Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original
Gus Johnson (basketball)
Gus Johnson Jr. was an American professional basketball player in the National Basketball Association. A 6 ft 6 in, 235-pound forward–center, he spent nine seasons with the Baltimore Bullets, his final season was split between the Phoenix Suns and the Indiana Pacers of the ABA. One of the first forwards to play above the rim, Johnson combined an unusual blend of strength, jumping ability, speed, his nickname "Honeycomb" was given to him by his college coach. He shattered three backboards during his career; as a member of the Baltimore Bullets, Johnson was voted to the All-Rookie Team for 1963–64, averaging over 17 points and twelve rebounds per game. He played in five NBA All-Star Games, was named to four All-NBA Second Teams, was twice named to the All-NBA Defense First Team, his number 25 jersey was retired by the Baltimore Bullets franchise. With the Pacers, he was a member of the 1973 ABA championship team. Johnson was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame in 2010. Born in Akron, Johnson attended its Central High School, where he was an all-state player, did reasonably well in the classroom.
Among his teammates was Nate Thurmond, a future hall of fame center. Despite Johnson's clear talent and athletic ability, he had just a few college athletic scholarship offers, common for black high school athletes in the late 1950s. Johnson had enrolled at hometown Akron, but he left before basketball started and joined a nearby Amateur Athletic Union club. While playing for the AAU Cleveland Pipers of the National Industrial Basketball League in 1960, he was spotted by a former teammate of first-year Idaho head coach Joe Cipriano. Johnson accepted Idaho's scholarship offer, he played a year at Boise Junior College to get his grades up as a sophomore, averaged 30 points and 20 rebounds a game for the Broncos. Johnson transferred up north to the University of Idaho in Moscow in 1962; the Vandals had a.500 season at 13–13 in 1961–62, the addition of Johnson made an immediate impact as they won their first five games and were 12–2 through January. Idaho was undefeated through January with Johnson playing: due to NCAA rules at the time, he was allowed to play regular season games only, not tournaments.
The Vandals went 1–2 without him at the Far West Classic in late December in Portland, the victory was a one-pointer over WSU. A week earlier with Johnson, the Vandals routed the Cougars by 37 points in Moscow. Johnson became known as "Honeycomb," a nickname; as an experienced junior, he averaged 19.0 points and 20.3 rebounds per game during the 1962–63 season, leading independent Idaho to a 20–6 record, their best in 36 years. With Johnson and leading scorer Chuck White, the Vandals were at their best in their main rivalries, 4–0 versus Oregon, 4–1 versus Palouse neighbor Washington State, 1–1 against Washington. Idaho's primary nemesis was Seattle University, led by guard Eddie Miles, who won all three of its games with the Vandals. Idaho lost its only game with Oregon State at the Far West without Johnson, but won all three with Gonzaga, for a 9–3 record against its four former PCC foes and a collective 12–6 against the six Northwest rivals. Attendance at the Memorial Gym was over-capacity, with an estimated 3,800 for home games in the cramped facility.
Johnson and center Paul Silas of Creighton waged a season-long battle to lead the NCAA in rebounding. Silas claimed this by averaging 20.6 per 0.3 per game more than Johnson's average. Johnson set the UI record with 31 rebounds in a game against Oregon; the Ducks' head coach Steve Belko, a former Vandal, called Johnson a "6' 6" Bill Russell," and "the best ball player one of my teams has played against..." team photo of 1962–63 Idaho Vandals – Gus Johnson #43Despite their 20–6 record, the Vandals were not invited to the post-season. The 1963 NCAA Tournament included only 25 teams: Oregon State and Seattle U. were selected from the Northwest. The 1963 NIT invited only twelve teams, with none from the Pacific time zones. If the Vandals had been invited, Johnson again would not have been eligible to participate. Johnson turned professional after his only season at Idaho, Cipriano moved on to coach at Nebraska. Without Johnson, the Vandals fell to 7–19 in 1963–64 and were 4–6 in the new Big Sky Conference, fifth place in the six-team league.
They had a dismal 3–14 record through January and lost every game against their Northwest rivals, a collective 0–10 vs UW, WSU, UO, OSU, Seattle U. and Gonzaga. Following his professional career, Johnson returned to Moscow to help commemorate the first basketball game in the newly enclosed Kibbie Dome, held on January 21, 1976, he participated in a pre-game alumni contest between former players of Washington State. Johnson got a somewhat late start as an NBA player, as he turned age 25 in December of his rookie season, he was selected tenth overall in the 1963 NBA draft, taken in the second round by the Chicago Zephyrs, who were in the process of moving to Baltimore to become the Baltimore Bullets for the 1963–64 season. Johnson averaged 17.3 points and 13.6 rebounds per game. Johnson finished as the runner-up for the Rookie of the Year honors to Jerry Lucas of the Cincinnati Royals. Lucas and Johnson had faced off against each other during high school in Ohio, when the NBA All-Rookie Team was selected, Lucas and his former high school teammate Nate
John Kennedy Twyman was an American professional basketball player and sports broadcaster. Twyman is a namesake of the NBA's Twyman–Stokes Teammate of the Year Award. Twyman was inducted into the Naismith Basketball Hall of Fame in 1983. Twyman, a 6'6" forward from the University of Cincinnati, spent eleven seasons in the NBA, his entire career was spent as a member of the Rochester/Cincinnati Royals. Twyman and Wilt Chamberlain became the first players in NBA history to average more than 30 points per game in a single season when they both accomplished that feat during the 1959–60 season, he scored his career-high 59 points in a game that same season. Beginning with the 1958-1959 season, Twyman averaged 25.8, 31.2, 25.3 and 22.9 points per game over those four seasons. Twyman was named to the All-NBA Second Team in both 1960 and 1962, appeared in six NBA All-Star Games, he scored 15,840 points in his career which ranked 20th on the NBA's all-time scoring list at the time of his retirement. He averaged 8.7 rebounds over eleven seasons and 823 games.
He averaged 7.5 rebounds in the playoffs. Twyman was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame in 1983. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Twyman worked alongside Chris Schenkel as an analyst/color commentator for The NBA on ABC. Twyman made a call during game 7 of the 1970 NBA Finals between the New York Knicks and the Los Angeles Lakers. During the pre-game segment with Schenkel, Twyman noticed Knicks' injured center Willis Reed advancing from the tunnel toward the court. Twyman exclaimed: "I think we see Willis coming out!" The sight of Reed marching toward the basketball floor helped inspire the Knicks to a 113–99 victory – one that gave New York its first NBA league title. Twyman became the legal guardian of his teammate Maurice Stokes, Hall of Fame player, paralyzed due to a head injury he suffered after a fall during a game. In the last game of the 1958 regular season, Stokes was knocked on a play and hit his head on the floor; the injury manifested itself in the upcoming days, leaving Stokes permanently paralyzed after having seizures.
Stokes had finished playing in the game in which he was knocked unconscious. Stokes played in the playoff game three days later, he became violently ill after the game and teammates Dick Ricketts and Twyman were assisting him. "I feel like I'm going to die," he was saying. He had a major seizure on the team Flight and was rushed to the hospital upon landing. Stokes' was cared for at Good Samaritan Hospital in Cincinnati, where Twyman and his family were regular visitors. To help with Stokes' ongoing medical finances, Twyman organized the "Maurice Stokes Memorial Basketball Game" to raise funds for Stokes, it grew to assist other former players who were in need. The game became decades long annual event and was replaced by a pro-am golf tournament. Twyman helped Stokes to obtain workers compensation and taught him to communicate by blinking his eyes to denote individual letters. Twyman remained Stokes' guardian and advocate until Stokes died in 1970. Stokes' life and relationship with Twyman inspired the 1973 film Maurie.
When Stokes was elected to the Hall of Fame, Twyman was present and accepted on his behalf. On June 9, 2013, the NBA announced that both Twyman and Maurice Stokes would be honored with an annual award in their names, the Twyman–Stokes Teammate of the Year Award, which recognizes the player that embodies the league's ideal teammate that season. Twyman became a food company executive, made more than $3 million when he sold the company in 1996. In 2004, when the Basketball Hall of Fame inducted Maurice Stokes, Twyman accepted the honor on his behalf. Twyman died on May 2012 in Cincinnati from complications of blood cancer. Farabaugh, Pat. An Unbreakable Bond: The Brotherhood of Maurice Stokes and Jack Twyman, New Jersey: St. Johann Press, 2014 Career statistics and player information from Basketball-Reference.com Remembering Jack Twyman
William Walton Sharman was an American professional basketball player and coach. He is known for his time with the Boston Celtics in the 1950s, partnering with Bob Cousy in what some consider the greatest backcourt duo of all time; as a coach, Sharman won titles in the ABL, ABA, NBA, is credited with introducing the now ubiquitous morning shootaround. He was the first North American sports figure to win a championship as a player and executive, he was a 10-time NBA champion, a 12-time World Champion in basketball overall counting his ABL and ABA titles. Sharman is a two-time Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame inductee, having been being inducted in 1976 as a player, in 2004 as a coach. Only John Wooden, Lenny Wilkens and Tommy Heinsohn share this double honor. Sharman completed high school in the Central California city of California, he served during World War II from 1944 to 1946 in the US Navy, was a graduate of the University of Southern California. He played 1st base on the 1948 USC Trojans' College World Series championship team.
Following his senior year, Sharman was selected as one of the 1950 NCAA Men's Basketball All-Americans. From 1950 to 1955 Sharman played professional baseball in the Brooklyn Dodgers minor league system, he did not appear in a game. He was part of a September 27 game in which the entire Brooklyn bench was cleared from the dugout for arguing with the home plate umpire over a ruling at the plate; this has led to the legend that Sharman holds the distinction of being the only player in baseball history to have been ejected from a major league game without appearing in one. However, although Sharman was among the Dodger bench players that had to go to the clubhouse, none of them were barred from playing in the game. In fact, in the top of the ninth, one of the other dismissed players, Wayne Terwilliger, was used as a pinch-hitter in the game. Sharman was drafted by the Washington Capitols in the 2nd round of the 1950 NBA draft. Following the disbanding of the Capitols, he was selected by the Fort Wayne Pistons in the dispersal draft and was subsequently traded to the Boston Celtics for Chuck Share prior to the 1951–52 season.
Sharman played a total of ten seasons for the Celtics, leading the team in scoring between the 1955–56 and 1958–59 seasons and averaging over 20 points per game during three of them. Sharman was one of the first NBA guards to shoot better than.400 from the field. He led the NBA in free throw percentage a record seven times, his mark of 93.2% in the 1958–59 season remained the NBA record until Ernie DiGregorio topped it in 1976–77. Sharman still holds the record for consecutive free throws in the playoffs with 56. Sharman was named to the All-NBA First Team from 1956 through 1959, was an All-NBA Second Team member in 1953, 1955, 1960. Sharman played in scoring in double figures in seven of them, he was named the 1955 NBA All-Star Game MVP after scoring ten of his fifteen points in the fourth quarter. Sharman still holds the NBA All-Star Game record for field goals attempted in a quarter with 12. Sharman ended his NBA playing career after 11 seasons in 1961. Sharman coached the Cleveland Pipers of the American Basketball League to the league championship in 1962.
He next went on to coach Los Angeles State for two seasons. In 1970–71 he coached the Utah Stars to an ABA title and was a co-recipient of the ABA Coach of the Year honors. After resigning as coach for the Utah Stars, Sharman signed a contract to coach the Los Angeles Lakers. Controversy ensued when the owner of the Utah Stars brought suit against Sharman for breach of contract stemming from his resignation, a tort case against the owner of the Los Angeles Lakers for inducing such breach of contract. Sharman was ordered to pay $250,000 in damages, but appealed the trial court decision and reversed the judgement; the following season, he guided the Wilt Chamberlain and Jerry West-led Los Angeles Lakers to an NBA record 33 game win streak, a then-record 69-13 win-loss mark, the first Lakers championship in Los Angeles and the first for the team in more than a decade. That season, Sharman was named NBA Coach of the Year, he is one of two men to win ABA championships as a coach. Sharman invented, he took the shootaround with him to his first coaching jobs in the ABL, the ABA, the NBA.
After the Lakers won the championship in 1972, every other team in the league added the shootaround to its game-day regimen. Sharman was enshrined in the Basketball Hall of Fame in 1976 as a player and again in 2004 as a coach, he is one of only four people to be enshrined in both categories, the others being John Wooden, Lenny Wilkens and his former teammate Tom Heinsohn. In 1971, Sharman was named to the NBA 25th Anniversary Team. On October 29, 1996, Sharman was named one of the NBA's 50 Greatest Players; as Lakers General Manager, Sharman built the 1980 and 1982 NBA Championship teams, as Lakers President he oversaw the 1985, 1987 and 1988 NBA Championship teams. Sharman retired from the Lakers front office in 1991 at age 65. Sharman was the author of two books, Sharman on Basketball Shooting and The Wooden-Sharman Method: A Guide to Winning Basketball with John Wooden and Bob Selzer; the gymnasium at Po
Willis Reed Jr. is an American retired basketball player and general manager. He spent his entire professional playing career with the New York Knicks. In 1982, Reed was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. In 1996, he was voted one of the "50 Greatest Players in NBA History". After retiring as a player, Reed served as assistant and head coach with several teams for nearly a decade was promoted to general manager and vice president of basketball operations for the New Jersey Nets; as senior vice president of basketball operations, he led them to the NBA Finals in 2002 and 2003. Reed was born on June 1942 in Dubach, Louisiana within Lincoln Parish, he grew up on a farm in Louisiana. His parents worked to ensure. Reed showed athletic ability at an early age and played basketball at West Side High School in Lillie, Louisiana. Reed attended Grambling State University, a black college. Playing for the Grambling State Tigers men's basketball team, Reed amassed 2,280 career points, averaging 26.6 points per game and 21.3 rebounds per game during his senior year.
He led the Tigers to three Southwestern Athletic Conference championships. Reed became a member of Phi Beta Sigma fraternity; the New York Knicks selected Reed in the second round, with the eighth overall selection, in the 1964 NBA draft. Reed made a name as a fierce and physical force on both ends of the floor. In March 1965, he scored 46 points against the Los Angeles Lakers, the second-highest single game total by the Knicks' rookie. For the 1964–65 season, he ranked seventh in the NBA in scoring and fifth in rebounding, he began his string of All-Star appearances and won the NBA Rookie of the Year Award while being named to the NBA All-Rookie First Team. Reed proved to be a clutch playoff performer throughout his career, he gave an early indication of this in the 1966–67 season when he improved his regular season averages to 20.9 points per game, scoring 27.5 points per game in the postseason. He played center. Despite his average stature for a basketball player, he made up for his lack of height by playing a physical game ending seasons with respectable averages in blocking and rebounding.
He stood 6 ft 9 in when contemporaries such as Wilt Chamberlain stood 7 ft 1 in and Kareem Abdul-Jabbar was 7 ft 2 in. The team continued to struggle for a few years while adding good players through trades and the draft. Dick McGuire was replaced as coach with Red Holzman, midway through the 1967–68 season; the Knicks had gone 15–22 under McGuire. In 1968, New York's record was its first winning record since the 1958 -- 59 season. Reed continued to make annual appearances in the NBA All-Star Game. By this time, he was playing power forward. Reed averaged 11.6 rebounds in 1965–66 and 14.6 in 1966–67, both top 10 marks in the league. By the latter season, he had adjusted to the nuances of his new position, averaging 20.9 points to rank eighth in the NBA. In 1968–69, New York held opponents to a league-low 105.2 points per game. With Reed clogging the middle and Walt Frazier pressuring the ball, the Knicks would be the best defensive club in the league for five of the next six seasons. Reed scored 21.1 points per game in 1968–69 and grabbed a franchise record 1,191 rebounds, an average of 14.5 rebounds per game.
In the 1969–70 season, the Knicks won a franchise record 60 games and set a single season NBA record with an 18-game win streak. In 1970, Reed became the first player in NBA history to be named the NBA All-Star Game MVP, the NBA regular season MVP, the NBA Finals MVP in the same season; that same year, he was named to the All-NBA First Team and NBA All-Defensive First Team, as well as being named as ABC's Wide World of Sports Athlete of the Year, the Sporting News NBA MVP. Reed's most famous performance took place on May 8, 1970, during game seven of the 1970 NBA Finals against the Los Angeles Lakers in Madison Square Garden. Due to a severe thigh injury, a torn muscle that had kept him out of game six, he was considered unlikely to play in game seven. However, Reed surprised the fans by walking onto the court during warmups, prompting widespread applause. Starting the game, he scored the Knicks' first two field goals on his first two shot attempts, his only points of the game. Following the game in the winner's locker room, a moved Howard Cosell told Reed on national television, "You exemplify the best that the human spirit can offer."
The Knicks slipped to a 52–30 record in the 1970–71 season, still good enough for first place in the Atlantic Division. Once again, Reed started in the All-Star Game. For the season, he averaged 20.9 points and 13.7 rebounds per game, but the Knicks were eliminated by the Baltimore Bullets in the Eastern Conference Finals. In 1971 -- 72, Reed was bothered by tendinitis in his left knee, he missed two weeks early in the season and returned, but shortly thereafter the injured knee prohibited him from playing, he totaled 11 games for the year. Without Reed, the Knicks still managed to make the NBA Finals, but were defeated in five games by the Los Angeles Lakers; the 1972–73 Knicks finished the season with a 57–25 record and went on to win another NBA title. Reed was less of a contributor. In 69 regular season games, he averaged only 11.0 points. In the playoffs, the Knicks beat the Bullets and upset the Boston Celti
Clyde Wayne Lee is an American former professional basketball player. An All-American at Vanderbilt University, Lee was the No. 3 overall pick in the 1965 NBA draft and was an NBA All-Star, playing ten seasons in the league. A 6'10" forward/center born in Nashville, Lee attended David Lipscomb Campus School and went on to star at Vanderbilt University in the mid-1960s under Coach Roy Skinner. Lee was known for inside scoring prowess. In his junior season, he led the Commodores to their first SEC championship, averaging 22.0 points and 15.5 rebounds. He won his first of two consecutive SEC Player of the Year Award. Vanderbilt reached the NCAA Mideast Regional Finals, where they lost to Michigan, 87-85; the most points scored against Kentucky by a Vanderbilt player was the 41 points by Lee in 1965. During his senior season, he averaged 22.7 points and 15.8 rebounds, earning All-American honors and the SEC Player of the Year Award. Sportswriter Howell Pesier described him as "the greatest player in Vanderbilt history".
Lee averaged 21.4 points and 15.5 rebounds over his 79-game Vanderbilt career, leading Vanderbilt to 65 victories in three seasons. After four years at Vanderbilt, Lee was selected by the San Francisco Warriors with the No. 3 overall pick of the 1966 NBA draft behind Cazzie Russell, No. 1 to the New York Knicks and Dave Bing, Detroit Pistons. In 1966-1967, Lee and the Warriors made the NBA Finals, where they were defeated 4-2 by Wilt Chamberlain and the Philadelphia 76ers. Lee averaged 7.2 rebounds in the series. Lee appeared in the 1968 NBA All-Star Game. On October 4, 1974 Lee was traded by the San Francisco Warriors to the Atlanta Hawks, he completed a trade from February 2, 1970 that sent a 1970 1st round draft pick and a player to be named to the Atlanta Hawks for Zelmo Beaty. Lee was sent to Atlanta as the player to be named on October 4, 1974. After only nine games with Atlanta, on November 8, 1974, Lee was traded by the Hawks with a 1975 3rd round draft pick to the Philadelphia 76ers for Tom Van Arsdale.
He concluded his career in Philadelphia, playing his final two seasons. A strong rebounder and defender, Lee said, “It's what you might consider the dirty work, but that's the way I'm able to play in the league.” He added, “I don't feel that I'm a good shooter, but again I don't feel I have to score. I don't look for the shot. I try to keep the ball alive; this is my value to the team."In ten National Basketball Association seasons, spent with the Warriors, Atlanta Hawks, Philadelphia 76ers, Lee scored 5,733 points with 7,626 rebounds in 742 games. Lee has taught yoga classes at Vanderbilt, after discovering yoga to alleviate pain from basketball injuries, he has served as a color commentator for radio broadcasts of Vanderbilt men's basketball games. In 1966, Vanderbilt designated "Clyde Lee Day" on the occasion of Lee's last career home game. Lee was inducted into the Tennessee Sports Hall of Fame in 1995.in 2008, Lee was named to the Vanderbilt Athletics Hall of Fame as part of its inaugural class.
Career statistics and player information from Basketball-Reference.com
Wilton Norman Chamberlain was an American basketball player who played as a center and is considered one of the greatest players in history. He played for the Philadelphia/San Francisco Warriors, the Philadelphia 76ers, the Los Angeles Lakers of the National Basketball Association, he played for the University of Kansas and for the Harlem Globetrotters before playing in the NBA. Chamberlain stood 7 ft 1 in tall, weighed 250 pounds as a rookie before bulking up to 275 and to over 300 pounds with the Lakers. Chamberlain holds numerous NBA records in scoring and durability categories, he is the only player to score 100 points in a single NBA game or average more than 40 and 50 points in a season. He won seven scoring, eleven rebounding, nine field goal percentage titles and led the league in assists once. Chamberlain is the only player in NBA history to average at least 30 points and 20 rebounds per game in a season, which he accomplished seven times, he is the only player to average at least 30 points and 20 rebounds per game over the entire course of his NBA career.
Although he suffered a long string of losses in the playoffs, Chamberlain had a successful career, winning two NBA championships, earning four regular-season Most Valuable Player awards, the Rookie of the Year award, one NBA Finals MVP award, was selected to 13 All-Star Games and ten All-NBA First and Second teams. He was subsequently enshrined in the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame in 1978, elected into the NBA's 35th Anniversary Team of 1980, in 1996 he was chosen as one of the 50 Greatest Players in NBA History. Chamberlain was known by several nicknames during his basketball playing career, he hated the ones that called attention to his height, such as "Goliath" and "Wilt the Stilt". A Philadelphia sportswriter coined the nicknames during Chamberlain's high school days, he preferred "The Big Dipper", inspired by his friends who saw him dip his head as he walked through doorways. After his professional basketball career ended, Chamberlain played volleyball in the short-lived International Volleyball Association, was president of that organization, is enshrined in the IVA Hall of Fame for his contributions.
He was a successful businessman, authored several books, appeared in the movie Conan the Destroyer. He was a lifelong bachelor and became notorious for his claim of having had sexual relations with as many as 20,000 women. Chamberlain was born in 1936 in Philadelphia, into a family of nine children, the son of Olivia Ruth Johnson, a domestic worker and homemaker, William Chamberlain, a welder and handyman, he was a frail child, nearly dying of pneumonia in his early years and missing a whole year of school as a result. In his early years Chamberlain was not interested in basketball, because he thought it was "a game for sissies". Instead, he was an avid track and field athlete: as a youth, he high jumped 6 feet, 6 inches, ran the 440 yards in 49.0 seconds and the 880 yards in 1:58.3, put the shot 53 feet, 4 inches, long jumped 22 feet. But according to Chamberlain, "basketball was king in Philadelphia", so he turned to the sport; because Chamberlain was a tall child measuring 6 ft 0 in at age 10 and 6 ft 11 in when he entered Philadelphia's Overbrook High School, he had a natural advantage against his peers.
According to ESPN journalist Hal Bock, Chamberlain was "scary, flat-out frightening... before he came along, most basketball players were mortal-sized men. Chamberlain changed that." It was in this period of his life when his three lifelong nicknames "Wilt the Stilt", "Goliath", his favorite, "The Big Dipper", were born. As the star player for the Overbrook Panthers, Chamberlain averaged 31 points a game during the 1953 high school season and led his team to a 71–62 win over Northeast High School, who had Guy Rodgers, Chamberlain's future NBA teammate, he scored 34 points as Overbrook won the Public League title and gained a berth in the Philadelphia city championship game against the winner of the rival Catholic league, West Catholic. In that game, West Catholic quadruple-teamed Chamberlain the entire game, despite the center's 29 points, the Panthers lost 54–42. In his second Overbrook season, he continued his prolific scoring when he tallied a high school record 71 points against Roxborough.
The Panthers comfortably won the Public League title after again beating Northeast in which Chamberlain scored 40 points, won the city title by defeating South Catholic 74–50. He led Overbrook to a 19 -- 0 season. During summer vacations, he worked as a bellhop in Kutsher's Hotel. Subsequently, owners Milton and Helen Kutsher kept up a lifelong friendship with Wilt, according to their son Mark, "They were his second set of parents." Red Auerbach, the coach of the Boston Celtics, spotted the talented teenager at Kutscher's and had him play 1-on-1 against University of Kansas standout and national champion, B. H. Born, elected the Most Outstanding Player of the 1953 NCAA Finals. Chamberlain won 25–10. In Chamberlain's third and final Overbrook season, he continued his high scoring, logging 74, 78 and 90 points in three consecutive games; the Panthers won the Public League a third time, beating West Philadelphia 78–60, in