The Tasman Series (formally the Tasman Championship for Drivers was a motor racing competition held annually from 1964 to 1975 over a series of races in New Zealand and Australia. It was named after the Tasman Sea; the Tasman Series races were held in January through to late February or early March of each year, during the Formula One off season, taking advantage of winter in the Northern Hemisphere to attract many top drivers to summer in the south. The Tasman Cup was the permanent trophy awarded to the winning driver; the Tasman started in 1960 as a series of unrelated races between Australia and New Zealand. In 1964 it was renamed Tasman Cup; until 1969, the Tasman Formula specified open-wheel single-seater racing cars similar to Formula One cars, yet retaining F1 engine rules that were in effect until 1960. Thus, engines of 2500 cm³ that were obsolete for the contemporary Formula One class were eligible for the Tasman Formula. After F1 upgraded to 3000 cm³ in 1966, the Tasman Formula regulations continued to specify a 2500 cm³ limit for another four years.
The chassis of the previous F1 season were fitted with "Tasman" engines, entered "down under". In what many consider Tasman's zenith season, 1968, Cosworth produced a Tasman variant of its legendary DFV V8, known as the DFW, BRM equipped its cars with a reduced capacity version of their F1 V12. In 1969 both Lotus and Ferrari contested the series with two cars teams, Jochen Rindt and Graham Hill in Lotus 49BTs and Chris Amon and Derek Bell in 2.4 Dino V6 cars which used F2 chassis fitted with modernised versions of the late 1950s F1 Dino engine. Piers Courage challenged the work teams in a Frank Williams Cosworth 2.5 BT24 Brabham which beat the Lotus and Ferrari teams at Teretonga in New Zealand. For the Tasman Series, F1's "return to power", coupled to increasing costs, reduced the cachet of its Antipodean sister and after 1969 teams became unwilling to invest significant funds into what many perceived as a lesser championship. Only one Cosworth DFW 2.5 powered car appeared in the 1970 and 1971 Tasman series, Bell driving an uncompetitive Goodyear shod Wheatcroft Brabham BT26 in 3 rounds in 1970 and Amon and fellow Kiwi David Oxton each contesting 2 rounds of 1971 series in the ex Andretti March 701.
In an attempt to reduce costs, the Tasman Formula was extended to incorporate Formula 5000 cars from 1970 and the limit on pure racing engines was reduced from 2.5 litres to 2.0 litres from 1972. These changes failed to contain spiralling costs and at the end of the 1975 event the series folded; the four Australian former Tasman races became the Rothmans International Series from 1976 to 1979. The four New Zealand races became the'Peter Stuyvesant Series' and after 1976 changed to Formula Pacific cars. Many high-profile local drivers from that era, such as Jack Brabham, Bruce McLaren, Chris Amon and Denny Hulme took part in their home events, but the series attracted international F1 stars like Jim Clark, Graham Hill, Phil Hill, John Surtees, Jochen Rindt, Pedro Rodríguez and Jackie Stewart, who travelled the long way from Europe. For two brief years beginning in 1999 the Tasman Series was revived as a series for Formula Holden racing cars with Simon Wills and Andy Booth winning the two series held in New Zealand.
The Tasman Series is planned to be revived as part of the new Formula Thunder 5000 series. Note: values in parentheses include the results from all races, not all of which counted towards the championship. Tasman racing in New Zealand Tasman Series history 1967–1969 Tasman Series history 1970–1976
Scuderia Veloce was an Australian motor racing team founded by journalist racer David McKay. The team, which competed in many motor racing categories in the 1960s, is regarded as the first professional motor racing operation in Australia, it was based in Wahroonga on Sydney's upper North Shore.. McKay gained prominence as a motoring writer during the 1950s, he won many races including the inaugural Australian Touring Car Championship in 1960 driving a Jaguar Mark 1. McKay's operation began sporting the Scuderia Veloce name in 1960, following a change of sponsorship from Ampol to Castrol, it ran Cooper-Climax Brabham-Climax open racings cars in the Tasman Series, Australian Grand Prix and Australian Drivers' Championship. In 1969 the team was Ferrari's official Tasman Series team and had Chris Amon and Derek Bell in the drivers seats; the venture was a success with Amon winning the 1969 Tasman Series, which included winning the Australian Grand Prix at Lakeside and New Zealand Grand Prix at Pukekohe.
Scuderia Veloce competed in Appendix J Touring Cars running a variety of cars, as well as competing in Sports Car racing with Ferraris. A Scuderia Veloce entered Ferrari 250LM won the 1965 Six Hour Le Mans, the 1966 Rothmans 12 Hour International Sports Car Race, the 1967 Rothmans 12 Hour and the 1968 Surfers Paradise 6 Hour; as well as his own racing efforts, McKay supported several drivers including Brian Muir and Greg Cusack, although the driver most associated with SV would be Spencer Martin
Teretonga is a motor racing circuit situated 8 kilometres south-west of Invercargill, New Zealand. It is home of the Southland Sports Car Club; the circuit is the southernmost FIA-recognised race track in the world. It is the country's oldest purpose-built venue. Regular racing programme includes rounds of the local Clubmans Series; the circuit is used for Sprints and Motorkhanas. Other clubs run Motor Drag Races at Teretonga. Regarded by many drivers as the best and safest track in the country, it has been up-graded on a continual basis. Since 1948 the Southland Sports Car Club Inc. has been one of the leading Clubs in the country. The Club entered the International motor race series in 1956 with the fastest-ever motor race on a road circuit at Ryal Bush; this led to the construction of Teretonga Park in 1957 at Sandy Point, the second purpose-built motor racing track in New Zealand. It was extended to its present configuration in 1966. In the golden age of NZ Motor Racing in the'60s and'70s, Teretonga has hosted many of the world’s greatest drivers for example, Jim Clark, Graham Hill, Jackie Stewart, Jack Brabham, Bruce McLaren, Denny Hulme, Chris Amon, Phil Hill, the list goes on.
There is a fine display of memorabilia in the Clubrooms. Since 1981 the Club has been engaged in the New Zealand Rally Championship. On 29 November 1998 the current outright lap record was set by Greg Murphy in a Formula Holden Reynard 92D The time was 51.206 at an average lap speed of 184 km/h. The New Zealand Grand Prix was first held on Teretonga in January 2001. A record number of entries were received for this event, it has again been held at Teretonga since 4 & 5 January 2003. On 16 February to Sunday 17 February 2008, "Leitch Motorsport/Southland Times Speed Fest.", one of the events of Southern Festival of Speed, was held at Teretonga. Lap distance is 2.57 kilometres run in anticlockwise direction with an 800-metre main straight and a high speed loop with multiple apexes. It flows smoothly from turns 1 through to 5 and recognised as the second fastest circuit in Australasia; the circuit is exposed to a strong sea breeze and forces gearbox and setup changes. Official Site NZV8s' Teretonga Park info Teretonga Park in Google Maps
Karl Jochen Rindt was a German-born racing driver who represented Austria during his career. In 1970, he was killed during practice for the Italian Grand Prix and became the only driver to be posthumously awarded the Formula One World Drivers' Championship. Rindt started motor racing in 1961. Switching to single-seaters in 1963, he was successful in Formula Two. In 1964, Rindt made his debut in Formula One at the Austrian Grand Prix, before securing a full drive with Cooper for 1965. After mixed results with the team, he moved to Brabham for 1968 and Lotus in 1969, it was at Lotus that Rindt found a competitive car, although he was concerned about the safety of the notoriously unreliable Lotus vehicles. He won his first Formula One race at the 1969 United States Grand Prix, he had a successful 1970 season racing the revolutionary Lotus 72, won five of the first nine races. In practice for the Italian Grand Prix at Monza, he spun into the guardrails after a failure on his car's brake shaft. Rindt was killed owing to severe throat injuries caused by his seat belt.
As his closest competitor Jacky Ickx was unable to score sufficient points in the remaining races of the season, Rindt was awarded the World Championship posthumously. Overall, he competed in 62 Grands Prix, achieving 13 podium finishes, he was successful in sports car racing, winning the 1965 24 Hours of Le Mans paired with Masten Gregory in a Ferrari 250LM. Rindt was a popular figure in Austria and his success resulted in increased interest in motorsport and Formula One in particular, he hosted a monthly television show titled Motorama and set up a successful exhibition of racing cars in Vienna. During his time in Formula One, he was involved, alongside Jackie Stewart, in a campaign to improve safety in Formula One. Rindt left behind his wife, a daughter, Natasha. Jochen Rindt was born on 18 April 1942 in Germany, to an Austrian mother and German father, his mother had been a successful tennis player in her youth and, like her father, studied law. Rindt's parents owned a spice mill in Mainz, which he inherited.
They were killed in a bombing raid in Hamburg during the Second World War when he was one year old, after which he was raised by his grandparents in Graz, Austria. Although his grandfather chose to retain Rindt's German citizenship, for his entire career he drove under an Austrian racing licence. In an interview, he described his heritage as a "terrible mixture" and, when asked if he felt more Austrian or German, said that he felt "like a European". Rindt had one half-brother, through his mother. Rindt's childhood friends and his brother described him as a "laddish child" who performed tricks to amuse others. While on a skiing holiday, he broke his femoral neck, leading to several surgeries that left one leg four centimetres shorter than the other; as a result of this, Rindt limped for the rest of his life. At the age of sixteen, he started racing his friends on motocross tracks, his time in school was troubled and he was excluded from schools several times. He said: In the end I got thrown out and went to England to learn English.
I learned to drive while I was in England but I was too young to get a licence. When I went back home I broke my leg skiing but I decided I was more than capable of driving myself – though I had one leg in plaster. I drove without a licence for 18 months and got caught the day before I was eligible to collect it, his chances of obtaining a licence were put into further jeopardy because he had collected eight recorded misdemeanours with the police during his youth. In 1960, he received an old Volkswagen Beetle, his interest in motorsport increased when he visited the 1961 German Grand Prix at the Nürburgring with school friends, including fellow future Formula One driver Helmut Marko. Rindt drove his first race at the Flugplatzrennen in 1961, in his grandmother's Abarth Simca 2000. After missing the official application period, he only entered after a friendly high-ranking motorsport functionary from Graz intervened on his behalf. During the race, he was black therefore disqualified. Rindt did not achieve good results.
It was only when he was provided with a race-prepared Alfa Romeo GT 1300 at cost price and with free servicing by a local dealer that he became more successful. In the Alfa Romeo, he achieved eight victories. In 1963, Rindt switched to Formula Junior with the assistance of Kurt Bardi-Barry, a wealthy owner of a travel agency and one of Austria's leading drivers at the time. Rindt was fastest in practice for his first race in Vallelunga, a race won by Barry, took victory in his second at Cesenatico. In the race, Rindt had taken advantage of an accident in the early stages. While most drivers slowed for the incoming ambulance, he raced ahead between the straw barriers and the parked medical vehicle to take the lead. At the time, he was notorious for his dangerous style crashing into the spectators at a race in the streets of Budapest. Rindt was successful in Formula Two racing, amassing a total of 29 victories, he once again entered the series in partnership with Barry. The engines provided by Cosworth were inconsistent in performance.
He entered his first F2 race in April 1964
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Christopher Arthur Amon, was a New Zealand motor racing driver. He was active in Formula One racing in the 1960s and 1970s and is regarded as one of the best F1 drivers never to win a championship Grand Prix, his reputation for bad luck was such that fellow driver Mario Andretti once joked that "if he became an undertaker, people would stop dying". Former Ferrari Technical Director Mauro Forghieri stated that Amon was "by far the best test driver I have worked with, he had all the qualities to be a World Champion but bad luck just wouldn't let him be". Apart from driving, Chris Amon ran his own Formula One team for a short period in 1974. Away from Formula One, Amon had some success in sports car racing, teaming with co-driver Bruce McLaren to win the 24 Hours of Le Mans race in 1966. Amon was born in Bulls, attended Wanganui Collegiate School, he was the only child of wealthy sheep-owners Betty Amon. He learned to drive at the age of six, taught by a farm worker on the family farm. On leaving school, he persuaded his father to buy him an Austin A40 Special, which he entered in some minor local races and hillclimbs along with practice on the family farm.
He progressed to a 1.5-litre Cooper and an old 2.5-litre Maserati 250F, but only began to draw attention when he drove the Cooper-Climax T51 which Bruce McLaren had used to win his maiden Grand Prix. In 1962 Amon entered the Cooper for the New Zealand winter series, but was hampered by mechanical problems. However, Scuderia Veloce entered him in a similar car, and, in the rain at Lakeside, he performed well. One of the spectators there was the English racing driver Reg Parnell who persuaded Amon to come to England and race for his team. In a test at Goodwood Amon continued to impress and was on the pace in the Goodwood International Trophy and Aintree 200 pre-season races. For the 1963 Formula One season the Parnell team were using the year old Lola Mk4A, powered by 1962 specification Climax V8 engines. Amon was teamed with the experienced Maurice Trintignant for the first race of the season at Monaco and his Grand Prix career started with what was to become typical bad luck: Trintignant's Climax developed a misfire, so he took over Amon's car.
At the 1963 Belgian Grand Prix, Amon was partnered by Lucien Bianchi and started ahead of him from 15th position. After nine laps, however, an oil fire ended his race, he continued to experience mechanical problems at the Dutch and German Grands Prix. Amon qualified in the midfield and outpaced his teammates, who included his good friend Mike Hailwood, his best results of the year were seventh at the French and British Grands Prix. During this time, Amon's social life was attracting as much attention as his driving, he was a member of the Ditton Road Flyers, the social set named after the road in London where Amon shared an apartment with American Peter Revson and Tony Maggs. Parnell was nonetheless impressed with Amon's results in what was regarded as less-than-competitive machinery and promoted him to team leader. Parnell died from peritonitis in January 1964 and his son Tim took over the team. In a series of four pre-season races in Britain and Italy, Amon recorded three fifth places at Snetterton and Syracuse.
He failed to qualify for the first F1 race of the season, the Monaco GP, but at the next race, the Dutch GP, he scored his first World Championship points. The rest of his season, was blighted by mechanical problems. Parnell was only if it ran Richard Attwood as its regular driver. Reluctantly, Parnell agreed and Attwood took Amon's place. Spotting an opportunity, Bruce McLaren signed Amon for his new McLaren team, but when no second McLaren F1 car materialised, Amon could only drive in sports car races. At the French GP Amon rejoined Parnell to stand in for an injured Attwood. Amon competed in a Formula Two race in Stuttgart and won, he returned to Germany for the German GP as second Parnell driver, but mechanical failure again forced an early retirement. His last drive before Attwood's return, a non-championship race in Enna, Sicily ended in retirement. During 1966 Amon continued to race for McLaren in Can-Am, he was intended to drive the second McLaren M2B but difficulties with engine supply meant that the team never made the intended expansion to two cars.
However, an opportunity arose to drive for the Cooper F1 team after Richie Ginther left them for Honda. Amon drove for Cooper at the French GP and was scheduled to drive for them for the rest of the season, until the more successful John Surtees left Scuderia Ferrari to join Cooper and Amon found himself dropped. Amon made one other F1 appearance during the year, driving a Brabham BT11 powered by an old 2-litre BRM engine at the Italian GP under the banner of "Chris Amon Racing", he failed to qualify. Amon did however, score his biggest success to date when he partnered Bruce McLaren in a 7-litre Ford GT40 Mark II at the 1966 Le Mans 24-hour race, spearheading a formation finish, he subsequently received an invitation to meet Enzo Ferrari at the Ferrari home in Maranello, where he signed to race for Ferrari in 1967 alongside Lorenzo Bandini, Mike Parkes and Ludovico Scarfiotti. Amon's first year with Ferrari did not begin auspiciously. En route to Brands Hatch for the pre-seaso
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s