Shibe Park, known later as Connie Mack Stadium, was a baseball park located in Philadelphia. It was the home of the Philadelphia Athletics of the American League, when it opened April 12,1909, it became baseballs first steel-and-concrete stadium. In different eras it was home to The $100,000 Infield, The Whiz Kids, Shibe Park stood on the block bounded by Lehigh Avenue, 20th Street, Somerset Street and 21st Street. It was five blocks west, corner-to-corner, from the Baker Bowl, the stadium hosted eight World Series and two MLB All-Star Games, in 1943 and 1952, with the latter game holding the distinction of being the only All-Star contest shortened by rain. In May 1939, it was the site of the first night game played in the American League, Phillies Hall-of-Fame centerfielder and longtime broadcaster Richie Ashburn remembered Shibe Park, It looked like a ballpark. It had a feeling and a heartbeat, a personality that was all baseball, when as many as 28,000 showed up to fill the 9,500 wooden bleacher seats, Shibe and partner Connie Mack decided the As needed a new place to play. He searched for a site for his new park and found one on Lehigh Avenue between 20th and 21st Streets, five blocks west of Baker Bowl, straddling the neighborhoods known as Swampoodle and Goosetown. It was still primitive at the time, an area of high bluffs, rain-washed gullies, quagmires, open fields, even ponds where chickens pecked. Although a grid of streets was planned for the area, few actually existed, without the hospital, the areas stigma would eventually dissipate, but at the time, the land was still a bargain. He spent a total of $67,500 on seven land packages totaling 5.75 acres, for the design and its execution, Shibe hired William Steele and Sons. Their engineering staff had worked with the new technology of steel-reinforced concrete, and designed and built the citys first skyscraper, the Steele design for the Shibe façade was in the ornate French Renaissance style, including arches, vaultings, and Ionic pilasters. The souvenir program on Opening Day called it a combination of color. Gabled dormer windows on the upper decks copper-trimmed green-slate mansard roof looked out over the streets below, presiding over all were terra cotta busts of Shibe and Mack above the main entrances on Lehigh and 21st. The signature feature of the design was the octangular tower on the southwest corner. On the ground floor was an entrance lobby. Bobby Shantz, pitcher for the As in their last years at Shibe, Shibe was proud of the egalitarianism of the design, he said it was for the masses as well as the classes. In April 1908, design in hand, the Shibes and the Steeles broke ground, with the resources of the Steele firm, construction was speedy, efficient and completed in time to open the 1909 season. The city was excited about its new ballpark – the Philadelphia Public Ledger called it a palace for fans, American League president Ban Johnson pronounced that Shibe Park is the greatest place of its character in the world
In 1682, William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia was one of the capitals in the Revolutionary War. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became an industrial center. It became a destination for African-Americans in the Great Migration. The areas many universities and colleges make Philadelphia a top international study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational, with a gross domestic product of $388 billion, Philadelphia ranks ninth among world cities and fourth in the nation. Philadelphia is the center of activity in Pennsylvania and is home to seven Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is growing, with a market of almost 81,900 commercial properties in 2016 including several prominent skyscrapers. The city is known for its arts, culture, and rich history, Philadelphia has more outdoor sculptures and murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States. The 67 National Historic Landmarks in the city helped account for the $10 billion generated by tourism, Philadelphia is the only World Heritage City in the United States. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon, the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are also called Delaware Indians and their territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases, mainly smallpox, and violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people occasionally fought the Lenape, surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin. The American Revolutionary War and United States independence pushed them further west, in the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in the US state of Oklahoma, with communities living also in Wisconsin, Ontario. The Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony, in 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and quickly spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their defeat of the English colony of Maryland
Donald Richard Richie Ashburn, also known by the nicknames, Putt-Putt, The Tilden Flash, and Whitey due to his light-blond hair, was an American center fielder in Major League Baseball. He was born in Tilden, Nebraska, from his youth on a farm, he grew up to become a professional outfielder and veteran broadcaster for the Philadelphia Phillies and one of the most beloved sports figures in Philadelphia history. He was inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1995, one of the famous Whiz Kids of the National League champion 1950 Phillies, Ashburn spent 12 of his 15 major-league seasons as the Phillies center fielder. He sported a.308 lifetime batting average, leading the National League twice, and routinely led the league in fielding percentage. In 1950, in the last game of the season, he threw Dodgers runner Cal Abrams out at home plate to preserve a 1–1 tie. He had been playing in to back up a throw on a pitchout. The following year Ashburn displayed his skill on the national stage in the All-Star Game at Tiger Stadium in Detroit. Ashburn caught the ball in front of the right centerfield screen 400 feet distant after a long run and he was also the last Phillies player to collect eight hits in a double-header when he singled eight times in a twinbill at Pittsburgh on May 20,1951. Ashburn was a singles hitter rather than a slugger, accumulating over 2,500 hits in 15 years against only 29 home runs. In his day he was regarded as the archetypal spray hitter, stroking the ball well to all fields. Ashburn accumulated the most hits of any batter during the 1950s, during an August 17,1957 game Ashburn hit a foul ball into the stands that struck spectator Alice Roth, wife of Philadelphia Bulletin sports editor Earl Roth, breaking her nose. When play resumed Ashburn fouled off another ball struck her while she was being carried off in a stretcher. Ashburn and Mrs. Roth maintained a friendship for many years, Ashburn was traded to the Chicago Cubs following the 1959 season for three players. He went on to anchor center field for the North Siders in 1960 and 1961, Ashburn was drafted by the expansion New York Mets for the 1962 season. He had a good year offensively, batting.306, and was the teams first-ever All-Star Game representative. It was, however, a year for the polished professional. He retired at the end of the season, one oft-told story is that on short flies to center or left-center, center fielder Ashburn would collide with shortstop Elio Chacón. Chacón, from Venezuela, spoke little English and had difficulty understanding when Ashburn was calling him off the ball, to remedy matters teammate Joe Christopher taught Ashburn to say Yo la tengo, Spanish for I’ve got it
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams now play in the National League and American League, the NL and AL operated as separate legal entities from 1876 and 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining legally separate entities since 1903, the merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000. The organization also oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises about 240 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs, with the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseballs first professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869,30 years after Abner Doubleday supposedly invented the game of baseball, the first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who often jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era, Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal. The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, and survived potential downturns during the Great Depression, shortly after the war, baseballs color barrier was broken by Jackie Robinson. The 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL, then new stadiums, Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, and media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, today, MLB is composed of thirty teams, twenty-nine in the United States and one in Canada. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television, radio, and the Internet throughout North America, MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution and this document has undergone several incarnations since 1875, with the most recent revisions being made in 2012. Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sports umpiring crews, and negotiates marketing, labor, MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball. This ruling has been weakened only slightly in subsequent years, the weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates. There were several challenges to MLBs primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916, the last attempt at a new league was the aborted Continental League in 1960. The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner, Rob Manfred, the chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives, president, chief officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer. The multimedia branch of MLB, which is based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media and this branch oversees MLB. com and each of the 30 teams websites. Its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, MLB Productions is a similarly structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast media
The Houston Astros are an American professional baseball team based in Houston, Texas. The Astros are members of the American League West division in Major League Baseball, the Astros have played their home games at Minute Maid Park since 2000. The Astros were established as the Houston Colt. 45s and entered the National League in 1962 with the expansion New York Mets. The current name—reflecting Houstons role as the center of the U. S. space program—was adopted three years later, when they moved into the Astrodome, the worlds first domed sports stadium. The Astros played in the NL from 1962 to 2012 and they played in the West division from 1969 to 1993, and the Central division from 1994 to 2012. The Astros have played in one World Series in 2005 against the Chicago White Sox, from 1888 until 1961, Houstons professional baseball club was the minor league Houston Buffaloes. Although expansion from the National League eventually brought an MLB team to Texas in 1962, Houston officials had been making efforts to do so for years prior. There were four men responsible for bringing Major League Baseball to Houston, George Kirksey and Craig Cullinan. They formed the Houston Sports Association as their vehicle for attaining a big league franchise for the city of Houston and they called the new league the Continental League. Wanting to protect potential new markets, both existing leagues chose to expand from eight teams to ten, however, plans eventually fell through for the Houston franchise after the Houston Buffaloes owner, Marty Marion, could not come to an agreement with the HSA to sell the team. To make matters worse, the Continental League as a whole folded in August 1960, however, on October 17,1960, the National League granted an expansion franchise to the Houston Sports Association in which their team could begin play in the 1962 season. Eventually, the Houston Sports Association succeeded in purchasing the Houston Buffaloes, at this point majority-owned by William Hopkins, the Buffs played one last minor league season as the top farm team of the Chicago Cubs in 1961 before being succeeded by the citys NL club. The new Houston team was named the Colt. 45s after a Name The Team contest was won by William Irving Neder, the Colt.45 was well known as the gun that won the west. The colors selected were blue and orange. The first team was formed mostly through a draft after the 1961 season. The Colt. 45s and their cousins, the New York Mets. Many of those associated with the Houston Buffaloes organization were allowed by the ownership to continue in the major league, Manager Harry Craft, who had joined Houston in 1961, remained in the same position for the team until the end of the 1964 season. General manager Spec Richardson also continued with the organization as business manager, similarly, the radio broadcasting team remained with the new Houston major league franchise
James Paul David Jim Bunning is an American former Major League Baseball pitcher and politician. During his baseball career, he pitched from 1955 to 1971, most notably with the Detroit Tigers and the Philadelphia Phillies. In 1959, the right-hander struck out the side, throwing the minimum nine pitches as a reliever in the top of the ninth inning of Detroits 5–4 loss to Boston at Briggs Stadium, sammy White, Jim Mahoney and Ike Delock were the victims of his immaculate inning. When Bunning retired, he had the second-highest total of career strikeouts in Major League history, as a member of the Phillies, Bunning pitched the seventh perfect game in Major League Baseball history on Fathers Day Sunday, June 21,1964, against the New York Mets. He was inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum in 1996, after retiring from baseball, Bunning returned to his native northern Kentucky and was elected to the city council, then the state senate, in which he served as minority leader. In 1986, Bunning was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives from Kentuckys 4th congressional district and he was elected to the United States Senate from Kentucky in 1998 and served two terms as the Republican junior U. S. Senator. In July 2009, he announced that he would not run for re-election in 2010, Bunning gave his farewell speech to the Senate on December 9,2010, and was succeeded by current Senator Rand Paul on January 3,2011. Bunning was born in Southgate, Kentucky, the son of Gladys and he graduated from St. Xavier High School in Cincinnati in 1949 and received a bachelors degree in economics from Xavier University. In 1952, Bunning married Mary Catherine Theis and they had five daughters and four sons. One of Bunnings sons, David L. Bunning, is a judge for the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Kentucky. Another son, Bill, is the brew master at Ye Olde Brothers Brewery in Navarre. Jim and Mary Catherine also have thirty-five grandchildren and fourteen great-grandchildren, one of those grandchildren is Patrick Towles, starting quarterback for the University of Kentucky football team. Towles uses the same number 14 that his grandfather did, Bunning pitched for the Detroit Tigers. He then went to the Philadelphia Phillies, the Pittsburgh Pirates, Bunning then returned to the Phillies in 1970 and retired in 1971. He wore uniform number 15 on the 1955 Tigers, and then switched to 14 in 1956 for the rest of his time with Detroit and he stayed with number 14 on his jersey with the Phillies and Pirates. When he was traded to the Dodgers in 1969 he wore number 17, the Phillies retired his number 14 jersey in 2001 after his election to the Hall of Fame in 1996. Manager Gene Mauch used Bunning and fellow hurler Chris Short heavily down the stretch, the collapse of the 1964 Phillies remains one of the most infamous in baseball history. With a six and a half lead as late as September 21
Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. was an American Baptist minister and activist who was a leader in the Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience based on his Christian beliefs, King became a civil rights activist early in his career. He led the 1955 Montgomery bus boycott and helped found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in 1957, with the SCLC, King led an unsuccessful 1962 struggle against segregation in Albany, Georgia, and helped organize the 1963 nonviolent protests in Birmingham, Alabama. King also helped to organize the 1963 March on Washington, where he delivered his famous I Have a Dream speech, on October 14,1964, King received the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through nonviolent resistance. In 1965, he helped to organize the Selma to Montgomery marches, in the final years of his life, King expanded his focus to include opposition towards poverty and the Vietnam War, alienating many of his liberal allies with a 1967 speech titled Beyond Vietnam. In 1968, King was planning a national occupation of Washington, D. C. to be called the Poor Peoples Campaign, Kings death was followed by riots in many U. S. cities. Ray, who fled the country, was arrested two months later at London Heathrow Airport, King was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal. Martin Luther King Jr. Day was established as a holiday in numerous cities and states beginning in 1971, hundreds of streets in the U. S. have been renamed in his honor, and a county in Washington State was also renamed for him. The Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial on the National Mall in Washington, King was born on January 15,1929, in Atlanta, Georgia, to the Reverend Martin Luther King, Sr. and Alberta Williams King. It was during this time he chose to be called Martin Luther King in honor of the German reformer Martin Luther, King had Irish ancestry through his paternal great-grandfather, as well as African ancestry. King was a child, between an older sister, Willie Christine King, and a younger brother, Alfred Daniel Williams King. King sang with his choir at the 1939 Atlanta premiere of the movie Gone with the Wind. His mother was an accomplished organist and choir leader, and she took him to various churches to sing and he received attention for singing I Want to Be More and More Like Jesus. King later became a member of the choir in his church. King said that his father regularly whipped him until he was fifteen, King saw his fathers proud and fearless protests against segregation, such as King Sr. When King was a child, he befriended a boy whose father owned a business near his familys home. When the boys were six, they started school, King had to attend a school for African Americans, King lost his friend because the childs father no longer wanted the boys to play together. King suffered from depression throughout much of his life, in his adolescent years, he initially felt resentment against whites due to the racial humiliation that he, his family, and his neighbors often had to endure in the segregated South
Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. was an American clergyman and civil rights leader who was fatally shot at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee, on April 4,1968. King was rushed to St. Josephs Hospital, where he was pronounced dead at 7,05 p. m. that evening and he was a prominent leader of the Civil Rights Movement and Nobel Peace Prize laureate who was known for his use of nonviolence and civil disobedience. James Earl Ray, a fugitive from the Missouri State Penitentiary, was arrested on June 8,1968, in London at Heathrow Airport, extradited to the United States, and charged with the crime. On March 10,1969, Ray entered a plea of guilty and was sentenced to 99 years in the Tennessee State Penitentiary. Ray later made attempts to withdraw his guilty plea and be tried by a jury. The King family and others believe that the assassination was carried out by a conspiracy involving the U. S. government, as alleged by Loyd Jowers in 1993, in 1999 the King family filed a wrongful death lawsuit against Jowers for the sum of $10 million. During closing arguments, the Kings attorney asked the jury to award damages of $100, during the trial both the family and Jowers presented evidence alleging a government conspiracy. The government agencies accused could not defend themselves or respond because they were not named as defendants, based on the evidence, the jury concluded that Jowers and others were part of a conspiracy to kill King and awarded the Kings $100. The allegations and the finding of the Memphis jury were later rejected by the United States Department of Justice in 2000 due to lack of evidence, King received frequent death threats due to his prominence in the Civil Rights Movement. He had confronted the risk of death and made that part of his philosophy. He taught that murder could not stop the struggle for equal rights, after the assassination of President Kennedy in 1963, King told his wife Coretta, This is what is going to happen to me also. I keep telling you, this is a sick society, King traveled to Memphis, Tennessee, in support of striking African American city sanitation workers. The workers had staged a walkout on February 11,1968, to protest unequal wages, at the time, Memphis paid black workers significantly lower wages than whites. Several sanitation workers had been killed on the job due to working conditions. In addition, unlike workers, black workers received no pay if they stayed home during bad weather, consequently, most blacks were compelled to work even in driving rain. On April 3, King returned to Memphis to address a gathering at the Mason Temple and his airline flight to Memphis was delayed by a bomb threat but he made his planned speech. King delivered the speech, now known as the Ive Been to the Mountaintop address, as he neared the close, he referred to the bomb threat, And then I got to Memphis. And some began to say the threats, or talk about the threats that were out
The Cincinnati Reds are an American professional baseball team based in Cincinnati, Ohio. The Reds compete in Major League Baseball as a club of the National League Central division. They were a member of the American Association in 1882. The Reds played in the NL West division from 1969 to 1993 and they have won five World Series titles, nine NL pennants, one AA pennant, and 10 division titles. The team plays its games at Great American Ball Park. Bob Castellini has been executive officer since 2006. The origins of the modern Cincinnati Reds can be traced to the expulsion of a team bearing that name. Both were important activities to entice the citys large German population, while Hulbert made clear his distaste for both beer and Sunday baseball at the founding of the league, neither practice was actually against league rules in those early years. On October 6,1880, however, seven of the eight team owners pledged at a league meeting to formally ban both beer and Sunday baseball at the regular league meeting that December. Only Cincinnati president W. H. Kennett refused to sign the pledge, when these attempts failed, he formed a new independent ballclub known as the Red Stockings in the Spring of 1881, and brought the team to St. Louis for a weekend exhibition. The Reds first game was a 12–3 victory over the St. Louis club, upon arriving in the city, however, Caylor and Thorner discovered that no other owners had decided to accept the invitation, with even Phillips not bothering to attend his own meeting. By chance, the duo met a former pitcher named Al Pratt, the ploy worked, and the American Association was officially formed at the Hotel Gibson in Cincinnati with the new Reds a charter member with Thorner as president. The club never placed higher than second or lower than fifth for the rest of its tenure in the American Association, the National League was happy to accept the teams in part due to the emergence of the new Players League. This new league, a failed attempt to break the reserve clause in baseball. Because the National League decided to expand while the American Association was weakening and it was also at this time that the team first shortened their name from Red Stockings to Reds. The Reds wandered through the 1890s signing local stars and aging veterans, during this time, the team never finished above third place and never closer than 10½ games. At the start of the 20th century, the Reds had hitting stars Sam Crawford, seymours.377 average in 1905 was the first individual batting crown won by a Red. In 1911, Bob Bescher stole 81 bases, which is still a team record, like the previous decade, the 1900s were not kind to the Reds, as much of the decade was spent in the leagues second division
The Philadelphia Phillies are an American professional baseball franchise based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. They are the oldest continuous, one-name, one-city franchise in all of professional American sports, the Phillies compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League East division. Since 2004, the home has been Citizens Bank Park. The Phillies have won two World Series championships and seven National League pennants, the first of which came in 1915, the franchise has also experienced long periods of struggle. The 77 season drought is the fourth longest World Series drought in Major League Baseball history, the longevity of the franchise and its history of adversity have earned it the dubious distinction of having lost the most games of any team in the history of American professional sports. Despite the teams lack of success historically, they are one of the more successful franchises since the start of the Divisional Era in Major League Baseball. The Phillies have won their division 11 times, which ranks 6th among all teams and 4th in the National League, the franchise was founded in Philadelphia in 1883, replacing the team from Worcester, Massachusetts in the National League. The teams spring training facilities are located in Clearwater, Florida and its Double-A affiliate is the Reading Fightin Phils, which plays in Reading, Pennsylvania, and its Triple-A affiliate is the Lehigh Valley IronPigs, which plays in Allentown, Pennsylvania. After being founded in 1883 as the Quakers, the changed its name to the Philadelphias. This was soon shortened to Phillies, Quakers continued to be used interchangeably with Phillies from 1883 until 1890, when the team officially became known as the Phillies. Player defections to the newly formed American League, especially to the cross-town Philadelphia Athletics, poor fiscal management after their appearance in the 1915 World Series, however, doomed the Phillies to sink back into relative obscurity, from 1918 to 1948 they only had one winning season. Though Chuck Klein won the Most Valuable Player Award in 1932 and the National League Triple Crown in 1933, after lumber baron William B. Cox purchased the team in 1943, the Phillies rose out of the standings cellar for the first time in five years. As a result, the fan base and attendance at home games increased, but it soon became clear that not all was right in Coxs front office. Eventually Cox revealed that he had been betting on the Phillies, the new owner, Bob Carpenter, Jr. scion of the Delaware-based DuPont family, tried to polish the teams image by unofficially changing its name to the Bluejays. However, the new moniker did not take, and it was dropped by 1949. This led to the advent of the Whiz Kids, led by a lineup of players developed by the Phillies farm system that included future Hall of Famers Richie Ashburn. In contrast, the Philadelphia Athletics finished last in 1950 and long-time manager Connie Mack retired, the team struggled on for four more years with only one winning season before abandoning Philadelphia under the Johnson brothers, who bought out Mack. They began play in Kansas City in 1955, as part of the deal selling that team to the Johnson brothers, the Phillies bought Shibe Park, where both teams had played since 1938
Opened 55 years ago on April 10,1962, it was constructed in less than three years at a cost of $23 million, financed by private sources. Often referred to as a ballpark, the stadium has seen 12 no-hitters. The stadium hosted the Major League Baseball All-Star Game in 1980 and it also hosted the semifinals and finals of the 2009 and 2017 World Baseball Classics. It also hosted exhibition baseball during the 1984 Summer Olympics, the stadium hosted a soccer tournament on August 3,2013 featuring four clubs, the hometown team Los Angeles Galaxy, and European giants Real Madrid, Everton, and Juventus. For the first time at Dodger Stadium, the Los Angeles Kings, the land for Dodger Stadium was purchased from local owners and inhabitants in the early 1950s by the city of Los Angeles using eminent domain with funds from the Federal Housing Act of 1949. Before construction could begin on the project, the local political climate changed greatly when Norris Poulson was elected mayor of Los Angeles in 1953. Proposed public housing such as Elysian Park Heights lost most of their support as they became associated with socialist ideals. It was not until June 3,1958, when Los Angeles voters approved a Taxpayers Committee for Yes on Baseball referendum, Los Angeles-based Mike Davis, in his seminal work on the city, City of Quartz, describes the process of gradually convincing Chavez Ravine homeowners to sell. With nearly all of the original Spanish-speaking homeowners initially unwilling to sell, developers resorted to offering immediate cash payments, ground was broken for Dodger Stadium on September 17,1959. The top of local ridges were removed and the soil was used to fill in Sulfur and Cemetery Ravines to provide a surface for a parking lot. A local elementary school was simply buried and sits beneath the parking lot northwest of third base, a total of 8 million cubic yards of earth were moved in the process of building the stadium. 21,000 precast concrete units, some weighing as much as 32 tons, were fabricated onsite, the stadium was originally designed to be expandable to 85,000 seats by expanding the upper decks over the outfield pavilions, the Dodgers have never pursued such a project. Dodger Stadium was also the home of the Los Angeles Angels from 1962 through 1965, to avoid constantly referring to their landlords, the Angels called the park Chavez Ravine Stadium, after the geographic feature in which the stadium sits. At the conclusion of the 2005 season, the Los Angeles Dodgers made major renovations during the subsequent off-season, the largest of these improvements was the replacement of nearly all the seats in the stadium. The seats that were removed had been in use since 1975 and helped give the stadium its unique space age feel with a palette of bright yellow, orange, blue. The new seats are in the original 1962 color scheme consisting of yellow, light orange, turquoise,2,000 pairs of seats were made available for purchase at $250, with the proceeds going to charity. The baseline seating sections have been converted into retro-style box seating, adding leg room, other repairs were made to the concrete structure of the stadium. These improvements mark the second phase of an improvement plan for Dodger Stadium
Gene William Mauch was an American professional baseball player and manager. He played in Major League Baseball as a second baseman for the Brooklyn Dodgers, Pittsburgh Pirates, Chicago Cubs, Boston Braves, St. Louis Cardinals, Mauch was best known for managing four teams from 1960 to 1987. He is by far the winningest manager to have never won a league pennant and he managed the Philadelphia Phillies, Montreal Expos, Minnesota Twins, and California Angels. His 1,902 career victories ranked 8th in major league history when he retired and he gained a reputation for playing a distinctive small ball style, which emphasized defense, speed and base-to-base tactics on offense rather than power hitting. Louis Cardinals and Boston Red Sox, in 304 games and 737 at-bats, Mauch hit.239, with 176 hits, five home runs and 62 RBIs, striking out 82 times. He missed part of 1944 and all of the 1945 season while serving in the United States Army Air Forces during World War II. In 1953, the Braves named Mauch, then 27 years old and his team finished 84–70, in third place, three games behind the Memphis Chickasaws, and fell in the first round of the playoffs to the eventual league champion Nashville Vols. The combative Mauch was known for frequent skirmishes with the leagues umpires, but seven years later, John J. Quinn, the Braves general manager who hired him for the Crackers job, would give him his first big-league managerial opportunity with the 1960 Phillies. From 1954 to 1957, Mauch was strictly a player, first for the Los Angeles Angels of the Pacific Coast League and his final big-league season,1957 with Boston, was his most productive. He started 65 games as the Bosox second baseman and batted a career-high.270 with 60 hits, but the following season, he began his managerial career in earnest. Mauch declined an offer to interview with Quinn for an opening on the Phillies 1960 coaching staff, Mauch,34 years old at time, became the youngest manager in the Major Leagues. His teams generally played in ballparks that were not friendly to home run hitters, Mauch had frequent fiery exchanges with umpires. Mauch was not shy when arguing an umpiring play and he used his bombastic personality to help his team gain any possible advantage on the baseball diamond. Mauch had a brilliant baseball mind and is credited with starting the double player switch. Mauch gained a reputation for being loyal to his players and became known as the Little General, Mauch came tantalizingly close to the World Series on three occasions. In late September 1964, his Phillies had a record of 90–60, a 6 1⁄2 game lead in the National League with 12 games left to play, and were starting a 7-game home stand. Mauch decided to start his two pitching aces, Jim Bunning and Chris Short, in 7 of the last 10 games,4 of those starts on 2 days rest, the other 2 near-World-Series cases came with the Angels. In 1982, his Angels team won the American Leagues Western Division, the Angels needed only one more victory to advance to their first World Series