Commission on Elections (Philippines)
The Commission on Elections abbreviated as COMELEC, is one of the three constitutional commissions of the Philippines. Its principal role is to enforce all laws and regulations relative to the conduct of elections in the Philippines. According to Article IX-C, Section 2 of the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines, the Commission on Elections shall exercise the following powers and functions: Enforce and administer all laws and regulations relative to the conduct of an election, initiative and recall. Exercise exclusive original jurisdiction over all contests relating to the elections and qualifications of all elective regional and city officials, appellate jurisdiction over all contests involving elective municipal officials decided by trial courts of general jurisdiction, or involving elective barangay officials decided by trial courts of limited jurisdiction. Decisions, final orders, or rulings of the Commission on election contests involving elective municipal and barangay offices shall be final and not appealable.
Decide, except those involving the right to vote, all questions affecting elections, including determination of the number and location of polling places, appointment of election officials and inspectors, registration of voters. Deputize, with the concurrence of the President, law enforcement agencies and instrumentalities of the Government, including the Armed Forces of the Philippines, for the exclusive purpose of ensuring free, honest and credible elections. Register, after sufficient publication, political parties, organizations, or coalitions which, in addition to other requirements, must present their platform or program of government. Religious denominations and sects shall not be registered; those which seek to achieve their goals through violence or unlawful means, or refuse to uphold and adhere to this Constitution, or which are supported by any foreign government shall be refused registration. Financial contributions from foreign governments and their agencies to political parties, coalitions, or candidates related to elections constitute interference in national affairs, when accepted, shall be an additional ground for the cancellation of their registration with the Commission, in addition to other penalties that may be prescribed by law.
File, upon a verified complaint, or on its own initiative, petitions in court for inclusion or exclusion of voters. Recommend to the Congress effective measures to minimize election spending, including limitation of places where propaganda materials shall be posted, to prevent and penalize all forms of election frauds, offenses and nuisance candidacies. Recommend to the President the removal of any officer or employee it has deputized, or the imposition of any other disciplinary action, for violation or disregard of, or disobedience to its directive, order, or decision. Submit to the President and the Congress a comprehensive report on the conduct of each election, initiative, referendum, or recall; the Commission on Elections was created by a 1940 amendment to the 1935 Constitution of the Philippines. Before the creation of the COMELEC, supervision over the conduct of elections was vested by law in the Executive Bureau under the Department of Interior and directly by the same Department; the Secretary of Interior saw to it that local authorities performed the ministerial duties assigned to them by the Election Code.
He decides administrative questions concerning elections. The courts, exercised exclusive and final jurisdiction over questions affecting the right to vote as well as contested elections of local elective officials. Elections contests involving members of the National Assembly were judged by an Electoral Commission composed of three justices of the Supreme Court and six members of the National Assembly. In view, however, of the close official ties between the President and the Secretary of Interior, there was always the danger of a partisan Secretary of the Interior exploiting his powers and influence to ensure the victory of his party at the polls; as a consequence, the Constitution was amended in 1940 to create an independent Commission on Elections, composed of a Chairman and two other members, to take over the functions of the Secretary of the Interior relative to the elections. But since the amendments could not be effective in time for the 1940 elections, the National Assembly, by Commonwealth Act No.
607, created a Commission on Elections, giving thereto the same powers which the Commission on Elections could have under the amended Constitution. The statutory Commission supervised the conduct of the December 1940 local elections; the constitutional amendment creating the Commission on Elections was approved on December 2, 1940. On June 21, 1941, Commonwealth Act No. 657 was enacted reorganizing the Commission on Elections as a constitutional entity. The members of the statutory Commission continued as members of the constitutional Commission; the Chairman and Members of the Commission had a fixed term of nine years each – a member being replaced every three years except in the first Commission. They could be removed from office only by impeachment, they were provided with fixed salaries which could neither be increased nor diminished during their term of office. These were safeguards to ensure the independence of the Commission; the administrative control of elections exercised by the Secretary of Interior was transferred to the Commission on Elections
Legislative districts of the Philippines
The legislative districts of the Philippines are the divisions of the Philippines' provinces and cities for representation in the various legislative bodies. Congressional districts are for House of Representatives, while there are districts for Sangguniang Panlalawigan, some Sangguniang Panlungsod. For purposes of representation, the Senate, most Sangguniang Panlungsod, Sangguniang Bayan, Sangguniang Barangay and Sangguniang Kabataan are all elected at-large, although there were senatorial districts; the first composition of legislative districts was enshrined in the Ordinance appended to the Constitution. Changes in the composition of legislative districts were added as new provinces and cities were created, the composition was modified through laws enacted by Congress. Apportionment on local legislatures is possible. Representation to the legislature traces its origin to the Spanish era, when the Philippines was granted limited representation to the Spanish Cortes. During the American period, when the Philippine Bill of 1902 was enacted, the first Philippine Assembly was established as the lower house and the then-existing Philippine Commission as the upper house.
Representation in the assembly was apportioned among the provinces with respect to their population, provided that no province shall have less than one member. In 1916, the Philippine Legislature was reconstituted with a Senate as the upper house and the Assembly retained as the lower house; the Senate elected members through Senatorial Districts, a grouping of provinces and areas of the country, while the Assembly retained its way of representation. During the Commonwealth period, the Philippine Legislature was abolished, a unicameral National Assembly was established, with representation being like that of the Philippine Assembly, each province having at least one member depending on its population. With the passage of the 1940 Amendments to the 1935 Constitution, a bicameral Congress was established with a House of Representatives and a Senate; the House of Representatives way of representation was like that of the Philippine Assembly, while the Senate's members were elected at large. With the coming of the Interim Batasang Pambansa and the regular Batasan during the Marcos regime, representation was done in many ways: most members were elected by regions, some by appointment from the different sectors of the society such as youth and labor, some were members of the Cabinet appointed by the President.
However, with the advent of the 1987 Constitution, the Batasan was scrapped and the Congress was restored. The present way of electing delegates to the House of Representatives is through legislative districts apportioned among the provinces and the Metropolitan Manila Area and through a party-list system of registered national and sectoral parties or organizations. From 1916 to 1935, the Philippines was divided into 12 senatorial districts; each district except for the twelfth senatorial district elected two senators to the Senate. The senators from 12th senatorial district were appointed by the U. S. Governor-General. Since 1941, when the Senate was restored, all twenty-four senators have been elected at-large in intervals. Increased representation. However, unlike one seat being contested in each district, three seats elected via plurality-at-large voting is done. Representation via provincial boards, known as Sangguniang Panlalawigan are via legislative districts except for a few instances, such as Bulacan's 4th provincial board district including San Jose del Monte, while its congressional district does not.
The province's income determines how many seats it is entitled with 6 seats being the least. If a province only has one congressional district, the Commission on Elections divides the province into two districts based on population and geography. If a city is split into several congressional districts, representation via its city councils, known as Sangguniang Panlalawigan, follows the districts as set by the congressional districts. At-large representation is used in municipalities through their Sangguniang Bayan, in barangays through their Sangguniang Barangay and Sangguniang Kabataan. At-large representation is always via plurality-at-large voting Administrative divisions of the Philippines
Ombudsman of the Philippines
The Ombudsman of the Philippines known as Tanodbayan ng Pilipinas, is an ombudsman responsible for investigating and prosecuting Philippine government officials accused of crimes graft and corruption. Under the 1987 Philippine Constitution and the Ombudsman Act of 1989, the Office of the Ombudsman independently monitors all three branches of the government for political corruption; the Ombudsman "is principally tasked to investigate on its own or upon complaint by any person, in any form or manner, any act or omission of any public officer or employee, including those in government-owned or controlled corporations, which appears to be illegal, improper or inefficient." After an investigation, the Ombudsman files charges at the Sandiganbayan, a special anti-graft court. The Offices of the Ombudsman includes the Ombudsman's own office, along with offices for a team composed of a Sheriff, the Ombudsman's second in command, six other deputies who lead their respective divisions or bureaus; the Office of the Ombudsman predates the 1987 Constitution.
There have been several offices established under various presidents of the Philippines whose duties are now subsumed under the Office of the Ombudsman. President Elpidio Quirino established the Integrity Board in 1950. In 1969, the Office of the Citizens Counselor was created by the Republic Act No. 6028. It was designed to conduct fact-finding investigations and make recommendations to Congress and the President; the office was "not at all implemented". Subsequently Marcos created the Complaints and Investigation Office in 1970 and the Presidential Administrative Assistance Committee in 1971. None of these were successful. None were independent. In the martial law-era 1973 Philippine Constitution, provided for the establishment of a special court called the Sandiganbayan and an office of the ombudsman called the Tanodbayan. On June 11, 1978, during martial law, the late strong-man President Ferdinand Marcos created by presidential decree the office of the Tanodbayan; the Tanodbayan was not independent but served at the pleasure of the president and could be removed at any time.
After Marcos was overthrown in the 1986 People Power Revolution, Cory Aquino issued two Executive Orders in July 1987 that established a new Office of the Ombudsman and transformed the Tanodbayan into the Office of the Special Prosecutor under the Ombudsman. Following the passage of the 1987 Constitution, the Ombudsman Act of 1989 was passed to define the roles and structure of the Office; the Ombudsman and its subordinates are appointed by the President of the Philippines from a list submitted by the Judicial and Bar Council for a non-renewable seven-year term. The Ombudsman can be removed from office only through impeachment. Political history of the Philippines Constitution of the Philippines President of the Philippines Congress of the Philippines Executive Departments of the Philippines Senate of the Philippines House of Representatives of the Philippines Office of the Ombudsman Official Website
The Sandiganbayan is a special appellate collegial court in the Philippines that has jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases involving graft and corrupt practices and other offenses committed by public officers and employees, including those in government-owned or government-controlled corporations. The special court was established by Presidential Decree No. 1486 of the 1973 Constitution. It was subsequently modified by Presidential Decree No. 1606 and by Republic Acts numbered 7975 and 8249 in the 1987 Constitution. It is equal in rank to the Court of Appeals, consists of fourteen Associate Justices and one Presiding Justice; the Office of the Ombudsman owns exclusive authority to bring cases to the Sandiganbayan. The Sandiganbayan is housed in the Centennial Building, Commonwealth Avenue, National Government Center, Quezon City, Metro Manila; the Sandiganbayan was established under the administration of President Ferdinand E. Marcos on June 11, 1978, by Presidential Decree No. 1486 in the 1973 Constitution.
The court was equal in rank to the Regional Trial Courts. On December 10, 1978, Presidential Decree No. 1606 elevated the ranking of the Sandiganbayan to match that of the Court of Appeals, the second-highest judicial court in the Philippines. The Sandiganbayan began operations on February 12, 1979. Amendments were introduced in Republic Acts No. 7975 and No. 8249, after the EDSA Revolution in 1986, which limited the jurisdiction of the Sandiganbayan to “cases involving public officials occupying positions classified as salary grade 27 and higher.”The Sandiganbayan sits in seven divisions of three justices each, as per R. A. No. 10660, amending R. A. No. 1606. When the Sandiganbayan began operations in 1979, it was composed of only one division and a 15-membered skeleton crew. In 1981, a second division was launched. A third division was formed on August 4, 1982. In the wake of the assassination of Benigno Aquino, Jr. in August 1983, Ferdinand Marcos submitted the case for an immediate trial to the Sandiganbayan.
Marcos’ critics, who included business leaders and church leaders, claimed that the Sandiganbayan had no experience in trying a murder and demanded an appointment of an imperial prosecutor and independent judicial body instead. In 1984, the 26 people accused in the assassination of Aquino were acquitted by the Sandiganbayan in a 90-page verdict; the verdict disregarded all findings of the Agrava Commission, appointed to investigate the assassination. On June 13, 1985, the Sandiganbayan, with the aid of the commission, threw out the case against General Fabian Ver, the chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, together with seven other military men; the Sandiganbayan voted for the exclusion of their testimonies in that they were self-incriminatory and inadmissible as evidence. The Supreme Court upheld this decision by a vote of 10-3 in August. Ver was soon reinstated as chief of staff by Marcos on December 2. On February 2, 1987, a new constitution was ratified under President Corazon Aquino.
The 1987 Constitution established the separation of powers and a system of checks and balances between the executive and judiciary branches. The 1987 Constitution expanded the jurisdiction of the Sandiganbayan to include cases investigated by the Presidential Commission on Good Government involving ill-gotten wealth, instated by Executive Orders No. 14 and No. 14-A. In April 1994, Imelda Marcos and three former officials of the Ministry of Human Settlements were indicted for the misappropriation of Php 97.9 million in MHS funds in 1985. At the same time, the Sandiganbayan dismissed charges against Imelda Marcos in connection with the sale of $125.9 million in Central Bank Treasury notes in the 1980s. Under the 1987 Philippine Constitution and the Ombudsman Act of 1989, the Office of the Ombudsman independently monitors all three branches of the government for political corruption. Laws on graft and corruption have been in effect as early as the 1950s, before the creation of the Sandiganbayan.
Graft and corruption laws govern natural persons. The collection of these laws is overseen by the Office of the Ombudsman; the Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act is a law which stipulates that the Philippine Government shall repress certain acts of both public officers and natural person that may constitute to graft or corruption. Acts that are subject under these laws include graft, divulging otherwise private informations, negligence in warranted requests, undue injury by a public officer to any party - private or government - in the form of unwarranted benefits or disadvantages. In the case of unexplained accrual of wealth, R. A. No. 1379 states that a petition may be filed against any public officer who has acquired property unlawfully, be it through graft or any form of corruption. This petition should come from the Solicitor General of the Republic of the Philippines as per complaint by a taxpayer. Any public officer who amasses a certain amount of ill-gotten wealth through means of criminal acts - be it by himself or in connivance with other, shall be subject to reclusion perpetua or a life sentencing to death.
Any accomplice shall be sentenced with the same. To determine whether the Sandiganbayan has jurisdiction, lawyers look into two criteria, namely: the nature of the offense and the salary grade of the public official; the Sandiganbayan shall have original exclusive jurisdiction over: Violation of Anti-graft and Corrupt Practices Law Forfeitures of Illegally Acquired Wealth Crimes committed by public officers namely Direct and Qualified Bribery Corrupt
The Sangguniang Panlalawigan known as the Provincial Board, is the Filipino language name given to the legislatures in Philippine provinces. They are the legislative branch of the province and their powers and responsibilities are defined by the Local Government Code of 1991. Along with the provincial governor, the executive branch of the province, they form the province's government. During the early period of Spanish colonization, newly conquered areas were designated as encomiendas which were headed by an encomendero chosen by the Spanish from among the ranks of the powerful local nobles. Encomiendas were organized only for the purposes of collecting tribute that went in part to the Roman Catholic Church, the Spanish army, to the Royal Treasury. On areas which were organized and given the designation of "province" were led by an appointed alcalde who performed judicial and executive functions; this system of government lasted for three hundred years until 1886 when a governor was first appointed in each of the eighteen existing provinces, relegating the alcalde to carry out only judicial functions.
American rule brought radical changes to the system of local government in the country. In 1901 the Philippine Commission enacted Act No. 83, known as the Provincial Government Act, which outlined the powers and composition of the provincial government. Each organized province was provided a Provincial Board composed of three provincial officials: the governor, the treasurer, a "third member" who in most cases was known as the supervisor; the governor in organized provinces under civilian control were elected by municipal vice-presidents and councilors within the province through a convention held in the provincial capital every even-numbered year. As civil government took hold, the governorship was made elective; the composition of provincial boards were later modified, with the treasurer and "third member" taken out and replaced by two members elected by popular vote. Not all provinces had the same type of government. Officials in specially organized provinces were appointed by the Governor-General with the approval of the Philippine Commission until legislation brought each of them in line with organized provinces, that by the time of independence in 1946 all provinces had similar governments.
The passage of Republic Act No. 2264 on June 19, 1959 not only granted greater autonomy to local governments, but expanded the composition of the Provincial Board by creating a new elective office, the vice-governorship, as well as providing for provinces of the first and third income class to have one additional elected board member. However, the Board still had limited real legislative powers, as the provincial government was serving as an extension of national government. Republic Act No. 5185 was enacted in 1967 with the intention of decentralizing authority and further empowering local governments to address the needs of their constituents more effectively. By virtue of Presidential Decree No. 826 issued by President Ferdinand Marcos on November 14, 1975 all existing governing boards and councils in each province and municipality were renamed Sangguniang Bayan. The province-level Sangguniang Bayan consisted of all the incumbent provincial board members, plus a representative from each municipality within the province, the provincial president of the Katipunan ng Mga Kabataang Barangay or Association of Barangay Youth.
Batas Pambansa Blg. 51, enacted in 1979, standardized the composition of all provincial legislatures by reducing the membership of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan. All provinces were entitled to 6 elective SP members, unless they had more than one million residents or less than 100,000 residents. Direct municipal representation was eliminated, in its place was indirect "grassroots" representation through the president of the provincial association of barangay chairmen, appointed by the President, who happened to be the Prime Minister. Other members of the new Sanggunian were the governor and the vice governor, both elected by popular vote, the president of the provincial federation of the Kabataang Barangay, appointed by the President/Prime Minister; the powers and duties of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan was codified under Batas Pambansa Blg. 337 known as the Local Government Code of 1983. The governor served as an ex officio member, who did not vote except only to break a tie, but had the power to veto items within, or entire, Sanggunian ordinances and resolutions.
However the veto can be overridden by a two-thirds vote of all voting SP members. The Sangguniang Panlalawigan was retained as the legislative branch of all provincial governments under the 1987 Constitution and the Local Government Code of 1991. However, unlike the old Provincial Boards or the pre-1992 Sanggunian, which included in their memberships provincial executives, under current laws the governor is not considered as a Sanggunian member, the vice-governor, who has now become the presiding officer, only participates in breaking ties in voting. Since 1992 SP members are elected from districts to ensure geographical representation, the size of the province's Sanggunian was dependent on its income classification rather than population; the powers and functions of the Sanggunian are outlined in Section 468 of the Local Government Code of 19
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines
The Chief Justice of the Philippines presides over the Supreme Court of the Philippines and is the highest judicial officer of the government of the Philippines. As of November 28, 2018, the position is held by Lucas Bersamin, appointed by President Rodrigo Duterte following the mandatory retirement of his predecessor Teresita Leonardo-de Castro in October 2018; the Chief Justice, first named in June 11, 1901 in the person of Cayetano Arellano, is the oldest existing major governmental office continually held by a Filipino, preceding the presidency and vice presidency and the members of the House of Representatives. The power to appoint the chief justice lies with the president, who makes the selection from a list of three nominees prepared by the Judicial and Bar Council. There is no material difference in the process of selecting a chief justice from that in the selection of associate justices; as with the other justices of the Supreme Court, the chief justice is obliged to retire upon reaching the age of 70.
In the 1935 constitution, any person appointed by the president has to be confirmed by the Commission on Appointments. The Constitution does not ascribe any formal role to the chief justice other than as an ex-officio chairman of the Judicial and Bar Council and as the presiding officer in any impeachment trial of the president; the chief justice is required to certify every decision, rendered by the court. He or she carries only 1 vote out of 15 in the court, is regarded, vis-a-vis the other justices, as the primus inter pares rather than as the administrative superior of the other members of the court. Still, the influence a chief justice may bear within the court and judiciary, on the national government cannot be underestimated. In the public eye, any particular Supreme Court is identified with the identity of the incumbent chief justice, hence appellations such as "The Fernando Court" or "The Puno Court". Moreover, the chief justice retains high public visibility, unlike the associate justices, who tend to labor in relative anonymity, with exceptions such as Associate Justice J. B. L. Reyes in the 1950s to 1970s.
By tradition, it is the chief justice who swears into office the President of the Philippines. One notable deviation from that tradition came in 1986, again in 2010. Due to the exceptional political circumstances culminating in the People Power Revolution, on February 25, 1986, Corazon Aquino took her oath of office as President before Associate Justice Claudio Teehankee in San Juan just minutes before Ferdinand Marcos took his own oath of office as President before Chief Justice Ramon Aquino. Marcos fled into exile that night. More than two decades afterwards, Benigno Simeon Aquino III followed in his mother's footsteps by having Associate Justice Conchita Carpio-Morales swear him in, rather than Chief Justice Renato Corona. Six years in 2016, Rodrigo Duterte was sworn into office by Associate Justice Bienvenido Reyes, his classmate at San Beda College of Law, instead of Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno; the Chief Justice names the three justices each from the Supreme Court in the memberships of the House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal and the Senate Electoral Tribunal.
The chief justice is the chief executive officer of the Philippine judiciary system and together with the whole Supreme Court, exercises administrative supervision over all courts and personnel. José Yulo is the only former Speaker of the House of Representatives to be subsequently appointed as chief justice. Another, Querube Makalintal, would be elected as Speaker of the Interim Batasang Pambansa after his retirement from the court. On the other hand, Marcelo Fernan would, after his resignation from the court, be elected to the Senate and serve as President of the Senate. Other chief justices served in prominent positions in public service after their retirement include Manuel Moran, Hilario Davide, Jr.. In addition, César Bengzon was elected as the first Filipino to sit as a judge on the International Court of Justice shortly after his retirement in 1966. Roberto Concepcion was reputedly so disappointed with the court's ruling in Javellana v. Executive Secretary where the majority affirmed the validity of the 1973 Constitution despite recognizing the flaws in its ratification, that he retired 2 months prior to his reaching the mandatory retirement age of 70.
Thirteen years after the ouster of Marcos, the 83-year-old Concepcion was appointed a member of the 1986 Constitutional Commission tasked with drafting a new constitution. Drawing from his experiences as chief justice in the early days of martial law, Concepcion introduced several new innovations designed to assure the independence of the Supreme Court, such as the Judicial and Bar Council and the express conferment on the court the power to review any acts of government; the longest period one person served as chief justice was 18 years, 294 days in the case of Cayetano Arellano, who served from 1901 to 1920. Arellano was 73 years, 29 days old upon his resignation, the greatest age reached by an incumbent chief j
Court of Appeals of the Philippines
The Court of Appeals of the Philippines is the second-highest judicial court in the Philippines, next to the Supreme Court. The Court of Appeals consists of 68 Associate Justices. Pursuant to the Constitution, the Court of Appeals "reviews not only the decisions and orders of the Regional Trial Courts nationwide but those of the Court of Tax Appeals, as well as the awards, final orders or resolutions of, or authorized by twenty-one quasi-judicial agencies exercising quasi-judicial functions mentioned in Rule 43 of the 1997 Rules of Civil Procedure, plus the National Amnesty Commission and the Office of the Ombudsman. Under Republic Act No. 9282, which elevated the Court of Tax Appeals to the same level of the Court of Appeals, en banc decisions of the Court of Tax Appeals are now subject to review by the Supreme Court instead of the Court of Appeals. Added to the formidable list are the decisions and resolutions of the National Labor Relations Commission which are now reviewable by the Court of Appeals, instead of a direct recourse to the Supreme Court, via petition for certiorari under Rule 65".
The Court of Appeals building is located at Ma. Orosa Street, Ermita in Manila, on the grounds of the University of the Philippines Manila. Organized on February 1, 1936, the Court of Appeals was composed of Justice Pedro Concepcion, as the first Presiding Judge, ten Appellate Judges appointed by the President with the consent of the Commission on Appointments of the National Assembly, it had exclusive appellate jurisdiction of all cases not falling under the original and exclusive appellate jurisdiction of the seven -man Supreme Court. Its decisions in those cases were final, except when the Supreme Court upon petition for certiorari on questions of law required that the case be certified to it for review, it had original jurisdiction to issue writs of mandamus, injunction, habeas corpus and all other auxiliary writs in aid of its appellate jurisdiction. The Court sat either en banc or in two divisions, one of six and another of five Judges; the appellate Judges had the same qualifications as those provided by the Constitution for Supreme Court Justices.
In March 1938, the appellate Judges were named Justices and their number increased from eleven to fifteen, with three divisions of 5 under Commonwealth Act No. 259. On December 24, 1941, the membership of the Court was further increased to nineteen Justices under Executive Order No. 395. The Court functioned during the Japanese occupation, 1941-44, but in March 1945, due to abnormal conditions at the time, the Court was abolished by President Sergio Osmeña through Executive Order No. 37. The end of World War II restored the democratic processes in the country. On October 4, 1946, Republic Act No. 52 was passed recreating the Court with a Presiding Justice and fourteen Associate Justices. They composed 5 divisions of 3 Justices each. On August 23, 1956, the Court membership was expanded to 18 Justices per Republic Act No. 1605. The number was hiked to 24 Justices as decreed by Republic Act No. 5204 approved on June 15, 1968. Ten years the unabated swelling of its dockets called for a much bigger Court of 45 Justices under Presidential Decree No. 1482 of June 10, 1978.
Came the Judiciary Reorganization on January 17, 1983 through Executive Order No. 864 of President Marcos. The Court was renamed its membership enlarged to 51 Justices. However, only thirty-seven Justices were appointed. On July 28, 1986, President Aquino issued Executive Order No.33 restoring the original name of the Court of Appeals with a Presiding Justice and fifty Associate Justices. On February 23, 1995, Republic Act No. 7902 was passed expanding the jurisdiction of the Court effective March 18, 1995. On December 30, 1996, Republic Act No. 8246 created six more divisions in the Court, thereby increasing its membership from fifty-one to sixty-nine Justices. These additional divisions - 3 for Visayas and 3 for Mindanao paved the way for the appellate court's regionalization; the Court in the Visayas sits in Cebu City while Cagayan de Oro City is home to the Court for Mindanao. On August 18, 2007, Atty. Briccio Joseph Boholst, President of Integrated Bar of the Philippines — Cebu City Chapter, opposed the abolition of the Court in Cebu City, for it will cause inconvenience for both litigants and lawyers.
Supreme Court Associate Justice Ruben Reyes was tasked to investigate and submit recommendation to the High Tribunal because of the alleged massive graft and corruption of justices in the issuance of temporary restraining orders. On February 1, 2018, the Court celebrated its 82nd Anniversary; the current President of the Association of The Court of Appeals Employees is Edwin S. Avanceña. Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines Court of Tax Appeals of the Philippines Sandiganbayan Philippines Political history of the Philippines Constitution of the Philippines SourcesHistory of the Court of Appeals Philippines: Gov. Ph: About the Philippines – Justice category The Philippines Court of Appeals – Official website