Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King is an American former World No.1 professional tennis player. King won 39 Grand Slam titles, including 12 singles,16 womens doubles, King won the singles title at the inaugural WTA Tour Championships. King often represented the United States in the Federation Cup and the Wightman Cup and she was a member of the victorious United States team in seven Federation Cups and nine Wightman Cups. For three years, King was the United States captain in the Federation Cup, King is an advocate for gender equality and has long been a pioneer for equality and social justice. Regarded by many in the sport as one of the greatest female players of all time. The Fed Cup Award of Excellence was bestowed on King in 2010, in 1972, King was the joint winner, with John Wooden, of the Sports Illustrated Sportsman of the Year award and was one of the Time Persons of the Year in 1975. King has received the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Sunday Times Sportswoman of the Year lifetime achievement award.
King was inducted into the National Womens Hall of Fame in 1990, and in 2006, King was born in Long Beach, into a conservative Methodist family, the daughter of Betty, a housewife, and Bill Moffitt, a firefighter. Her younger brother, Randy Moffitt, would become a Major League Baseball pitcher, Billie Jean attended Long Beach Polytechnic High School. After graduating, she attended California State University, Los Angeles and she learned her tennis on the free public courts in Long Beach. Bob Martin of the Long Beach Press-Telegram wrote about Billie Jeans success in a weekly tennis column, Kings triumph at the French Open in 1972 made her only the fifth woman in tennis history to win the singles titles at all four Grand Slam events, a career Grand Slam. King won a career Grand Slam in mixed doubles, in womens doubles, only the Australian Open eluded her. King won a record 20 career titles at Wimbledon – six singles,10 womens doubles, King played 51 Grand Slam singles events from 1959 through 1983, reaching at least the semifinals in 27 and at least the quarterfinals in 40 of her attempts.
King was the runner-up in six Grand Slam singles events, an indicator of Kings mental toughness at crunch time in Grand Slam singles tournaments was her 11–2 career record in deuce third sets, i. e. third sets that were tied 5–5 before being resolved. King won 129 singles titles, and her prize money totaled US$1,966,487. In Federation Cup finals, King was on the winning United States team seven times, in 1963,1966,1967 and her career win–loss record was 52–4. She won the last 30 matches she played, including 15 straight wins in singles and doubles. In Wightman Cup competition, Kings career win–loss record was 22–4, the United States won the cup ten of the 11 years that King participated
Margaret Court AO MBE, known as Margaret Smith Court, is a retired Australian tennis player and former world No.1. She is currently a Christian minister in Perth, Western Australia, in 1970, Court became the first woman during the open era to win the singles Grand Slam. She won a record 24 of those titles, a record still stands. She won 19 womens doubles and 21 mixed doubles titles and she is the only woman to win the mixed doubles Grand Slam, which she accomplished twice. Her all surfaces singles career winning percentage of 91. 68% is one of the best of all according to the Sporteology website. Her open era singles career winning percentage of 91. 37% is unequalled and her win-loss performance in all Grand Slam singles tournaments was 90. 12%. She was 95. 31% at the Australian Open,90. 38% at the French Open,85. 10% at Wimbledon and 89. 47% at the US Open and she shares the open era record for most Grand Slam singles titles as a mother with Kim Clijsters. The International Tennis Hall of Fame states, For sheer strength of performance, in 2010, the Herald Sun newspaper of Melbourne, Australia called her the greatest female tennis player of all time.
Court is one of six tennis players to ever win a multiple slam set in two disciplines, matching Roy Emerson, Martina Navratilova, Frank Sedgman, Doris Hart and Serena Williams. Court, however, is the one in tennis history to complete a multiple slam set, twice. Having grown up as a Roman Catholic, Court became associated with Pentecostalism in the 1970s and she founded the Margaret Court Ministries, and in this capacity she has been vocal critic of LGBT rights. Margaret Smith was the youngest of the four children of Lawrence Smith and she has two older brothers and Vincent, and an older sister, June Shanahan. She is a natural left-hander who was persuaded to change to a hand grip. She began playing tennis when she was eight years old and was 17 in 1960 when she won the first of seven singles titles at the Australian Championships. Court became the first female player from Australia to win a Grand Slam tournament abroad, the year after that, she became the first Australian woman to win Wimbledon.
After Wimbledon in 1966, Court temporarily retired from tennis and she married Barry Court in 1967, whose father, Sir Charles Court, and brother, Richard Court, served as premiers of Western Australia. She returned to tennis in 1968 and in 1970 won all four Grand Slam singles titles, the next year, she lost the Wimbledon singles final to Evonne Goolagong Cawley while pregnant with her first child, who was born in March 1972. Court made a comeback the year and played in the US Open and played throughout 1973
Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. As the worlds fifth-largest country by area and population, it is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to wildlife, a variety of ecological systems. This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro, in 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a state governed under a constitutional monarchy. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, the country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup détat.
An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, Brazils current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. The federation is composed of the union of the Federal District, the 26 states, Brazils economy is the worlds ninth-largest by nominal GDP and seventh-largest by GDP as of 2015. A member of the BRICS group, Brazil until 2010 had one of the worlds fastest growing economies, with its economic reforms giving the country new international recognition. Brazils national development bank plays an important role for the economic growth. Brazil is a member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States, CPLP. Brazil is a power in Latin America and a middle power in international affairs. One of the worlds major breadbaskets, Brazil has been the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years and it is likely that the word Brazil comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil commonly given the etymology red like an ember, formed from Latin brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a red dye, it was highly valued by the European cloth industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. The popular appellation eclipsed and eventually supplanted the official Portuguese name, early sailors sometimes called it the Land of Parrots. In the Guarani language, a language of Paraguay, Brazil is called Pindorama
The Championships, Wimbledon
The Championships, commonly known simply as Wimbledon, is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and is widely considered the most prestigious. It has been held at the All England Club in Wimbledon, Wimbledon is one of the four Grand Slam tennis tournaments, the others being the Australian Open, the French Open and the US Open. Since the Australian Open shifted to hardcourt in 1988, Wimbledon is the only major still played on grass. The tournament takes place two weeks in late June and early July, culminating with the Ladies and Gentlemens Singles Final. Five major and invitational events are each year. Wimbledon traditions include a dress code for competitors and Royal patronage. The tournament is notable for the absence of sponsor advertising around the courts. In 2009, Wimbledons Centre Court was fitted with a roof to lessen the loss of playing time due to rain. The All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club is a club founded on 23 July 1868. Its first ground was off Worple Road, Wimbledon, in 1876, lawn tennis, a game devised by Major Walter Clopton Wingfield a year or so earlier and originally given the name Sphairistikè, was added to the activities of the club.
In spring 1877, the club was renamed The All England Croquet and Lawn Tennis Club, a new code of laws, replacing the code administered by the Marylebone Cricket Club, was drawn up for the event. Todays rules are similar except for such as the height of the net and posts. The inaugural 1877 Wimbledon Championship started on 9 July 1877 and the Gentlemens Singles was the event held. It was won by Spencer Gore, an old Harrovian rackets player, about 200 spectators paid one shilling each to watch the final. The lawns at the ground were arranged so that the court was in the middle with the others arranged around it. The name was retained when the Club moved in 1922 to the present site in Church Road, however, in 1980 four new courts were brought into commission on the north side of the ground, which meant the Centre Court was once more correctly defined. The opening of the new No.1 Court in 1997 emphasised the description, by 1882, activity at the club was almost exclusively confined to lawn tennis and that year the word croquet was dropped from the title.
However, for reasons it was restored in 1899
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
Glossary of tennis terms
This page is a glossary of tennis terminology. Ace, Serve where the ball lands inside the service box and is not touched by the receiver, thus. Aces are usually powerful and generally land on or near one of the corners at the back of the service box, initially the term was used to indicate the scoring of a point. Action, Synonym of spin ad, Used by the umpire to announce the score when a player has the advantage. See scoring in tennis ad court, Left side of the court of each player, When one player wins the first point from a deuce and needs one more point to win the game, not applicable when using deciding points. Advantage set, Set won by a player or team having won at least six games with an advantage over the opponent. Final sets in the draws of the Australian Open, the French Open and the tennis Olympic event. The Davis Cup was until 2015, when it switched to tie breaks, Used by the chair umpire to announce scores when both players have the same number of points or the same number of games.
When both players are at 40, the term is deuce. All-Comers, Tournament in which all took part except the reigning champion. The winner of the All-Comers event would play the title holder in the Challenge Round, all-court, Style of play that is a composite of all the different playing styles, which includes baseline and serve and volley styles. Alley, Area of the court between the singles and the sidelines, which together are known as tramlines. Approach shot, A groundstroke shot used as a setup as the approaches the net. ATP, Acronym for Association of Tennis Professionals, the organizing body of mens professional tennis. ATP Champions Race, ATP point ranking system starts at the beginning of the year. The top eight players at the end of the qualify for the ATP World Tour Finals. ATP World Tour Finals, Formerly known as the Tennis Masters Cup, Australian formation, In doubles, a formation where the server and partner stand on the same side of the court before starting the point. Backhand, Stroke in which the ball is hit with the back of the hand facing the ball at the moment of contact
Lesley Turner Bowrey
Lesley Rosemary Turner Bowrey AM is a retired female tennis player from Australia. Her career spanned two decades from the late 1950s until the late 1970s, Turner Bowrey won the singles title at the French Championships, one of the four Grand Slam events, in 1963 and 1965. In addition she won 11 Grand Slam events in doubles and mixed doubles, Turner Bowrey achieved her highest singles ranking of No.2 in 1964. Bowrey won 13 Grand Slam titles during her career, two in singles, seven in doubles, and four in mixed doubles. She lost in the final of 14 other Grand Slam events, Bowrey twice won the singles title at the French Championships. In 1963, she defeated Ann Haydon-Jones in the final, and in 1965, Bowrey was the runner-up at four Grand Slam singles tournaments. She lost in the final of the French Championships to Court in 1962 and she lost in the final of the Australian Championships to Court in 1964 and to Nancy Richey in 1967. She was runner-up at the Italian Championships in 1961,1963 and 1964 before winning the title in 1967, against Maria Bueno, Bowrey was inducted into the Sport Australia Hall of Fame in 1985.
She was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame and received the Sarah Palfrey Danzig Award in 1997, the award is given to the female player who by character, sportsmanship and spirit of cooperation has contributed to the growth of the game of tennis. In 1998 she was inducted into the Australian Tennis Hall of Fame, in the Queens Birthday Honours 2009 Bowrey was appointed as Member of the Order of Australia For service to tennis as a player and mentor to junior players, and to the community. She married fellow Australian tennis star Bill Bowrey on February 23,1968 and they are the parents of tennis player Michelle Bowrey. S. Championships Mixed Doubles runner-up,1962 SR – the ratio of the number of Grand Slam singles tournaments won to the number of tournaments played. Note, The Australian Open was held twice in 1977, in January, Bowrey participated only in the January edition
Maria Esther Andion Bueno is a former professional tennis player from Brazil. During her 11-year career in the 1950s and 1960s, she won 19 Major titles and she was the year-end number-one ranked female player four times and was known for her graceful style of play. In 1960, Bueno became the first woman ever to win all four Grand Slam double titles in one year. Bueno began playing tennis at a young age at the Clube de Regatas Tiete in Sao Paulo and, without having received any formal training. She was 14 when she captured her countrys womens singles championship and she went abroad in 1957 at age 17 and won the Orange Bowl juniors tournament in Florida. The following year, Bueno won her first singles title at Wimbledon and she won the singles title at the U. S. Championships after a set victory in the final against Christine Truman, earning the World No.1 ranking for 1959. Bueno was the first non-North-American woman to capture both Wimbledon and the U. S, Championships in the same calendar year.
In her native Brazil, she returned as a heroine, honored by the countrys president. 1 in those rankings in 1959 and 1960, the International Tennis Hall of Fame lists her as the top ranked player in 1964 and 1966. Bueno won the title at Wimbledon three times and at the U. S. She was a singles finalist at the Australian Championships and the French Championships, Bueno reached at least the quarterfinals in each of the first 26 Grand Slam singles tournaments she played. This streak ended at Wimbledon in 1967 when she lost in the round because of an arm injury. As a doubles player, Bueno won twelve Grand Slam championships with six different partners. S, in 1978, Bueno was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame. Bueno and King were rivals in singles and, on occasion, according to Bueno, the only players invited were those who had won the US Open more than twice. At the same event, Bueno debuted as a commentator for SporTV, Bueno won 19 and lost 16 of her Grand Slam finals. This represents a success rate of 54%, SR = the ratio of the number of Grand Slam singles tournaments won to the number of those tournaments played.
Note, The Australian Open was held twice in 1977, in January, performance timelines for all female tennis players who reached at least one Grand Slam final Maria Bueno at the International Tennis Hall of Fame Maria Bueno at the Womens Tennis Association