New York University
New York University is a private research university founded in New York City but now with campuses and locations throughout the world. Founded in 1831, NYU's historical campus is in New York City; as a global university, students can graduate from its degree-granting campuses in NYU Abu Dhabi and NYU Shanghai, as well as study at its 12 academic centers in Accra, Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Sydney, Tel Aviv, Washington, D. C. For the class that matriculated in the fall of 2019, NYU received nearly 85,000 applications for its undergraduate programs. In 2018, NYU was ranked amongst the top 40 universities worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, Times Higher Education World University Rankings, U. S. News & World Report. Alumni include heads of state, eminent scientists and entrepreneurs, media figures, founders and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, astronauts; as of March 2019, 37 Nobel Laureates, 8 Turing Award winners, 5 Fields Medalists, over 30 Academy Award winners, over 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, hundreds of members of the National Academies of Sciences and United States Congress have been affiliated as faculty or alumni.
Globally, NYU is ranked 7th by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for producing alumni who are millionaires, 4th by Wealth-X for producing ultra high net-worth and billionaire alumni. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, declared his intention to establish "in this immense and fast-growing city... a system of rational and practical education fitting and graciously opened to all". A three-day-long "literary and scientific convention" held in City Hall in 1830 and attended by over 100 delegates debated the terms of a plan for a new university; these New Yorkers believed the city needed a university designed for young men who would be admitted based upon merit rather than birthright or social class. On April 18, 1831, an institution was established, with the support of a group of prominent New York City residents from the city's merchants and traders. Albert Gallatin was elected as the institution's first president. On April 21, 1831, the new institution received its charter and was incorporated as the University of the City of New York by the New York State Legislature.
The university has been popularly known as New York University since its inception and was renamed New York University in 1896. In 1832, NYU held its first classes in rented rooms of four-story Clinton Hall, situated near City Hall. In 1835, the School of Law, NYU's first professional school, was established. Although the impetus to found a new school was a reaction by evangelical Presbyterians to what they perceived as the Episcopalianism of Columbia College, NYU was created non-denominational, unlike many American colleges at the time. American Chemical Society was founded in 1876 at NYU, it became one of the nation's largest universities, with an enrollment of 9,300 in 1917. NYU had its Washington Square campus since its founding; the university purchased a campus at University Heights in the Bronx because of overcrowding on the old campus. NYU had a desire to follow New York City's development further uptown. NYU's move to the Bronx occurred in 1894, spearheaded by the efforts of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken.
The University Heights campus was far more spacious. As a result, most of the university's operations along with the undergraduate College of Arts and Science and School of Engineering were housed there. NYU's administrative operations were moved to the new campus, but the graduate schools of the university remained at Washington Square. In 1914, Washington Square College was founded as the downtown undergraduate college of NYU. In 1935, NYU opened the "Nassau College-Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead, Long Island"; this extension would become a independent Hofstra University. In 1950, NYU was elected to the Association of American Universities, a nonprofit organization of leading public and private research universities. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, financial crisis gripped the New York City government and the troubles spread to the city's institutions, including NYU. Feeling the pressures of imminent bankruptcy, NYU President James McNaughton Hester negotiated the sale of the University Heights campus to the City University of New York, which occurred in 1973.
In 1973, the New York University School of Engineering and Science merged into Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, which merged back into NYU in 2014 forming the present Tandon School of Engineering. After the sale of the Bronx campus, University College merged with Washington Square College. In the 1980s, under the leadership of President John Brademas, NYU launched a billion-dollar campaign, spent entirely on updating facilities; the campaign was set to complete in 15 years, but ended up being completed in 10. In 1991, L. Jay Oliva was inaugurated the 14th president of the university. Following his inauguration, he moved to form the League of World Universities, an international organization consisting of rectors and presidents from urban universities across six continents; the league and its 47 representatives gather every two years to discuss global issues in education. In 2003 President John Sexton launched a $2.5 billion campaign for funds to be spent on faculty and financial aid resources.
Under Sextons leadership, NYU began its radical transformation into a global university. In 2009, the university responded to a series of New York Times interviews that showed a pattern of labor abuses in its fledgling Abu Dhabi location, creating a statement of
Power forward (basketball)
The power forward known as the four, is one of the five positions in a regulation basketball game. It has been referred to as the "post" position. Power forwards play a role similar to that of center, they play offensively with their backs towards the basket and position themselves defensively under the basket in a zone defense or against the opposing power forward in man-to-man defense. The power forward position entails a variety of responsibilities, one of, rebounding. Many power forwards are noted for their mid-range jump-shot, several players have become accurate from 12 to 18 feet. Earlier, these skills were more exhibited in the European style of play; some power forwards, known as stretch fours, have since extended their shooting range to three-point field goals. In the NBA, power forwards range from 6' 8" to 7' 0" while in the WNBA, power forwards are between 6' 1" and 6' 4". Despite the averages, a variety of players fit "tweener" roles which finds them in the small forward or center position depending on matchups and coaching decisions.
Some power forwards play the center position and have the skills, but lack the height, associated with that position
North Carolina Central University
North Carolina Central University known as Central, is a public black university in Durham, North Carolina. Founded by James E. Shepard in affiliation with the Chautauqua movement in 1909, it was supported by private funds from both Northern and Southern philanthropists, it was made part of the state system in 1923, when it first received state funding and was renamed as Durham State Normal School. It added graduate classes in arts and sciences, professional schools in law and library science in the late 1930s and 1940s. In 1969 the legislature designated this as a regional university and renamed it as North Carolina Central University, it has been part of the University of North Carolina system since 1972, offers programs at the baccalaureate, master's, professional and doctoral levels. The university is a member-school of Thurgood Marshall College Fund. North Carolina Central University was founded by James E. Shepard as the National Religious Training School and Chautauqua for the Colored Race in the Hayti District.
Chautauqua was an educational movement. The school was chartered in 1909 as a private institution and opened on July 5, 1910. Woodrow Wilson, the future U. S. President, contributed some private support for the school's founding; the school was reorganized in 1915, becoming the National Training School. The National Training School supported Black teacher development in the Jim Crow era, a time when Black education was underfunded by southern states at both the lower and upper levels. Becoming a state-funded institution in 1923, this school was renamed as Durham State Normal School. In 1925, reflecting the expansion of its programs to a four-year curriculum with a variety of majors, it was renamed as the North Carolina College for Negroes, it was the nation's first state-supported liberal arts college for black students. To avoid the state Jim Crow system of segregated passenger cars on trains, Shepard insisted on traveling to Raleigh by car to lobby the legislature; the college's first four-year class graduated in 1929.
The college was accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools as an "A" class institution in 1937, but it was not admitted to membership until 1957. Graduate courses in the School of Arts and Sciences were added in 1939, in the School of Law in 1940, in the School of Library Science in 1941. In 1947, the General Assembly changed the name of the institution to North Carolina College at Durham. On October 6, 1947, the founder and president, died, he was succeeded in 1948 by Alfonso Elder. Elder served as president until he retired September 1, 1963. Samuel P. Massie was appointed as the third president on August 9, 1963, resigned on February 1, 1966. On July 1, 1967, Albert N. Whiting assumed the presidency, serving until his retirement June 30, 1983; the 1969 General Assembly designated the institution as one of the State's regional universities, the name was changed to North Carolina Central University. Since 1972, NCCU has been a constituent institution of the University of North Carolina system.
On July 1, 1972, the state's four-year colleges and universities were joined to become The Consolidated University of North Carolina, with 16 individual campuses, headed by a single president and governed by the University of North Carolina Board of Governors. However, each campus was led by a campus-specific Board of Trustees. Whiting was succeeded by LeRoy T. Walker as chancellor, followed by Tyronza R. Richmond, Julius L. Chambers, James H. Ammons, Charlie Nelms, Debra Saunders-White in 2013. Saunders-White was the first woman to hold the office on a permanent basis; the campus is located about a mile south of downtown Durham, North Carolina and about three miles east of Duke University. Eleven buildings built before 1940 are included in a national historic district. All of the buildings, except for the three residences, are Georgian Revival-style buildings, they include the Clyde R. Hoey Administration Building, Alexander Dunn Hall, Annie Day Shepard Hall, five institutional buildings built in the late 1930s under the auspices of the Public Works Administration.
The campus was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1986. NCCU is a part of the UNC System; the campus is governed by a thirteen-member Board of Trustees: eight elected, four appointed, the president of the Student Government Association serves as an ex-officio member. The Board meets five times per year; as of 2011, NCCU had a total of 8,587 students, including 5396 full-time undergraduate and 1233 full-time graduate students. Sixty-four percent are women and 36 percent are men. Eighty-five percent are African-American, 6 percent are white, 2 percent are Hispanic; as of 2018, NCCU had a student faculty ratio of 16:1. School of Business School of Education School of Law School of Library & Information Sciences School of Nursing College of Behavioral & Social Sciences College of Arts and Sciences NCCU in conjunction with the African American Jazz Caucus sponsors a Jazz Research Institute which conducts an annual Summer Jazz Festival and offers a program in Jazz Studies. Biomedical/Biotechnology Research
The five basketball positions employed by organized basketball teams are the point guard, the shooting guard, the small forward, the power forward, the center. The point guard is the leader of the team on the court; this position requires substantial ball handling skills and the ability to facilitate the team during a play. The shooting guard, as the name implies, is the best shooter; as well as being capable of shooting from longer distances, this position tends to be the best defender on the team. The small forward has an aggressive approach to the basket when handling the ball; the small forward is known to make cuts to the basket in efforts to get open for shots. The power forward and the center are called the "frontcourt" acting as their team's primary rebounders or shot blockers, or receiving passes to take inside shots; the center is the larger of the two. Only three positions were recognized based on where they played on the court: Guards played outside and away from the hoop and forwards played outside and near the baseline, with the center positioned in the key.
During the 1980s, as team strategy evolved. More specialized roles developed. Team strategy and available personnel, still dictate the positions used by a particular team. For example, the dribble-drive motion offense and the Princeton offense use four interchangeable guards and one center; this set is known as a "four-in and one-out" play scheme. Other combinations are prevalent. Besides the five basic positions, some teams use non-standard or hybrid positions, such as the point forward, a hybrid small forward/point guard; the point guard known as the one, is the team's best ball handler and passer. Therefore, they lead their team in assists and are able to create shots for themselves and their teammates, they are quick and are able to hit shots either outside the three-point line or "in the paint" depending on the player's skill level. Point guards are looked upon as the "floor general" or the "coach on the floor", they should study the game and game film to be able to recognize the weaknesses of the defense, the strengths of their own offense.
They are responsible for directing plays, making the position equivalent to that of quarterback in American football, playmaker in association football, center in ice hockey, or setter in volleyball. Good point guards increase team efficiency and have a high number of assists, they are referred to as dribblers or play-makers. In the NBA, point guards are the shortest players on the team and are 6 feet 4 inches or shorter; the shooting guard is known as the two or the off guard. Along with the small forward, a shooting guard is referred to as a wing because of its use in common positioning tactics; as the name suggests, most shooting guards are prolific from the three-point range. Besides being able to shoot the ball, shooting guards tend to be the best defender on the team, as well as being able to move without the ball to create open looks for themselves; some shooting guards have good ball handling skills creating their own shots off the dribble. A versatile shooting guard will have good passing skills, allowing them to assume point guard responsibilities known as combo guards.
Bigger shooting guards tend to play as small forwards. In the NBA, shooting guards range from 6 feet 4 inches to 6 feet 8 inches; the small forward known as the three, is considered to be the most versatile of the main five basketball positions. Versatility is key for small forwards because of the nature of their role, which resembles that of a shooting guard more than that of a power forward; this is why the small forward and shooting guard positions are interchangeable and referred to as wings. Small forwards have a variety such as quickness and strength inside. One common thread among all kinds of small forwards is an ability to "get to the line" and draw fouls by aggressively attempting plays, lay-ups, or slam dunks; as such, accurate foul shooting is a common skill for small forwards, many of whom record a large portion of their points from the foul line. Besides being able to drive to the basket, they are good shooters from long range; some small forwards have good passing skills, allowing them to assume point guard responsibilities as point forwards.
Small forwards should be able to do a little bit of everything on the court playing roles such as swingmen and defensive specialists. In the NBA, small forwards range from 6 feet 6 inches to 6 feet 9 inches; the power forward known as the four plays a role similar to that of the center, down in the "post" or "low blocks". The power forward is the team's most versatile scorer, being able to score close to the basket while being able to shoot mid-range jump shots from 12 to 18 feet from the basket; some power forwards have become known as stretch fours, since extending their shooting range to three-pointers. On defense, they are required to have the strength to guard bigger players close to the basket and to have the athleticism to guard quick players away from the basket. Most power forwards tend to be more versatile than centers since they can be part of plays and are not always in the low block. In the
Forward–center or Bigman is a basketball position for players who play or have played both forward and center on a consistent basis. This means power forward and center, since these are the two biggest player positions on any basketball team, therefore more overlap each other. Forward–center came into the basketball jargon as the game evolved and became more specialized in the 1960s; the five positions on court were known only as guards and the center, but it is now accepted that the five primary positions are point guard, shooting guard, small forward, power forward, center. A forward–center is a talented forward who came to play minutes at center on teams that need help at that position; the player could be a somewhat floor-bound center, under seven feet tall at the NBA level, whose skills suit him to a power forward position if that team has a better center. One such player is Marcus Camby of the New York Knicks. At 6'11", he plays as a center, but when he played for the New York Knicks earlier in his career, he played power forward because his team had one of the best pure centers in the league in 7'0" Patrick Ewing.
Ewing himself was used as a forward–center early in his career to complement the then-incumbent Knicks center, 7'1" Bill Cartwright. Ralph Sampson, at 7'4", was another notable forward–center who played center his rookie year in 1983. In 1984, he moved to power forward. Most forward-centers range from 6' 9" to 7' 0" in height. Other notable forward-centers include: Kevin Garnett, Tim Duncan, Pau Gasol, Chris Bosh, LaMarcus Aldridge, Anthony Davis, Al Horford, Draymond Green. Tweener
Tom Thacker (basketball)
Thomas Porter Thacker is an American retired basketball player. He played in the National Basketball Association for the Cincinnati Royals and the Boston Celtics from 1963 to 1968, from 1968 to 1971, for the American Basketball Association's Indiana Pacers, he is the only player to have played on an NCAA championship team, an ABA championship team, an NBA championship team. Thacker was born in and grew up in Covington, Kentucky across the Ohio River from Cincinnati, the son of William and Velma Arvin Thacker, he attended Our Savior's High School until integration closed it in 1956. He attended the all-black William Grant High School, where he played basketball, he led the team to a 26-5 record. As a senior, he averaged 33.8 points as the team went 31-7. He scored 36 points in his final high school game as the team lost the Kentucky state championship game, 85-84. In 1959 he needed a few credits to earn his degree, so he attended Holmes High School during the summer and graduated. Thacker attended the University of Cincinnati and played three varsity seasons for the Bearcats under coach Ed Jucker.
As a sophomore in 1960–61, he averaged 12.3 points per game and was named All-Missouri Valley Conference as the Bearcats won the league title. The Bearcats finished the season with a record of 27-3 and, on March 25, 1961, led by the balanced attack of Thacker, Bob Wiesenhahn, Tony Yates, Paul Hogue and Carl Bouldin, won the NCAA Championship with a 70-65 overtime win over the Ohio State Buckeyes; as a junior in 1961–62, Thacker averaged 11.0 points per game and was again All-MVC. The Bearcats again posted a 29-2 record. With Ron Bonham and George Wilson replacing the departed Wiesenhahn and Bouldin, the Bearcats again captured the NCAA title on March 24, 1962, again over Ohio State, 71-59; as a senior in 1962–63, he averaged 15.8 points per game, led the team in assists with 4.0 per game, was named the team MVP. He was named All-MVC for the third consecutive season. In addition, he was a consensus first-team All-American along with teammate Bonham; the Bearcats, with the same starting lineup as the year before except for Larry Shingleton replacing the departed Hogue, won the league crown yet again and, for the third straight season, advanced to the NCAA championship game.
However, on March 23, 1963, the Bearcats lost to Loyola University Chicago. Thacker was chosen in the first round of the 1963 NBA draft as a territorial pick by the Cincinnati Royals. During his three seasons with the Royals, he played about nine minutes per game as a backup guard, averaging 2.8, 2.5, 3.7 points per game during the 1963–64 through 1965–66 seasons. On May 1, 1966 he was drafted by the Chicago Bulls in the NBA expansion draft, but he decided to retire and did not play that season. On August 4, 1967, he was signed as a free agent by the Boston Celtics, it turned out to be a fortuitous trade for Thacker. Averaging about 12 minutes per game and 4.2 points and 2.5 rebounds per game, he earned a championship ring as the Celtics won the NBA title in a six-game finals series over the Los Angeles Lakers. He posted a career single-game high of 17 points twice, on February 11, 1968 against the Lakers and again on March 7 against the Bulls. After Thacker's fourth NBA season, on May 6, 1968, he was drafted by the Milwaukee Bucks in the NBA expansion draft.
However, he opted to play in the American Basketball Association for the Indiana Pacers. In 1968–69, playing just 18 games, he averaged 5.4 points, 3.7 rebounds and 2.9 assists per game, all career personal bests. In 1969–70, he played 70 games, averaging 2.7 points per game and helped the Pacers capture the ABA championship in six games over the Los Angeles Stars. In his third and final ABA season of 1970–71, he played eight games and his seven-year professional career ended. Thacker earned both a master's degree from the University of Cincinnati, he became the first African-American coach at the University of Cincinnati, leading the women's basketball program from 1974 to 1977. Thacker owns Tom Thacker Enterprises, in Cincinnati, he has served as deputy director of the Cincinnati Urban League, he served as a teacher with Cincinnati Public Schools. In 1986, he was inducted into the Northern Kentucky Sports Hall of Fame and, in 1989, into the Northern Kentucky Black Hall of Fame, he will be inducted into the Ohio Basketball Hall of Fame at the 11th Annual Ceremony on May 21, 2016 in Columbus.
NBA statistics @ basketballreference.com
Arnold Jacob "Red" Auerbach was an American basketball coach of the Washington Capitols, the Tri-Cities Blackhawks and the Boston Celtics. After he retired from coaching, he served as president and front office executive of the Celtics until his death; as a coach, he won nine National Basketball Association championships in ten seasons. As general manager and team president of the Celtics, he won an additional seven NBA titles, for a grand total of 16 in a span of 29 years, making him one of the most successful team officials in the history of North American professional sports. Auerbach is remembered as a pioneer of modern basketball, redefining basketball as a game dominated by team play and defense and for introducing the fast break as a potent offensive weapon, he groomed many players. Additionally, Auerbach was vital in breaking down color barriers in the NBA, he made history by drafting the first African-American NBA player, Chuck Cooper in 1950, introduced the first African-American starting five in 1964, hired the first African-American head coach in North American sports.
Famous for his polarizing nature, he was well known for smoking a cigar when he thought a victory was assured, a habit that became, for many, "the ultimate symbol of victory" during his Boston tenure. In 1967, the NBA Coach of the Year award, which he had won in 1965, was named the "Red Auerbach Trophy", Auerbach was inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame in 1969. In 1980, he was named the greatest coach in the history of the NBA by the Professional Basketball Writers Association of America, was NBA Executive of the Year in 1980. In addition, Auerbach was voted one of the NBA 10 Greatest Coaches in history, was inducted into the National Jewish Sports Hall of Fame, is honored with a retired number 2 jersey in the TD Garden, the home of the Boston Celtics. Arnold Jacob Auerbach was one of the four children of Hyman Auerbach. Hyman was a Russian-Jewish immigrant from Minsk and Marie Auerbach, née Thompson, was American-born. Auerbach Sr. had left Russia when he was 13, the couple owned a delicatessen store and went into the dry-cleaning business.
Little Arnold spent his whole childhood in Williamsburg, playing basketball. With his flaming red hair and fiery temper, Auerbach was soon nicknamed "Red."Amid the Great Depression, Red played basketball at PS 122 and in the Eastern District High School, where he was named "Second Team All-Brooklyn" by the World-Telegram in his senior year. Auerbach received an athletic scholarship to the basketball program of Bill Reinhart at George Washington University in Washington, D. C. Auerbach was a standout basketball player and graduated with a M. A. in 1941. In those years, Auerbach began to understand the importance of the fast break, appreciating how potent three charging attackers against two back-pedalling defenders could be. In 1941, Auerbach began coaching basketball at the St. Albans School and Roosevelt High School in Washington, D. C. Two years he joined the US Navy for three years, coaching the Navy basketball team in Norfolk. There, he caught the eye of Washington millionaire Mike Uline, who hired him to coach the Washington Capitols in the newly founded Basketball Association of America, a predecessor of the NBA.
In the 1946–47 BAA season, Auerbach led a fast break-oriented team built around early BAA star Bones McKinney and various ex-Navy players to a 49–11 win–loss record, including a standard-setting 17-game winning streak that stood as the single-season league record until 1969. In the playoffs, they were defeated by the Chicago Stags in six games; the next year the Capitols went 28–20 but were eliminated from the playoffs in a one-game Western Division tie-breaker. In the 1948–49 BAA season, the Caps won their first 15 games and finished the season at 38–22; the team reached the BAA Finals, but were beaten by the Minneapolis Lakers, who were led by Hall-of-Fame center George Mikan. In the next season, the BAA and the rival league National Basketball League merged to become the NBA, Auerbach felt he had to rebuild his squad. However, owner Uline declined his proposals, Auerbach resigned. After leaving the Capitols, Auerbach became assistant coach of the Duke Blue Devils men's basketball team, it was assumed that Auerbach would take over for head coach Gerry Gerard, battling cancer.
During his tenure at Duke, Auerbach worked with future All-American Dick Groat. Auerbach wrote that he "felt pretty bad waiting for to die" and that it was "no way to get a job". Auerbach left Duke after a few months when Ben Kerner, owner of the Tri-Cities Blackhawks, gave him the green light to rebuild the team from scratch. Auerbach traded more than two dozen players in just six weeks, the revamped Blackhawks improved, but ended the 1949–50 NBA season with a losing record of 28–29; when Kerner traded Auerbach's favorite player John Mahnken, an angry Auerbach resigned again. Prior to the 1950–51 NBA season, Walter Brown, owner of the Boston Celtics, was desperate to turn around his struggling and financially strapped franchise, reeling from a 22–46 record. Brown, in characteristic candor, said to a gathering of local Boston sportswriters, "Boys, I don't know anything about basketball. Who would you recommend I hire as coach?" The group vociferously answered that he get the available Auerbach, Brown complied.
In the 1950 NBA draft, Auerbach made some notable moves. First, he famously snubbed Hall-of-Fame New England point guard Bob Cousy in the 1950 NBA draft, infuriating the Boston crowd, he argued th