. He coached multi-Grand Slam winning World No, 1s, Ivan Lendl, Patrick Rafter, Roger Federer, Lleyton Hewitt and former World No. Roche started to play tennis at school when he was nine and his father, a butcher, and mother were recreational tennis players and encouraged his interest. Roche grew up playing in Australia under the tutelage of Harry Hopman, a left-hander, Roche had a successful singles and double career. He won one singles Grand Slam tournament, the 1966 French Open at Roland Garros, with compatriot John Newcombe, he won 12 Grand Slam mens doubles tournaments. In January 1968, Roche turned professional, signing with World Championship Tennis, joining other pros like Cliff Drysdale, Nikola Pilić, and Roger Taylor to form the Handsome Eight.
Perhaps one of his greatest achievements came in 1977, being called up to play singles in the finals of the Davis Cup tournament versus Italy, nearly 10 years since he had last played for Australia. In the tie, Roche upset top Italian Adriano Panatta, 6–3, 6–4, 6–4, to lead Australia to a 3–1 victory and elbow injuries cut short his career after having finished in the top 10 for six consecutive years. After completing his playing career Roche has developed a successful career as a tennis coach. He was the player-coach of the Denver Racquets who won the first World Team Tennis in competition 1974, Ivan Lendl hired Roche as a full-time coach for Roches advice on volleying. Roche coached world no.1 Patrick Rafter from 1997 to the end of his career in 2002. Roche coached world no.1 Roger Federer from 2005 to 12 May 2007 and it is reputed this was on a handshake agreement with no contract, Roche was paid by the week. Federer hired Roche for the reason that Lendl hired him. He coached two-time Grand Slam singles titlist Lleyton Hewitt, who was aiming to get his career back on track after a number of years on the ATP Tour.
On the day of her first round match against Alisa Kleybanova at the 2010 Australian Open,4, Jelena Dokić, requested an hour-long session from Roche as last minute training. Controversially, Roche sat in Pat Rafters courtside box during the 1998 US Open final versus fellow Australian Davis Cup teammate Philippoussis, Roche was made a Member of the Order of the British Empire in 1981 and an Officer of the Order of Australia in 2001. He entered the International Tennis Hall of Fame alongside doubles partner, in 1990 he was inducted into the Sport Australia Hall of Fame
Owen Keir Davidson is a former professional tennis player of the 1960s and 1970s. Partnering Billie Jean King, Davidson won eight grand slam mixed doubles titles, in 1967 he won a calendar year slam for mixed doubles, when he won the Australian Championships, and the French Championships and the US Championships. Davidson became the first player to win a match in the era of tennis when he defeated John Clifton in the first round of the British Hard Court Championships in Bournemouth played in April 1968. His best grand slam singles result was at Wimbledon in 1966 and he is the 1972 Australian Open and the 1973 US Open mens doubles champion, partnering John Newcombe and Ken Rosewall. He was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in Newport and he was inducted into the Australian Tennis Hall of Fame at the Rod Laver Arena in Melbourne on 26 January 2011. Owen Davidson at the International Tennis Hall of Fame Owen Davidson at the Association of Tennis Professionals Owen Davidson at the International Tennis Federation
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Roger Taylor (tennis)
Roger Taylor MBE is a British former tennis player. Born in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, he won 6 singles titles and 10 doubles titles during his career, Taylor reached the semi-finals at Wimbledon in 1967. His career-high ATP singles ranking was World No,11, though Taylor was ranked World No.8 in 1970 before the ATP rankings began. Also, Taylor scored 29 wins and 11 losses at the Great Britain Davis Cup team, Taylor was the sole British member of the so-called Handsome Eight signed by Lamar Hunt to compete in his newly created World Championship Tennis tour in 1968. Having already been declared the winner by the umpire following his match-point serve which was disputed by Borg. The linesman then, questioned by the umpire as to whether he wished to reconsider his decision, changed his in call to out, Taylor subsequently went on to win the match. He retired from tennis in 1980. He was Great Britains Davis Cup captain from February 2000 until January 2004, Taylor captained the British ladies Wightman Cup team, steering them to their last victory in the competition in 1978
Thomas Samuel Tom Okker is a former Dutch tennis player. He was ranked among the worlds top 10 singles players for seven years, 1968–74. He was ranked World No.1 in doubles in 1969, Okker was the Dutch champion from 1964 through 1968. In 1968, his first year as a professional, he won in singles, at Wimbledon, Okker reached the quarterfinals in 1968 and the semifinals in 1978. Okker reached the final after defeating Pancho Gonzales in the quarterfinal and he lost the final to American Arthur Ashe in five sets, 12–14, 7–5, 3–6, 6–3, 3–6. Okker turned professional in February 1969 when he signed a contract with the Lamar Hunts World Championship Tennis. He was the runner-up in 24 singles tournaments, Okker is among the most successful mens doubles players of all time. Okker won two Grand Slam doubles titles, the US Open in 1976 and the French Open in 1973, in total, Okker won 78 doubles events, a record that was finally broken by Todd Woodbridge in 2005. Okkers other doubles titles include the 1973 Italian Open,1973 London Grass Courts,1973 Spanish Open,1975 Opel International, and 1978 WCT World Doubles.
One of the first tennis professionals to win at least US $1 million in prize money. Between 1964 and 1981, Okker represented The Netherlands in the Davis Cup, playing in 13 ties, in 1965 Okker won both the singles and the mixed doubles titles at the Maccabiah Games in Israel. This event is open to all Israelis and to non-Israeli Jews and he was among the first players of his era to hit the ball with heavy topspin. Okker, who is Jewish on his fathers side, was inducted into the International Jewish Sports Hall of Fame in 2003. Since the mid-1980s Okker has been involved in art and was a partner in the Jaski art gallery in Amsterdam. In 2005 he founded art gallery Tom Okker Art bv in Hazerswoude-Dorp, Tom Okker at the Association of Tennis Professionals Tom Okker at the International Tennis Federation Tom Okker at the Davis Cup Jews in Sports bio List of select Jewish tennis players
Roy Stanley Emerson is an Australian former World number one tennis player who won 12 Major singles titles and 16 Grand Slam tournament mens doubles titles. He is the male player to have completed a Career Grand Slam in both singles and doubles. His 28 major titles are a record for a male amateur player. Roy Emerson is the first male player to win each amateur major title at least twice in his career and he is one of only eight men to win all four majors in his career. He was the first male player to win 12 majors, along with Novak Djokovic, he is one of only two male players to win 6 Australian Championships. He won five of them consecutively and his 12 wins have since been surpassed. Emerson is only one of five tennis players all-time to win multiple slam sets in two disciplines, only matched by Margaret Court, Martina Navratilova, Frank Sedgman and Serena Williams, Emerson was born on a farm in Blackbutt, Queensland. His family moved to Brisbane and he received better tennis instruction after attending Brisbane Grammar School, Emerson won his first Grand Slam tournament doubles title in 1959 at Wimbledon.
In 1961, he captured his first Grand Slam tournament singles title at the Australian Championships, that year, Emerson claimed his second major singles crown when he again beat Laver in the final of the US Championships. Affectionately known as Emmo on the tour, the six-foot right-hander was known for training hard and he was primarily a serve-and-volley style player, but was able to adapt to the rigours of slow courts, allowing him to enjoy success on all surfaces. From 1963 to 1967, Emerson won five consecutive singles titles at the Australian Championships. His six Australian singles crowns are a record for a male player,1963 saw Emerson capture his first French Championships singles title, beating Pierre Darmon in the final. Emersons first Wimbledon singles title came in 1964, with a victory over Fred Stolle. Emerson won 55 consecutive matches during 1964 and finished the year with 109 victories out of 115 matches and he won three of the years four Grand Slam events that year. During his amateur career Emerson received several offers to turn professional, including an £38,000 offer made at the end of 1964 by Jack Kramer, but declined and opted to remain an amateur.
Emerson was the World No.1 amateur player in 1964 and 1965 according to Lance Tingay of The Daily Telegraph, in 1965, he successfully defended his Australian and Wimbledon singles crowns. He was the favourite to win Wimbledon again in 1966. He still finished the match, but was unable to win, emersons last major singles title came at the French Championships in 1967 – the year before the open era began
The Netherlands, informally known as Holland is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country.
Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.
The Netherlands ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, changed over time tremendously
John David Newcombe, AO, OBE is a former tennis player from Australia who won seven Grand Slam singles titles and an all-time record 17 doubles titles. He is one of the few men to have been ranked world No.1 in both singles and doubles and he contributed to five Davis Cup titles for Australia during an age when Davis Cup was deemed as significant as the Grand Slams. Tennis Magazine ranked Newcombe the 10th best male player of the period 1965–2005, a natural athlete, Newcombe played several sports as a boy until devoting himself to tennis. He was the Australian junior champion from 1961 to 1963 and was a member of Australias Davis Cup winning team in 1964 and he won his first Grand Slam title in 1965 by taking the Australian Championships doubles title with fellow Australian Tony Roche. That same year, the duo won the Wimbledon doubles title and they teamed to win the Australian doubles championship three more times, Wimbledon another four times and the US Championships in 1967, the French Championships in 1967, and the French Open in 1969.
They won 12 Grand Slam titles, which remained the record for a mens doubles team until 2013. Newcombes powerful serve and volley was the backbone of his attacking game and he frequently came up with a second-serve ace. He was the top ranked amateur in the world in 1967 according to Lance Tingay, as a professional, Newcombe was the joint world No.1 player in 1970 and 1971. In singles play, he was a winner of the Australian Open, a three-time winner of Wimbledon. In January 1968 he signed a professional contract with Lamar Hunts World Championship Tennis and became part of the Handsome Eight. Newcombe was the last of the Australians who dominated tennis in the 1950s, 60s and 70s, in his 1979 autobiography, Jack Kramer, the long-time tennis promoter and great player himself, included Newcombe in his list of the 21 greatest players of all time. Newcombe was captain of the Australian Davis Cup team from 1995 until 2000, Newcombe was inducted into the Sport Australia Hall of Fame in 1985 and in 1986, his achievements were recognised with his induction into the International Tennis Hall of Fame.
Source, ITF Newcombe served as chairman of the International Tennis Players Association which formed in 1969 and he served as President of the Association of Tennis Professionals in 1977 and 1978. Overall, he won 26 Grand Slam titles in singles, doubles and Rod Laver are the only players to ever win both the US Open and Wimbledon mens singles titles as an amateur and as a professional. The grass surfaces favoured his game, and the French Opens clay surface was the major singles championship he never won. However, he did take the French doubles title on three occasions and he is an Australian Living Treasure. The Newcombe Medal, awarded yearly to the most outstanding Australian tennis player, is named in honour of his tennis achievements and he runs the John Newcombe Tennis Ranch & Tennis Academy in New Braunfels, Texas. In 2001 he was revealed to be President George W. Bushs drinking companion on the night of 4 September 1976 and this controversy surfaced during the 2000 US Presidential Election
Arthur Robert Ashe, Jr. was an American World No.1 professional tennis player. He won three Grand Slam titles, Ashe was the first black player selected to the United States Davis Cup team and the only black man ever to win the singles title at Wimbledon, the US Open, and the Australian Open. He was ranked World No.1 by Harry Hopman in 1968 and by Lance Tingay of The Daily Telegraph, in the ATP computer rankings, he peaked at No.2 in May 1976. In the early 1980s, Ashe is believed to have contracted HIV from a blood transfusion he received during heart bypass surgery, Ashe publicly announced his illness in April 1992 and began working to educate others about HIV and AIDS. He founded the Arthur Ashe Foundation for the Defeat of AIDS, on June 20,1993, Ashe was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by the United States President Bill Clinton. Arthur Ashe was born in Richmond, Virginia, to Arthur Ashe Sr. and he had a brother, who was five years younger. In March 1950, Ashes mother Mattie died from complications related to a pregnancy at the age of 27.
Ashe and his brother were raised by their father who worked as a handyman, Ashe Sr. Ashe attended Maggie L. Walker High School where he continued to practice tennis. Ron Charity brought him to the attention of Robert Walter Johnson, a physician, and coach of Althea Gibson, Ashe was coached and mentored by Johnson at his tennis summer camp home in Lynchburg, Virginia from 1953 when Ashe was age 10, until 1960. Johnson helped fine-tune Ashes game and taught him the importance of racial socialization through sportsmanship, etiquette and he was told to return every ball that landed within two inches of a line and never to argue with an umpires decision. In 1958, Ashe became the first African-American to play in the Maryland boys championships and it was his first integrated tennis competition. Louis teacher, tennis coach and friend of Dr. Johnson, to move to St. Louis, Ashe lived with Hudlin and his family for the year, during which time Hudlin coached and encouraged him to develop the serve-and-volley game that Ashes, now stronger, physique allowed.
In December 1960 and again in 1963, Ashe featured in Sports Illustrated and he became the first African-American to win the National Junior Indoor tennis title and was awarded a tennis scholarship to the University of California, Los Angeles in 1963. During his time at UCLA, he was coached by J. D. Morgan and practiced regularly with his idol, Pancho Gonzales. Ashe was a member of the ROTC which required him to active military service after graduation in exchange for money for tuition. He was active in other things, joining the Upsilon chapter of the Kappa Alpha Psi fraternity on campus, after graduating with a bachelors degree in business administration, Ashe joined the United States Army on August 4,1966. Ashe completed his training in Washington and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Adjutant General Corps. He was assigned to the United States Military Academy at West Point where he worked as a data processor, during his time at West Point, Ashe headed the academys tennis program
New Zealand /njuːˈziːlənd/ is an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, or Te Ika-a-Māui, and the South Island, or Te Waipounamu—and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, the countrys varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealands capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland, sometime between 1250 and 1300 CE, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand, in 1840, representatives of Britain and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire, the majority of New Zealands population of 4.7 million is of European descent, the indigenous Māori are the largest minority, followed by Asians and Pacific Islanders. Reflecting this, New Zealands culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers. The official languages are English, Māori and New Zealand Sign Language, New Zealand is a developed country and ranks highly in international comparisons of national performance, such as health, economic freedom and quality of life. Since the 1980s, New Zealand has transformed from an agrarian, Queen Elizabeth II is the countrys head of state and is represented by a governor-general. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes, the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau, the Cook Islands and Niue, and the Ross Dependency, which is New Zealands territorial claim in Antarctica. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Pacific Islands Forum, and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation.
Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and called it Staten Landt, in 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand, Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand. It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the country before the arrival of Europeans. Māori had several names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South, in 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907, this was the accepted norm. The New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised and this set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, and South Island or Te Waipounamu
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci