Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin is the 20th most populous; the state capital is Madison, its largest city is Milwaukee, located on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin's geography is diverse, having been impacted by glaciers during the Ice Age with the exception of the Driftless Area; the Northern Highland and Western Upland along with a part of the Central Plain occupies the western part of the state, with lowlands stretching to the shore of Lake Michigan. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European settlers entered the state, many of whom emigrated from Germany and Scandinavia. Like neighboring Minnesota, the state remains a center of German American and Scandinavian American culture.
Wisconsin is known as "America's Dairyland" because it is one of the nation's leading dairy producers famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, information technology, cranberries and tourism are major contributors to the state's economy; the word Wisconsin originates from the name given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673 and calling the river Meskousing in his journal. Subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands. English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in large numbers during the early 19th century; the legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845. The Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure.
Interpretations vary. One leading theory holds that the name originated from the Miami word Meskonsing, meaning "it lies red", a reference to the setting of the Wisconsin River as it flows through the reddish sandstone of the Wisconsin Dells. Other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning "red stone place", "where the waters gather", or "great rock". Wisconsin has been home to a wide variety of cultures over the past 14,000 years; the first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation. These early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting and gathering food from wild plants. Agricultural societies emerged over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE. Toward the end of this period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the "Effigy Mound culture", which built thousands of animal-shaped mounds across the landscape.
Between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the fortified village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact. Other Native American groups living in Wisconsin when Europeans first settled included the Ojibwa, Fox and Pottawatomie, who migrated to Wisconsin from the east between 1500 and 1700; the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, it is traditionally assumed that he came ashore near Green Bay at Red Banks. Pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien.
Frenchmen like Nicholas Perrot continued to ply the fur trade across Wisconsin through the 17th and 18th centuries, but the French made no permanent settlements in Wisconsin before Great Britain won control of the region following the French and Indian War in 1763. So, French traders continued to work in the region after the war, some, beginning with Charles de Langlade in 1764, settled in Wisconsin permanently, rather than returning to British-controlled Canada; the British took over Wisconsin during the French and Indian War, taking control of Green Bay in 1761 and gaining control of all of Wisconsin in 1763. Like the French, the British were interested in little but the fur trade. One notable event in the fur trading industry in Wisconsin occurred in 1791, when two free African Americans set up a fur trading post among the Menominee at present day Marinette; the first permanent settlers French Canadians, some Anglo-New Englanders and a few African American freedmen, arrived in Wisconsin while it was under British control.
Charles Michel de Langlade is recognized as the first settler, establishing a trading post at Green Bay in 1745, moving there permanently in 1764. Settlement began at Prairie du Chien around 1781; the French residents at the trading post in what is now Green Bay, referred to the t
Livingston County, Missouri
Livingston County is a county located in the northwestern portion of the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 15,195, its county seat is Chillicothe. The county was organized January 6, 1837, named for U. S. Secretary of State Edward Livingston. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 539 square miles, of which 532 square miles is land and 6.2 square miles is water. Grundy County Linn County Chariton County Carroll County Caldwell County Daviess County U. S. Route 36 U. S. Route 65 Route 190 As of the 2010 census, there were 15,195 people, 5,871 households and 3,834 families residing in the county; the population density was 28 per square mile. There were 6,730 housing units at an average density of 12 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.39% White, 2.42% Black or African American, 0.32% Native American, 0.28% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.38% from other races, 1.20% from two or more races. 1.19% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 5,871 households of which 29.59% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.29% were married couples living together, 10.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.70% were non-families. 29.94% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.43% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.90. Age distribution was 21.91% under the age of 18, 7.74% from 18 to 24, 25.34% from 25 to 44, 26.81% from 45 to 64, 18.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 81.02 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 76.47 males. The median household income was $39,683, the median family income was $53,325. Males had a median income of $38,282 versus $24,944 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,295. About 15.8% of families and 20.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.4% of those under age 18 and 18.4% of those age 65 or over.
Chillicothe R-II School District – Chillicothe Garrison Elementary School Dewey Elementary School Field Elementary School Central Elementary School Chillicothe Middle School Chillicothe High School Livingston County R-III School District – Chula Livingston County Elementary School Southwest Livingston County R-I School District – Ludlow Southwest Livingston County Elementary School Southwest Livingston County High School Bishop Hogan Memorial School – Chillicothe – Roman Catholic Livingston County Library The Democratic Party predominantly controls politics at the local level in Livingston County. Democrats hold all but two of the elected positions in the county. All of Livingston County is a part of Missouri’s 7th District in the Missouri House of Representatives and is represented by Rusty Black. All of Livingston County is a part of Missouri’s 21st District in the Missouri Senate and is represented by Denny Hoskins. All of Livingston County is included in Missouri’s 6th Congressional District and is represented by Sam Graves in the U.
S. House of Representatives. Former U. S. Senator Hillary Clinton received more votes, a total of 948, than any candidate from either party in Livingston County during the 2008 presidential primary. Bower Slack Broaddus, U. S. Federal Judge Courtney W. Campbell, U. S. Representative from Florida Ray and Faye Copeland, serial killers Claude B. Hutchison, botanist and Mayor of Berkeley, California Jerry Litton, U. S. Representative from Missouri Charles H. Mansur, U. S. Representative from Missouri Shirley Collie Nelson, country music artist/actress Henry Moses Pollard, U. S. Representative from Missouri John Quinn, Missouri State Representative William Y. Slack, brigadier general and politician Clarence Edwin Watkins, publisher Mike Lair, Missouri State Representative and former teacher Haun's Mill massacre Mormon War National Register of Historic Places listings in Livingston County, Missouri Livingston County Library Digitized 1930 Plat Book of Livingston County from University of Missouri Division of Special Collections and Rare Books
Scott County, Iowa
Scott County is a county located in the U. S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 165,224; the county seat is Davenport. Scott County is included in IA-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area; the first American settlement in the area now known as Scott County was Clark's Ferry or Clark's Landing in 1833. Other early towns included the town of Rockingham; the area was surveyed in 1837, the county was established by the Wisconsin territorial legislature in that same year. Scott County is named for General Winfield Scott, the presiding officer at the signing of the peace treaty ending the Black Hawk War. By 1900 the population of the county was 51,500, by 1950 it was over 100,000. Scott County now comprises part of the Quad City region, which includes the cities of Davenport and Bettendorf and Rock Island and East Moline; the present Scott County Courthouse was completed in 1955 and expanded along with the jail in 2007. The old section of the Scott County Jail was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 468 square miles, of which 458 square miles is land and 10 square miles is water. Clinton County Rock Island County, Illinois Muscatine County Cedar County The US Census Bureau estimated Scott County's population at 170,385 in 2013, fourth fastest-growing out of Iowa’s 99 counties after Dallas County, Iowa, a Western suburb of Des Moines, Johnson County, Polk County and followed by Warren County, Iowa being the top five; the 2010 census recorded a population of 165,224 in the county, with a population density of 360.806/sq mi. There were 71,835 housing units, of which 66,765 were occupied; as of the census of 2000, there were 158,668 people, 62,334 households, 41,888 families residing in the county. The population density was 346 people per square mile. There were 65,649 housing units at an average density of 143 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 88.54% White, 6.11% Black or African American, 0.32% Native American, 1.58% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.64% from other races, 1.80% from two or more races.
4.06% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 62,334 households out of which 33.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.30% were married couples living together, 11.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.80% were non-families. 26.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.04. Age spread: 26.50% under the age of 18, 9.30% from 18 to 24, 29.40% from 25 to 44, 23.00% from 45 to 64, 11.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $42,701, the median income for a family was $52,045. Males had a median income of $38,985 versus $25,456 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,310. About 7.70% of families and 10.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.70% of those under age 18 and 5.80% of those age 65 or over.
Park View Big Rock Desmond Acres Westdale Rockingham The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Scott County.† county seat For most of its history, Scott County was a Republican county, only backing Democratic presidential candidates in six national elections that all resulted in national landslides for the party from 1896-1984. In more recent elections, the county has become Democratic in presidential elections like many other midsize urban counties nationwide, with the party's candidates winning the county in every presidential election from 1988 on. However, their margins of victory have not been as wide as in many other counties of similar composition in 2016 when Hillary Clinton only won the county by 1,291 votes. National Register of Historic Places listings in Scott County, Iowa Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge Scott County, Iowa Scott County Library System
Clinton County, Missouri
Clinton County is a county located in the U. S. state of Missouri. As of a 2017 U. S. Census, the county had a population of 20,743, its county seat is Plattsburg. The county was named for Governor DeWitt Clinton of New York; the county seat of Plattsburg derives its name from a town of a similar name, the county seat of Clinton County, New York, named for the Governor. Clinton County is part of the Kansas City, MO-KS Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 423 square miles, of which 419 square miles is land and 4.5 square miles is water. DeKalb County Caldwell County Ray County Clay County Platte County Buchanan County Interstate 35 U. S. Route 69 U. S. Route 169 Route 33 Route 116 As of the census of 2017, there were 20,554 people, 8,990 households, 8,299 families residing in the county; the population density was 49.5 people per square mile. There were 7,877 housing units at an average density of 19 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.5% White, 1.4% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.27% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races.
2.1% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,152 households out of which 34.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.40% were married couples living together, 8.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.90% were non-families. 22.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.03. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.80% under the age of 18, 7.40% from 18 to 24, 28.20% from 25 to 44, 23.50% from 45 to 64, 14.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 96.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $57,486, the median income for a family was $48,244. Males had a median income of $36,307 versus $22,991 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,056.
About 7.30% of families and 9.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.30% of those under age 18 and 12.70% of those age 65 or over. Cameron R-I School District – Cameron Parkview Elementary School Cameron Middle School Cameron High School Clinton County R-III School District – Plattsburg Ellis Elementary School Clinton County Middle School Plattsburg High School East Buchanan County C-1 School District – Gower East Buchanan County Elementary School East Buchanan County Middle School East Buchanan County High School Lathrop R-II School District – Lathrop Lathrop Elementary School Lathrop Middle School Lathrop High School Cameron Public Library The Republican Party predominantly controls politics at the local level in Clinton County. Republicans hold all but two of the elected positions in the county. All of Clinton County is in Missouri House of Representatives District 8, represented by Jim Neely. All of Clinton County is a part of Missouri's 12th District in the Missouri Senate and is represented by Dan Hegeman.
All of Clinton County is included in Missouri's 6th Congressional District and is represented by Sam Graves in the U. S. House of Representatives. Former U. S. Senator Hillary Clinton received more votes, a total of 1,490, than any candidate from either party in Clinton County during the 2008 presidential primary. Digitized 1930 Plat Book of Clinton County from University of Missouri Division of Special Collections and Rare Books
Sullivan County, Missouri
Sullivan County is a county located in the northern portion of the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 6,714, its county seat is Milan. The county was organized February 14, 1845 and named for Major General John Sullivan of the American Revolutionary War. In 1682, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle claimed the territory west of the Mississippi River for France, which included present-day Sullivan County; the United States acquired this region under terms of the Louisiana Purchase on July 4, 1803. Twenty-one years the Sac and Iowa Native American nations ceded their tribal land to the U. S. government under two treaties in August 1824. Dr. Jacob Holland and his son, Robert W. Holland, arrived in 1836, becoming the county's first permanent White settlers. Dr. Holland, a veteran of the Black Hawk War and practitioner of herbal medicine, son staked their home sites at the Main Locust Creek Settlement near a place called Scottsville. American pioneers from Ohio, Kentucky and Virginia followed them and established farms and small businesses at Pharsalia Settlement, Yellow Creek Settlement, Jackson's Corners by 1840.
The Missouri state legislature defined the boundaries of the county from Chariton County during the 1842–1843 legislative session, first named it Highland County. However, the number of permanent settlers did not meet requirements for civil governance and military purposes, so legislators attached administration of Highland County to Linn County. A new survey of the county in 1844 determined that the population was sufficient to permit full organization. E. M. C. Morelock, a representative from Highland County, presented an act to the state legislature, which they approved on February 14, 1845, the county became formally organized. By the same act, it was renamed Sullivan County in honor of John Sullivan, a major general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. Settlers established the town of Milan in 1845, located at the center of the county, where the first courts met. William Putnam built the first courthouse, occupied in October 1847. Ten years residents leveled an Indian mound in the middle of town to make the public square and Major John McCollough built the second courthouse, the first brick structure in Milan, on this site during 1857–1858.
The last federal land office established in Missouri operated from the square from 1849 to 1859. The state legislature incorporated the city of Milan on February 8, 1859. Other towns platted in the county's early years included Greencastle, Pollock and Cora, Green City and Winigan and Reger, Harris. Green City College opened in 1885, a business institute opened in Humphreys in 1884. During the U. S. Civil War, a Union Army post stood in Milan; the Union cause was supported by four Union volunteer infantry regiments, two Union cavalry volunteer regiments, two Missouri Militia units, one provisional militia unit, a large unit of Sullivan County Home Guards. The Confederate side was supported by four units of Missouri State Guard infantrymen. Soldiers from Sullivan County fought at the Battle of Shiloh, Battle of Atlanta, Battle of Jonesborough, other major engagements throughout the war. Military skirmishes within the county were confined to bushwhackers. Expansion of the railroads brought growth to Sullivan County beginning in the 1870s.
The C. B. & K. C. built a line running north to south through the county in 1876, followed by construction of the Quincy, Missouri & Pacific Railway line east to west though the county from 1878 to 1881. The two lines crossed in Milan; the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway soon built a north–south line along Medicine Creek the length of the western edge of the county that served the towns of Newtown and Harris, which continues to be active today. By 1900, following the railroad construction boom, the county's population exceeded 20,000. However, business activity and the number of residents declined during the subsequent decades; the number of farms decreased from about 3,100 in 1900 to under 900 by 1982, but over the same time period, the size of farms increased from about 130 acres to 385 acres. The county remains rural agricultural land today, planted in corn and grains with family operated poultry and dairy farms. One medium size manufacturer in Milan employs about 750 people. According to the U.
S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 652 square miles, of which 648 square miles is land and 3.5 square miles is water. The main water courses in Sullivan County are Medicine, East Locust and Spring Creeks; the highest point in the county, about 1,060 feet above sea level, is on the primary divide between the Chariton River and Grand River drainage basins along its northern border shared with Putnam County northwest of Green City. The lowest point, about 740 feet above sea level, is where Locust Creek flows out of the county on its southern border with Linn County, near the town of Browning. Putnam County Adair County Linn County Grundy County Mercer County Route 5 Route 6 Route 129 Route 139 As of the census of 2010, there were 6,714 people, 2,925 households, 1,959 families residi
Queen City, Missouri
Queen City is a city in Schuyler County, United States. The population was 598 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Kirksville Micropolitan Statistical Area. Queen City was laid out in May, 1867 by Doctor George W. Wilson and consisted of a town square surrounded by fifteen other blocks, he chose the name in the hope the town would become "the Queen of the prairies." Dr. Wilson constructed the first home in the new town, while Henry Bartlett is responsible for building the towns's first hotel. By 1888 Queen City offered a considerable business district—five general stores, two grocers, two hardware stores, two hotels, jewelry store, lumber yard, photography gallery, music store, barber shop were just some of the businesses serving the community and surrounding farms. Being located along the railroad, it provided a fine shipping point for large numbers of railroad ties and other lumber products harvested from wooded areas along the Chariton River several miles to the west. Grain and some quantities of wool were shipped by rail from the town.
Queen City's first newspaper The Transcript was established in November, 1887 by D. G. Swan. Queen City is located at 40°24′31″N 92°33′56″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.03 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 598 people, 256 households, 143 families residing in the city; the population density was 580.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 311 housing units at an average density of 301.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 99.0% White, 0.5% Native American, 0.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.3% of the population. There were 256 households of which 26.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.4% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 44.1% were non-families. 37.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.86. The median age in the city was 45.7 years. 20.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 45.8% male and 54.2% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 638 people, 273 households, 173 families residing in the city; the population density was 621.8 people per square mile. There were 321 housing units at an average density of 312.8/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 98.12% White, 0.78% Native American, 1.10% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.41% of the population. There were 273 households out of which 26.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.6% were married couples living together, 12.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.3% were non-families. 33.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.14 and the average family size was 2.66.
In the city the population was spread out with 20.7% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 21.3% from 25 to 44, 23.7% from 45 to 64, 28.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $20,875, the median income for a family was $30,703. Males had a median income of $26,250 versus $18,875 for females; the per capita income for the city was $11,928. About 11.3% of families and 16.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.4% of those under age 18 and 25.2% of those age 65 or over. Farrell Dobbs, trade unionist and Socialist Workers Party candidate for U. S. President Glenn Frank, educator Neal Marshall Cassady, father of Neal Cassady Historic maps of Queen City in the Sanborn Maps of Missouri Collection at the University of Missouri
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi