The Australian Open is a major tennis tournament held annually over the last fortnight of January in Melbourne, Australia. First held in 1905, the tournament is chronologically the first of the four Grand Slam tennis events of the year – the other three being the French Open and the US Open. It features mens and womens singles, mens and mixed doubles and juniors championships, as well as wheelchair, the Australian Open typically has high attendances and occasionally exceeding the US Open. The tournament holds the record for the highest attendance at a Grand Slam event, the Australian Open is managed by Tennis Australia, formerly the Lawn Tennis Association of Australia, and was first played at the Warehousemans Cricket Ground in Melbourne in November 1905. This facility is now known as the Albert Reserve Tennis Centre, the tournament was first known as the Australasian Championships and became the Australian Championships in 1927 and the Australian Open in 1969. Since 1905, the Australian Open has been staged in five Australian and two New Zealand cities, Sydney, Brisbane, Perth and Hastings.
Though started in 1905, the tournament was not designated as being a championship until 1924. The tournament committee changed the structure of the tournament to include seeding at that time, in 1972, it was decided to stage the tournament in Melbourne each year because it attracted the biggest patronage of any Australian city. The tournament was played at the Kooyong Lawn Tennis Club from 1972 until the move to the new Melbourne Park complex in 1988, the new facilities at Melbourne Park were envisaged to meet the demands of a tournament that had outgrown Kooyongs capacity. The move to Melbourne Park was an success, with a 90 percent increase in attendance in 1988 on the previous year at Kooyong. Because of Australias geographic remoteness, very few foreign players entered this tournament in the early 20th century, in the 1920s, the trip by ship from Europe to Australia took about 45 days. The first tennis players who came by boats were the US Davis Cup players in November 1946, even inside the country, many players could not travel easily.
When the tournament was held in Perth, no one from Victoria or New South Wales crossed by train, in Christchurch in 1906, of a small field of 10 players, only two Australians attended and the tournament was won by a New Zealander. The first tournaments of the Australasian Championships suffered from the competition of the other Australasian tournaments, before 1905, all Australian states and New Zealand had their own championships, the first organised in 1880 in Melbourne and called the Championship of the Colony of Victoria. In those years, the best two players – Australian Norman Brookes and New Zealander Anthony Wilding – almost did not play this tournament, Brookes came once and won in 1911, and Wilding entered and won the competition twice. Their meetings in the Victorian Championships helped to determine the best Australasian players, even when the Australasian Championships were held in Hastings, New Zealand, in 1912, though three times Wimbledon champion, did not come back to his home country.
It was a problem for all players of the era. Brookes went to Europe only three times, where he reached the Wimbledon Challenge Round once and won Wimbledon twice
Roger Taylor (tennis)
Roger Taylor MBE is a British former tennis player. Born in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, he won 6 singles titles and 10 doubles titles during his career, Taylor reached the semi-finals at Wimbledon in 1967. His career-high ATP singles ranking was World No,11, though Taylor was ranked World No.8 in 1970 before the ATP rankings began. Also, Taylor scored 29 wins and 11 losses at the Great Britain Davis Cup team, Taylor was the sole British member of the so-called Handsome Eight signed by Lamar Hunt to compete in his newly created World Championship Tennis tour in 1968. Having already been declared the winner by the umpire following his match-point serve which was disputed by Borg. The linesman then, questioned by the umpire as to whether he wished to reconsider his decision, changed his in call to out, Taylor subsequently went on to win the match. He retired from tennis in 1980. He was Great Britains Davis Cup captain from February 2000 until January 2004, Taylor captained the British ladies Wightman Cup team, steering them to their last victory in the competition in 1978
Richard Dennis Ralston is an American former professional tennis player whose active career spanned the 1960s and 1970s. As a young player he was coached by tennis pro Pancho Gonzales and he attended the University of Southern California and won NCAA championships under their coach, George Toley. He and partner Bill Bond captured the NCAA doubles title in 1964 and he was the highest-ranked American player at the end of three consecutive years in the 1960s, Lance Tingay of The Daily Telegraph ranked him as high as World No.5 in 1966. At the end of year he turned professional. Ralston was a member of the Handsome Eight, the group of players signed to the professional World Championship Tennis tour. He won 27 national doubles and singles titles, including five grand-slam doubles crowns. Ralston, Davis Cup winner with the US Davis Cup team in 1963, continued to serve in the team as a coach in 1968-1971 and as a captain in 1972-1975, Ralston was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1987
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Covering an area of 255,804 km², the SFRY was bordered with Italy to the west, Hungary to the north and Romania to the east and Albania and Greece to the south. In addition, it included two autonomous provinces within Serbia and Vojvodina, the SFRY traces back to 29 June 1943 when the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia was formed during World War II. On 29 November 1945, the Federal Peoples Republic of Yugoslavia was proclaimed after the deposal of King Peter II thus ending the monarchy. Following the death of Tito on 4 May 1980, rising ethnic nationalism in the late 1980s led to dissidence among the multiple ethnicities within the constituent republics. This led to the federation collapsing along the borders, followed by the final downfall and breakup of the federation on 27 April 1992. The term former Yugoslavia is now commonly used retrospectively, the name Yugoslavia, an Anglicised transcription of Jugoslavija, is a composite word made-up of jug and slavija. The Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian word jug means south, while slavija denotes a land of the Slavs, thus, a translation of Jugoslavija would be South-Slavia or Land of the South Slavs.
The term is intended to denote the lands occupied by the six South Slavic nations, Croats, Montenegrins, the full official name of the federation varied significantly between 1945 and 1992. Yugoslavia was formed in 1918 under the name Kingdom of Serbs, the name deliberately left the republic-or-kingdom question open. In 1963, amid pervasive liberal constitutional reforms, the name Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was introduced, the state is most commonly referred to by the latter name, which it held for the longest period of all. The most common abbreviation is SFRY, though SFR Yugoslavia was used in an official capacity, particularly by the media. On 6 April 1941, Yugoslavia was invaded by the Axis powers led by Nazi Germany, by 17 April 1941, Yugoslav resistance was soon established in two forms, the Royal Yugoslav Army and the Yugoslav Partisans. The Partisan supreme commander was Josip Broz Tito, and under his command the movement soon began establishing liberated territories which attracted the attentions of the occupying forces.
The coalition of parties and prominent individuals behind the movement was the Peoples Liberation Front. The Front formed a political body, the Anti-Fascist Council for the Peoples Liberation of Yugoslavia. The AVNOJ, which met for the first time in Partisan-liberated Bihać on 26 November 1942, during 1943, the Yugoslav Partisans began attracting serious attention from the Germans. In two major operations of Fall Weiss and Fall Schwartz, the Axis attempted to stamp-out the Yugoslav resistance once, on both occasions, despite heavy casualties, the Group succeeded in evading the trap and retreating to safety. The Partisans emerged stronger than before and now occupied a significant portion of Yugoslavia
Arthur Robert Ashe, Jr. was an American World No.1 professional tennis player. He won three Grand Slam titles, Ashe was the first black player selected to the United States Davis Cup team and the only black man ever to win the singles title at Wimbledon, the US Open, and the Australian Open. He was ranked World No.1 by Harry Hopman in 1968 and by Lance Tingay of The Daily Telegraph, in the ATP computer rankings, he peaked at No.2 in May 1976. In the early 1980s, Ashe is believed to have contracted HIV from a blood transfusion he received during heart bypass surgery, Ashe publicly announced his illness in April 1992 and began working to educate others about HIV and AIDS. He founded the Arthur Ashe Foundation for the Defeat of AIDS, on June 20,1993, Ashe was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by the United States President Bill Clinton. Arthur Ashe was born in Richmond, Virginia, to Arthur Ashe Sr. and he had a brother, who was five years younger. In March 1950, Ashes mother Mattie died from complications related to a pregnancy at the age of 27.
Ashe and his brother were raised by their father who worked as a handyman, Ashe Sr. Ashe attended Maggie L. Walker High School where he continued to practice tennis. Ron Charity brought him to the attention of Robert Walter Johnson, a physician, and coach of Althea Gibson, Ashe was coached and mentored by Johnson at his tennis summer camp home in Lynchburg, Virginia from 1953 when Ashe was age 10, until 1960. Johnson helped fine-tune Ashes game and taught him the importance of racial socialization through sportsmanship, etiquette and he was told to return every ball that landed within two inches of a line and never to argue with an umpires decision. In 1958, Ashe became the first African-American to play in the Maryland boys championships and it was his first integrated tennis competition. Louis teacher, tennis coach and friend of Dr. Johnson, to move to St. Louis, Ashe lived with Hudlin and his family for the year, during which time Hudlin coached and encouraged him to develop the serve-and-volley game that Ashes, now stronger, physique allowed.
In December 1960 and again in 1963, Ashe featured in Sports Illustrated and he became the first African-American to win the National Junior Indoor tennis title and was awarded a tennis scholarship to the University of California, Los Angeles in 1963. During his time at UCLA, he was coached by J. D. Morgan and practiced regularly with his idol, Pancho Gonzales. Ashe was a member of the ROTC which required him to active military service after graduation in exchange for money for tuition. He was active in other things, joining the Upsilon chapter of the Kappa Alpha Psi fraternity on campus, after graduating with a bachelors degree in business administration, Ashe joined the United States Army on August 4,1966. Ashe completed his training in Washington and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Adjutant General Corps. He was assigned to the United States Military Academy at West Point where he worked as a data processor, during his time at West Point, Ashe headed the academys tennis program
Thomas Samuel Tom Okker is a former Dutch tennis player. He was ranked among the worlds top 10 singles players for seven years, 1968–74. He was ranked World No.1 in doubles in 1969, Okker was the Dutch champion from 1964 through 1968. In 1968, his first year as a professional, he won in singles, at Wimbledon, Okker reached the quarterfinals in 1968 and the semifinals in 1978. Okker reached the final after defeating Pancho Gonzales in the quarterfinal and he lost the final to American Arthur Ashe in five sets, 12–14, 7–5, 3–6, 6–3, 3–6. Okker turned professional in February 1969 when he signed a contract with the Lamar Hunts World Championship Tennis. He was the runner-up in 24 singles tournaments, Okker is among the most successful mens doubles players of all time. Okker won two Grand Slam doubles titles, the US Open in 1976 and the French Open in 1973, in total, Okker won 78 doubles events, a record that was finally broken by Todd Woodbridge in 2005. Okkers other doubles titles include the 1973 Italian Open,1973 London Grass Courts,1973 Spanish Open,1975 Opel International, and 1978 WCT World Doubles.
One of the first tennis professionals to win at least US $1 million in prize money. Between 1964 and 1981, Okker represented The Netherlands in the Davis Cup, playing in 13 ties, in 1965 Okker won both the singles and the mixed doubles titles at the Maccabiah Games in Israel. This event is open to all Israelis and to non-Israeli Jews and he was among the first players of his era to hit the ball with heavy topspin. Okker, who is Jewish on his fathers side, was inducted into the International Jewish Sports Hall of Fame in 2003. Since the mid-1980s Okker has been involved in art and was a partner in the Jaski art gallery in Amsterdam. In 2005 he founded art gallery Tom Okker Art bv in Hazerswoude-Dorp, Tom Okker at the Association of Tennis Professionals Tom Okker at the International Tennis Federation Tom Okker at the Davis Cup Jews in Sports bio List of select Jewish tennis players
John Alexander (Australian politician)
John Gilbert Alexander OAM MP is a former professional tennis player and current Australian politician. Alexander delivered his speech to parliament on 28 October 2010, detailing his particular interest in areas of preventative health, transport. During his first term Alexander was put in charge of internal policy committees, with a particular focus on regional development. In October 2011 Alexander ran the inaugural Bennelong Cup Table Tennis Test match, involving players from China, Korea, in October 2012 the opening games were played in the Great Hall of Parliament House – the first competitive sporting event ever played there. The Ambassadors for China and Korea participated in a competition with Alexander and Minister for Sport Kate Lundy. The Bennelong Cup has continued every year since with an interschool tournament followed by competition in Ryde, preceded by exhibition matches in Parliament House. John Alexander received much publicity for his 100 km charity walk around Bennelong to raise money, Alexander was not challenged in Liberal preselection in 2012.
In the 2013 election Alexander was re-elected as Member for Bennelong, increasing his two party preferred margin to 7. 8%, following this he was appointed Chair of the House Standing Committee on Economics where he instigated an inquiry into home ownership and opportunities for tax reform. Alexander was not challenged in Liberal preselection in 2016 and will be recontesting the seat of Bennelong for the Liberal Party, shortly before his election to Parliament in 2010, Alexanders Tennis Professionals won a High Court case for the right to redevelop the White City Tennis Centre in Sydney. Alexander managed a variety of businesses in the retail. During a tennis career spanning the late 1960s to mid-1980s, Alexander won 7 tour singles titles and 27 doubles titles and he achieved a career best singles ranking of World No.8 in December 1975. Alexander is the youngest player to represent Australia in the Davis Cup and he was one of Australias longest serving Davis Cup players, representing his country from 1968 to 1983.
From 1974 to 1986 Alexander served as the resident tennis professional at Lamar Hunts World Championship Tennis Peachtree World of Tennis Club in Peachtree Corners, Georgia US. Alexander served as captain of the Australian Fed Cup team and worked as a commentator for Australian. Alexander is known for his knowledge of tennis. Alexander was married to Rosemary Brown, a former Olympic swimmer and they have three children, Emily and Charles. Alexander lives with his children in the electorate of Bennelong in Sydneys inner north-west, on 26 January 1992, he was awarded the Medal of the Order of Australia. On 30 August 2000, he was awarded the Australian Sports Medal
Rodney George Rod Laver AC, MBE is an Australian former tennis player widely regarded as one of the greatest in tennis history. He was the No.1 ranked professional from 1964 to 1970, spanning four years before and he was the No.1 amateur in 1961–62 according to Lance Tingay. He excelled on all of the surfaces of his time, clay, carpet. Despite being banned from playing the Grand Slam tournaments for the five prior to the Open Era. He is the player to twice achieve the calendar-year Grand Slam, in 1962 and 1969. Rodney George Laver was born in Rockhampton, Australia and he was the third of four children of Roy Laver, a cattleman and butcher, and his wife Melba Roffey. In 1966 Laver, aged 27, married Mary Benson in San Rafael, born Mary Shelby Peterson in Illinois, she was a divorcee with three children. Laver and Mary had a son and the family lived at various locations in California including Rancho Mirage, Corona del Mar, Mary Laver died in November 2012 at the age of 84 at their home in Carlsbad.
Although of a short and medium build, Laver developed a technically complete serve-and-volley game. Dan Maskell, the Voice of Wimbledon, described him as technically faultless and his left-handed serve was well disguised and wide swinging. His groundstrokes on both flanks were hit with topspin, as was the attacking topspin lob, which Laver developed into a weapon and his stroke technique was based on quick shoulder turns, true swings, and accurate timing. His backhand, often hit on the run, was a point-ender that gave him an advantage, Laver was very quick and had a strong left forearm. Rex Bellamy wrote, The strength of that wrist and forearm gave him blazing power without loss of control, even when he was on the run, the combination of speed and strength, especially wrist strength, enabled him to hit ferocious winners when way out of court. At the net, he had forcing volleys, often hit as stroke volleys, especially on the backhand, he could hit sharp underspin angles as well. He was difficult to lob, because of his agility.
As an amateur, Laver was a flashy player, often a late starter. He had to learn to control his adventurous shot-making and integrate percentage tennis into his game when he turned professional, in his prime, he could adapt his style to all surfaces and to all conditions. Laver had a record in five-set-matches, often turning things around with subtle changes of tactics
The Netherlands, informally known as Holland is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country.
Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.
The Netherlands ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, changed over time tremendously
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia