In basketball, an official is a person who has the responsibility to enforce the rules and maintain the order of the game. The title of official applies to the scorers and timekeepers, officials are usually referred to as referees, generally there is one lead referee and one or two umpires, depending on whether there is a two- or three-person crew. In the NBA, the official is called the crew chief. In FIBA-sanctioned play, two-man crews consist of a referee and an umpire, both classes of officials have equal rights to control almost all aspects of the game. In most cases, the lead official performs the jump ball to begin the contest, though NFHS, in American high school and college basketball, the officials generally wear black and white striped shirts with black side panels, black pants and black shoes. Some state high school association allow officials to wear shirts with black pin strips instead of the black. NBA officials wear shirts with black slacks and black shoes. The NBA shirt is grey with black colored shoulders and sleeves, the WNBA referee shirt is similar to the NBA referee shirt, except that its shoulder and sleeve colors are orange and the WNBA logo takes the place of the NBA logo.
FIBA officials wear a grey and black official referee shirt, black trousers, black socks, officials in competitions organized by Euroleague Basketball —the Euroleague and Eurocup—wear an orange referee shirt. Officials in the Israel Basketball Association generally wear the Euroleagues orange uniform shirt, most officials slacks are currently belt-less, while most officials shirts are collar-less, V-neck shirts. All officials wear a whistle that is used to play as a result of a foul or a violation on the court. In all instances of officiating, hand signals are used to indicate the nature of the infraction or to administer the game, in higher levels of college and professional ball, all officials wear a timing device on the belt-line called PTS. The device is used by on court officials to start and stop the clock in a timely manner, rather than waiting for the scoreboard operator to do so. The officials must ensure that the game runs smoothly, and this encompasses a variety of different responsibilities, from calling the game to player and spectator management.
They carry a duty of care to the players they officiate and to ensure that the court and all equipment used is in a safe and usable condition. Should there be an issue that inhibits the safe playing of the game, quite often, the job of an official surpasses that of the game at hand, as they must overcome unforeseen situations that may or may not have an influence on the game. There are two methods for officiating a basketball game, either two-person or three-person mechanics depending on how many officials are available to work the game. In two-person mechanics, each official works either the lead or the trail position, the lead position is normally along the baseline of the court, with the trail position having its starting point at the free throw line extended on the left side of the court facing the basket
Donald Arvid Don Nelson is an American former NBA player and head coach. He coached the Milwaukee Bucks, the New York Knicks, the Dallas Mavericks, an innovator, Nelson is credited with, among other things, pioneering the concept of the point forward, a tactic which is frequently employed by teams at every level today. His unique brand of basketball is often referred to as Nellie Ball and he was named one of the Top 10 coaches in NBA history. On April 7,2010, he passed Lenny Wilkens for first place on the all-time NBA wins list with 1,333 wins. After a very high school career at Rock Island High School. He was drafted 19th overall by the Chicago Zephyrs of the NBA and he played for the Zephyrs one season, and was acquired by the Los Angeles Lakers in 1963. After two years with the Lakers, he was signed by the Boston Celtics, in his first season with Boston, Nelson averaged 10.2 points and 5.4 rebounds, helping the Celtics to the 1966 NBA title as one of their role players. Four more championships with Boston followed in 1968,1969,1974, the shot, taken with just over a minute to go in the game and the Celtics clinging to a 103–102 lead, helped secure Bostons 11th NBA title in 13 seasons.
A model of consistency, Nelson would average more than 10 points per game every season between 1968–69 and 1974–75 and he led the NBA in field-goal percentage in 1974–75. Nelson was coined as one of the best sixth men ever to play in the NBA and he was known for his distinctive one-handed style for shooting free throws. He would place the ball in his hand, lean in almost off-balance and toe the free-throw line with his right foot. He would push the ball toward the basket completely with his hand while springing with his right knee. This technique helped him to a career 76. 5% free-throw shooting percentage, Nelson retired as a player following the 1975–76 season. His number 19 jersey was retired to the Boston Garden rafters in 1978, Nelson was named the general manager and head coach of the Milwaukee Bucks in 1976, and began to show what would become his signature style of wheeling and dealing players. He made his first trade of Swen Nater to the Buffalo Braves and turned the draft pick he received into Marques Johnson, in 1980, he sent off an underachieving Kent Benson to the Detroit Pistons for Bob Lanier.
And, in 1986, he would deal Alton Lister to the Seattle SuperSonics for Jack Sikma and it was in Milwaukee where Nelson became known for his unorthodox, innovative basketball philosophy. He pioneered the concept of the point forward – a tactic wherein small forwards are used to direct the offense, in Nelsons tenure with the Bucks, he used 6–5 small forward Paul Pressey for the role. This enabled Nelson to field shooting guards Sidney Moncrief and Craig Hodges or Ricky Pierce at the time without worrying about who would run the offense
The Boston Celtics are an American professional basketball team based in Boston, Massachusetts. The Celtics compete in the National Basketball Association as a club of the leagues Eastern Conference Atlantic Division. Founded in 1946 and one of eight NBA teams to survive the leagues first decade, the Celtics play their home games at the TD Garden, which they share with the National Hockey League s Boston Bruins. The franchises 17 championships are the most of any NBA franchise, as a percentage of championships won, the Celtics are the most successful franchise to date in the major four traditional North American professional sports leagues. The Celtics have played the Lakers a record 12 times in the Finals, including their most recent appearances in 2008 and 2010, four Celtics players have won the NBA Most Valuable Player Award for an NBA record total of 10 MVP awards. Their mascot Lucky the Leprechaun is a nod to the teams Irish heritage, in 1950, the Celtics signed Chuck Cooper, becoming the first NBA franchise to draft a black player.
The Celtics struggled during their years, until the hiring of coach Red Auerbach. In the franchises early days, Auerbach had no assistants, ran all the practices, did all the scouting—both of opposing teams and college draft prospects—and scheduled all the road trips. One of the first great players to join the Celtics was Bob Cousy, Cousy eventually became the property of the Chicago Stags, but when that franchise went bankrupt, Cousy went to the Celtics in a dispersal draft. After the 1955–56 season, Auerbach made a stunning trade and he sent perennial All-Star Ed Macauley to the St. Louis Hawks along with the draft rights to Cliff Hagan in exchange for the second overall pick in the draft. Auerbach acquired Holy Cross standout, and 1957 NBA Rookie of the Year and Heinsohn worked extraordinarily well with Cousy, and they were the players around whom Auerbach would build the champion Celtics for more than a decade. With Bill Russell, the Celtics advanced to the NBA Finals and defeated the St.
Louis Hawks in seven games, Russell went on to win 11 championships, making him the most decorated player in NBA history. In 1958, the Celtics again advanced to the NBA Finals, with the acquisition of K. C. Jones that year, the Celtics began a dynasty that would last for more than a decade. In 1959, the Celtics won the NBA Championship after sweeping the Minneapolis Lakers, during that time, the Celtics met the Lakers in the Finals five times, starting an intense and often bitter rivalry that has spanned generations. In 1964, the Celtics became the first NBA team to have an all African-American starting lineup. On December 26,1964, Willie Naulls replaced an injured Tommy Heinsohn, joining Tom Satch Sanders, K. C. Jones, Sam Jones, the Celtics defeated St. Louis 97–84. Boston won its next 11 games with Naulls starting in place of Heinsohn, the Celtics of the late-1950s–60s are widely considered as one of the most dominant teams of all time. Auerbach retired as coach after the 1965–66 season and Russell took over as player-coach, with his appointment, Russell became the first African-American coach in any U. S. pro sport
Norm Drucker was a major influence in professional basketball officiating for over 35 years. Drucker was born in New York City, New York and he was hired as a referee by the National Basketball Association in 1953. By the early 60s he was regularly officiating two to four games in the NBA Finals each season and their contracts were the first multi-year officiating contracts in pro basketball history. Such was Druckers stature and reputation, that his salary, as a referee and Supervisor of Officials. It made him, at time, the highest paid referee in the history of basketball. Within a year, all other pro basketball officials benefited, as their salaries more than doubled, as a result, officiating professional basketball evolved from a part-time second job, to a full-time career, with greatly improved working conditions and pension plans. In the ABA, Drucker officiated and served as the leagues Supervisor of Officials, with the ABA-NBA merger in 1976, Drucker was one of only a handful of ABA referees hired by the NBA to return.
When he retired after the 1976-77 NBA season to become the NBAs Supervisor of Officials and it remains the record for longest tenure for a pro referee among those whose entire career was during the era of only two referees per game. During that span he officiated 6 All-Star Games, a higher total than any official in pro basketball history other than Mendy Rudolph. When he retired, his total of 38 NBA and ABA championship round games officiated was the second highest in pro basketball history. In his 24-year officiating career, Drucker was well known for his even-handed officiating for visiting teams in an era when many officials were criticized as homers - favoring the home team. For 14 seasons, from 1963 through 1977, Drucker along with Mendy Rudolph, of the nearly 400 referees who have officiated in the NBA and ABA, only two others Mendy Rudolph and Joe Crawford have officiated in more deciding games. In the late 1950s and early 1960s he was involved in what the press called a heated feud with legendary Boston Celtic coach Red Auerbach and his second ejection of Auerbach in a one-month period led to the coachs 3-game suspension by NBA president Maurice Podoloff on November 13,1961.
Druckers career gave him a view of key moments of the NBAs first 35 seasons. He was the last active NBA referee to have officiated in 1953-54—the last season before the NBA introduced the 24-second clock. That same season, he was selected to officiate the only game in NBA history that experimented with rims 12 feet, rather than 10 feet. He officiated the games when Bob Pettit scored his 15, 000th career point and Wilt Chamberlain scored his 25, Drucker is the link to referees whose careers span the entire history of the NBA. At the end of his career, Drucker demonstrated a commitment to improving the salary, benefits
Gail Charles Goodrich Jr. is an American retired professional basketball player in the National Basketball Association. He is best known for scoring a record 42 points in the 1965 NCAA championship game vs. Michigan, Goodrich was the leading scorer on that team. In 1996,17 years after his retirement from professional basketball, Goodrich scored 29 points in the championship game despite breaking his ankle in the third quarter. Goodrich has said that he had wanted to attend the University of Southern California. But coach John Wooden of UCLA ultimately showed much more interest in Goodrich than did USC, like many Division I colleges, USC was wary of Goodrichs short stature. He was only 5 ft 8 in his year in high school and even at his ultimate height of 6 ft 1 in. Goodrich attended UCLA, where he finished as the schools leading scorer. He was a two-time All-America and the Helms Foundations Co-Player of the Year in 1965, in the 1965 NCAA championship game, he scored a record 42 points as UCLA beat favored Michigan.
This record stood until 1973 when UCLAs Bill Walton scored 44 in the finals vs. Memphis State, while at UCLA, Goodrich was a member of the Beta Theta Pi fraternity. A tenacious and fiery competitor, Goodrich used intelligent ball-handling skills, the left-handed junior guard was the teams main scorer. He finished with an average of 21.5 points per game, for the first time, a UCLA team won all 30 of its games en route to the schools first NCAA title. Goodrich and Keith Erickson were the returning starters from the team that won UCLAs first national title in 1964. As a senior, the Bruins repeated as NCAA champions as Goodrich scored 24.6 points per game, at UCLA, Goodrich helped compile a 78-11 three-year record. In both of those seasons, Goodrich was named to the NCAA Final Four All-Tournament team. Goodrich at the finished as UCLAs all-time leading scorer which is now broken by Don MacLean. Although many believed Goodrich was too small for the game and too frail for the pros, through perseverance and discipline.
Goodrich was nicknamed Stumpy, a moniker bestowed upon him by teammate Elgin Baylor, because of Goodrichs height, Goodrich was a territorial pick by the Los Angeles Lakers in the 1965 NBA draft. As a rookie in 1965–66, he averaged about 15 minutes per game as a guard behind starters Jerry West
William Felton Bill Russell is an American retired professional basketball player. Russell played center for the Boston Celtics of the National Basketball Association from 1956 to 1969, a five-time NBA Most Valuable Player and a twelve-time All-Star, he was the centerpiece of the Celtics dynasty, winning eleven NBA championships during his thirteen-year career. Along with Henri Richard of the National Hockey Leagues Montreal Canadiens, before his professional career, Russell led the University of San Francisco to two consecutive NCAA championships. He won a medal at the 1956 Summer Olympics as captain of the U. S. national basketball team. Russell is widely considered one of the best players in NBA history and he was listed as between 6 ft 9 in and 6 ft 10 in, and his shot-blocking and man-to-man defense were major reasons for the Celtics success. He inspired his teammates to elevate their own defensive play, Russell was equally notable for his rebounding abilities. He led the NBA in rebounds four times, had a dozen consecutive seasons of 1,000 or more rebounds and he is one of just two NBA players to have grabbed more than 50 rebounds in a game.
Though never the point of the Celtics offense, Russell scored 14,522 career points. Playing in the wake of pioneers like Earl Lloyd, Chuck Cooper and he served a three-season stint as player-coach for the Celtics, becoming the first African American NBA coach. For his accomplishments in the Civil Rights Movement on and off the court, Russell is one of only seven players in history to win an NCAA Championship, an NBA Championship, and an Olympic gold medal. He was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, in 2007 he was enshrined in the FIBA Hall of Fame. In Russells honor the NBA renamed the NBA Finals Most Valuable Player trophy in 2009, Bill Russell was born to Charles Russell and Katie Russell in West Monroe, Louisiana. Like almost all towns and cities of that time, West Monroe was a highly segregated place. Once, Russells father was refused service at a gas station until the staff had taken care of all the white customers. When his father attempted to leave and find a different station, at another time, Russells mother was walking outside in a fancy dress when a policeman accosted her.
He told her to go home and remove the dress, which he described as white womans clothing, while there the family fell into poverty, and Russell spent his childhood living in a series of public housing projects. Charles Russell is described as a stern, hard man who was initially a janitor in a paper factory, being closer to his mother Katie than to his father, Russell received a major emotional blow when she suddenly died when he was 12. His father gave up his job and became a steel worker to be closer to his semi-orphaned children
Wayne Richard Embry is a retired American basketball player & basketball executive. Embrys 11-year playing career as a center/forward spanned from 1958 to 1969 playing for the Cincinnati Royals, Boston Celtics and Milwaukee Bucks, all of the NBA. After his playing career, Embry transitioned to a career as a basketball executive. Since 2004, Embry has served as a senior advisor for the Toronto Raptors. Embry attended Tecumseh High School near New Carlisle, where he was a letter winner. Embry went to Miami University in Oxford, where he became a member of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity, as a two-time all-Mid-American Conference center, Embry, a team captain, led the then-Redskins to conference championships and NCAA Tournament appearances in 1957 and 1958. He led the MAC in scoring and rebounding in two seasons and still holds school records, including best career rebounding average. He ranks among Miami leaders in the scoring list with 1,401 points. He holds both Miami and MAC records for most rebounds in a game and season, during his career, he was one of only 10 players in MAC history to total more than 1,000 career points and rebounds.
He was selected to the Helms Athletic Foundation All-America third team as a senior and he was inducted in the second class of the Miami Athletics Hall of Fame in 1970. He became the player in Miami history to have his jersey retired. Embry earned a bachelor of degree in education from Miami. He played in the NBA All-Star game for five consecutive seasons, Embry was originally drafted by the St. Louis Hawks in 1958. He was traded closer to home weeks to the Cincinnati Royals, the Royals were rebuilding due to the collapse of the team following the hospitalization of team star Maurice Stokes. Star center Clyde Lovellette was traded to St. Louis for Embry, oscar Robertson arrived to the team in 1960, reviving the Royals. Embry and Jack Twyman were all NBA All-Stars for Cincinnati over the three years. Embrys play was notable for his pick and roll play with Robertson, a powerful 68 and 240 pounds, Embry at times appeared to be a blocker on the court, a protector of teammates. But he had a fine all-around game, in 1963, he was named team captain of the Royals
Marvin Mendy Rudolph was an American professional basketball referee in the National Basketball Association for 22 years, from 1953 to 1975. Regarded as one of the greatest officials in NBA history, Rudolph officiated 2,112 NBA games and was the first league referee to work 2,000 games and he was selected to referee eight NBA All-Star Games and made 22 consecutive NBA Finals appearances. He was a member of the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame Class of 2007, born in Philadelphia, Rudolph was raised in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. His father, Harry Rudolph, was a prominent basketball referee, Mendy Rudolph played basketball as a child and eventually chose the same profession as his father. Upon graduating from James M. Coughlin High School, he began officiating basketball games at the Wilkes-Barre Jewish Community Center and worked scholastic games. At age 20, he was recruited to referee games alongside his father, at the same time, he served in the United States Air Force during the Korean War.
Rudolph was married twice during his life and his first marriage was to his childhood sweetheart and together they raised three children. But the relationship became troubled and eventually ended, in 1961, Mendy Rudolph met Susan, a receptionist at the WGN office in New York City, while both worked for the station. At the time, Rudolph worked at WGN as a job outside of officiating. Mendy and Susan Rudolph were married in 1973, two years later, their first child, Jennifer Rudolph, was born. Throughout his life, Rudolph suffered from a problem and was labeled a compulsive gambler. He would often spend his leisure time placing bets at race tracks and Las Vegas, Nevada, at that time, NBA referees were allowed to gamble, but this practice has since been prohibited. As he incurred gambling losses, Rudolph was once offered by a Las Vegas gambler to erase his debt by participating in point shaving. However, he refused to accept the offer and said to his wife, I love the game too much, respect it too much.
I couldnt do it to the memory of my father, and I couldnt do it to myself, If I have to go into bankruptcy, something Id hate to do, Id do it, according to in a 1992 New York Times interview with Susan Rudolph. Rudolph had cashed in his $60,000 pension fund to pay debts, while he refused to seek professional help, Rudolph cut back on his gambling habit in his life. Rudolph was hired by the NBA in February 1953, midway through the 1952–53 NBA season, in his early years with the NBA, Rudolph quickly became an established official as he worked playoff games within his first two years in the league. Rudolph officiated the 1955 NBA Finals between the Syracuse Nationals and Fort Wayne Pistons, which was notable for its actions by fans, fights between players, and attacks on referees
Earl Yogi Strom was an American professional basketball referee for 29 years in the National Basketball Association and for three years in the American Basketball Association. Strom is credited as one of the greatest referees in the history of the NBA and was known for his flamboyant style, nicknamed The Pied Piper, the assertive Strom made foul calls with his whistle by using a tweet-pause-tweet-tweet tune and pointing at the offending player. In addition to calling fouls with flair, he was known for ejecting players from games with style, over the course of his career, he officiated 2,400 professional basketball regular season games,295 playoff games,7 All-Star games, and 29 NBA and ABA Finals. For his extensive contributions to the game, Strom was posthumously elected to the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame in 1995, Strom was born December 15,1927 in Pottstown, Pennsylvania to Max and Bessie Strom. Earls father, was a foreman at a bakery, as a child, he became interested in athletics and competing in sports, and this interest lasted throughout his childhood and into high school.
At Pottstown High School, Strom played football, after finishing high school in 1945, he joined the United States Coast Guard towards the end of World War II. Returning from service, Strom attended Pierce Junior College in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania where he graduated in 1951, following school, the young Strom continued participating in sports and played for a local semi-professional basketball team in his early 20s. Following the advice of the referee, Strom decided to get into officiating and he officiated high school games for nine years as well as college games in the East Coast Athletic Conference for three years. In 1952, he married Yvonne Trollinger, and the couple went on to have five children, outside of officiating, Strom worked at General Electric in customer relations starting in 1956 and continued in this role through his first stint in the NBA. He felt this day job provided security to his family since officiating in the NBA did not at the time, Strom became an NBA referee with the start of the 1957–58 NBA season after accepting an invitation to join the league from Jocko Collins, supervisor of officials.
He further developed his skills in the league by learning from other such as Mendy Rudolph, Norm Drucker. Strom ascended to the top of the ladder by the end of his third season in the league as he was assigned playoff games. The following year and Rudolph made NBA history when they officiated the 1961 NBA Finals between the Boston Celtics and St. Louis Hawks. This was the time in NBA history that the same two officials worked an entire series, which was the result of the two teams not agreeing on any other officials to use in the series. Six years into his NBA career, Strom had worked every playoff game in the semi-finals and finals along with Rudolph, in fact, the former was assigned to any seventh and deciding game in a series during this time. He was involved in one of the most memorable moments in NBA history during the 1965 Eastern Conference finals between the Boston Celtics and Philadelphia 76ers, in the seventh and final game, the 76ers trailed the Celtics 110–109 with five seconds left.
The 76ers had possession of the ball and attempted to inbound the pass as the Celtics John Havlicek tipped the pass thrown by Hal Greer, Celtics radio announcer Johnny Most made his most fabled call, Havlicek stole the ball. And all this while, Strom had officiated the game in a cast as he had broken his hand punching a fan during an altercation at a game the previous night
Sam Jones (basketball)
Samuel Sam Jones is an American retired professional basketball player at shooting guard and a member of the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. He was known for his quickness and game-winning shots, especially during the NBA Playoffs and he has the second most NBA championships of any player, behind his teammate Bill Russell. He was one of 3 Boston Celtics to be part of the Celticss 8 consecutive championships from 1959 to 1966. Jones attended and graduated from North Carolina Central University, where he was a four-year letterwinner for Hall of Fame coach John McLendon, Jones scored 1,745 points, which is still second in school history. He was a three-time All-CIAA league selection,41, is retired and hangs in the Eagles arena. Jones was 6-foot-4 and weighed 200 lb, Boston Celtics Hall of Fame coach Red Auerbach took a trip south to scout North Carolina players who had just won the national championship. Former Wake Forest coach Bones McKinney told Auerbach he could visit Chapel Hill, eventually, in the 1957 NBA draft, the Philadelphia Warriors selected North Carolinas Lennie Rosenbluth with the sixth pick.
Boston selected Jones two picks later, even though Auerbach had never seen Jones play, Jones played all of his 12 seasons in the National Basketball Association NBA with the Celtics. He was known as a scorer, with more than 15,000 points in his career. He participated in five All-Star Games, and is recognized as one of the best shooting guards of his generation. Jones was named to the All-NBA Second Team three straight years and he played on 10 championship teams — a total exceeded only by teammate Bill Russell in NBA history. Jones was originally claimed by the Minneapolis Lakers, but he returned to college to earn his degree upon completion of military service, jones’ perfect form when shooting a jump shot, along with his great clutch shooting, led opponents to nickname him The Shooter. He was particularly adept shooting the bank shot, in which the shooter bounces the ball off the backboard en route to the basket. Many coaches, including UCLAs great John Wooden, believe that when a shooter is at a 20- to 50-degree angle to the backboard and inside 15 feet, a bank shot is always the preferred shot.
At 6-foot-4, Jones was the prototype of the guard who could run the floor. One of the Jones Boys in Boston, Sam teamed with K. C. Jones in the Celtics backcourt to create havoc in NBA arenas around the country and he led Boston in scoring in the 1962–63 NBA season, 1964–65 NBA season and 1965–66 NBA season. He produced four seasons averaging 20 points or better. He owns Bostons fourth-best single-game scoring output and he scored 2,909 points in 154 playoff games, 26th best in history
Frederick Russell Freddie Crawford, Jr. is a former American basketball player who played in the National Basketball Association. Crawford was drafted in the round of the 1964 NBA draft by the New York Knicks. Previously, he had been drafted by the Knicks in the 1963 NBA draft and he would eventually play with the Knicks in the NBA in 1967. The following year, he was sold to the Los Angeles Lakers, in 1969, he was again sold, this time to the Milwaukee Bucks. Later, Crawford was selected by the Buffalo Braves in the 1970 NBA Expansion Draft and he was traded to the Philadelphia 76ers that year