Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. The country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israels economy and technology center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, in 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Mandatory Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency for Palestine, next year, the Jewish Agency declared the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel. Israel has since fought several wars with neighboring Arab states, in the course of which it has occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and it extended its laws to the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israels occupation of the Palestinian territories is the worlds longest military occupation in modern times, efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in peace. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have successfully been signed, the population of Israel, as defined by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, was estimated in 2017 to be 8,671,100 people. It is the worlds only Jewish-majority state, with 74. 8% being designated as Jewish, the countrys second largest group of citizens are Arabs, at 20. 8%. The great majority of Israeli Arabs are Sunni Muslims, including significant numbers of semi-settled Negev Bedouins, other minorities include Arameans, Armenians, Assyrians, Black Hebrew Israelites, Circassians, Maronites and Samaritans. Israel also hosts a significant population of foreign workers and asylum seekers from Africa and Asia, including illegal migrants from Sudan, Eritrea. In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish, Israel is a representative democracy with a parliamentary system, proportional representation and universal suffrage. The prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature, Israel is a developed country and an OECD member, with the 35th-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2016. The country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentage of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. The country has the highest standard of living in the Middle East and the third highest in Asia, in the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term Israeli to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have historically used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel. The name Israel in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, jacobs twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, also known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. The earliest known artifact to mention the word Israel as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity, Islam
Israeli Declaration of Independence
It declared the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz-Israel, to be known as the State of Israel, which would come into effect on termination of the British Mandate at midnight that day. The event is celebrated annually in Israel with a national holiday Yom Haatzmaut on 5 Iyar of every year according to the Hebrew calendar, the possibility of a Jewish homeland in Palestine had been a goal of Zionist organizations since the late 19th century. After World War I, the United Kingdom was given a mandate for Palestine, in the face of increasing violence after World War II, the British handed the issue over to the recently established United Nations. The result was Resolution 181, a plan to partition Palestine into Independent Arab and Jewish States, the Jewish state was to receive around 56% of the land area of Mandate Palestine, encompassing 82% of the Jewish population, though it would be separated from Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by most of the Jewish population, the result was 33 to 13 in favour of the resolution, with 10 abstentions. Resolution 181, PART I, Future constitution and government of Palestine, TERMINATION OF MANDATE, PARTITION AND INDEPENDENCE, Clause 3 provides, Independent Arab and Jewish States and the Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem. Shall come into existence in Palestine two months after the evacuation of the forces of the mandatory Power has been completed. The first draft of the declaration was made by Zvi Berenson, a revised second draft was made by three lawyers, A. Beham, A. Hintzheimer and Z. E. Baker, and was framed by a committee including David Remez, Pinchas Rosen, Haim-Moshe Shapira, Moshe Sharett, a second committee meeting, which included David Ben-Gurion, Yehuda Leib Maimon, Sharett and Zisling produced the final text. On 12 May 1948, the Minhelet HaAm was convened to vote on declaring independence, three of the thirteen members were missing, with Yehuda Leib Maimon and Yitzhak Gruenbaum being blocked in besieged Jerusalem, while Yitzhak-Meir Levin was in the United States. The meeting started at 1,45 in the afternoon and ended after midnight, the decision was between accepting the American proposal for a truce, or declaring independence. The latter option was put to a vote, with six of the ten members present supporting it, For, David Ben-Gurion, Moshe Sharett, Peretz Bernstein, Haim-Moshe Shapira, Mordechai Bentov, against, Eliezer Kaplan, David Remez, Pinchas Rosen, Bechor-Shalom Sheetrit. Chaim Weizmann, chairman of the World Zionist Organization and soon to be the first President of Israel, endorsed the decision, after reportedly asking What are they waiting for, the idiots. The draft text was submitted for approval to a meeting of Moetzet HaAm at the JNF building in Tel Aviv on 14 May. The meeting started at 13,50 and ended at 15,00, an hour before the declaration was due to be made, during the process, there were two major debates, centering on the issues of borders and religion. On the border issue, the draft had declared that the borders would be that decided by the UN partition plan. While this was supported by Rosen and Bechor-Shalom Sheetrit, it was opposed by Ben-Gurion and Zisling, with Ben-Gurion stating, We accepted the UN Resolution and they are preparing to make war on us. If we defeat them and capture western Galilee or territory on both sides of the road to Jerusalem, these areas become part of the state
Hapoel Tel Aviv F.C.
Hapoel Tel-Aviv Football Club is an Israeli football club based in Tel Aviv. The club currently competes in the Israeli Premier League and plays its matches at the Bloomfield Stadium. To date, the club has won thirteen championships and sixteen State Cups, in 1967 Hapoel Tel Aviv became the first club to win the Asian Club Championships. It is also one of only 3 Israeli teams to have qualified for the UEFA Champions League group stage, the club name, Hapoel, translates to The Worker, and combined with its red Hammer and sickle crest represents the club ties to Socialism and working class. For seven decades, the club was owned by Israeli largest trade union, Hapoel Tel Aviv F. C. was originally established in 1923, but was disbanded soon after. The club was re-formed in 1925, and then for a time in May 1926. In 1927 the club merged with Allenby F. C. giving the club its modern form and it is part of the Hapoel sports association which was affiliated with the Histadrut trade union, and supporters of the club were often referred to as communists. In 1928 the club reached the Palestine Cup final, although they beat Maccabi Hasmonean Jerusalem 2–0, Hapoel fielded an ineligible player, resulting in the cup being shared. The 1934–35 season saw Hapoel led the table, but the championship was abandoned. The 1937–38 season ended the way, with Hapoel top of the league. In the meantime, the won the cup again in 1937,1938 and 1939. In 1939–40 they won their second championship, the following season no national championships were held, but the club won the tournament for Hapoel-affiliated clubs. Following Israeli independence, Hapoel joined the new Israeli League and they won the title in 1956–57 and the State Cup in 1961, beating Hapoel Petah Tikva 2–1. In the 1965–66 season Hapoel won the title, and qualified for the first Asian Club Championships, in the tournament Hapoel were given byes all the way to the final, where they beat Selangor 2–1 to become Asias first club champions. The club also reached the State Cup final that year, Hapoel won the title again in 1968–69, and again qualified for the Asian Club championships. Although they reached the final, they lost 2–1 to Iranian side Taj Club, the following season they reached the cup final again, but lost 1–0 to Hapoel Yehud. A hat-trick of cup final defeats was avoided when they beat Maccabi Tel Aviv 3–2 in the 1982 final, another title was won in 1985–86, and another in 1987–88. However, the following season Hapoel finished bottom of the league and were relegated to the second tier for the first time in their history
Penalty shoot-out (association football)
A penalty shoot-out is a method of determining the winner of an association football match that is drawn after the regulation as well as extra playing time. Although the procedure for taking kicks from the penalty mark resembles that of a penalty kick, most notably, neither the kicker nor any player other than the goalkeeper may play the ball again once it has been kicked. The method of breaking a draw in a match requiring a winner is determined beforehand by the organizing body. Although employed in football commonly since the 1970s, penalty shoot-outs remain unpopular with some, during a shoot-out, coaches, players other than the kicker and the goalkeepers must remain in the centre circle. The kicking teams goalkeeper stands at the intersection of the goal line, goals scored during the shoot-out are not included in the final score, nor are they added to the goalscoring records of the players involved. A tie is a result in football. Exceptionally, a shoot-out after a league or round-robin match may be provided for and this provision appears for occasions where opposing teams in a final-day match finish the group with identical records, which can result in an immediate shoot-out. This happened in Group A of the 2003 UEFA Womens Under-19 Championship, several leagues, such as the J-League, have experimented with penalty shoot-outs immediately following a drawn league match, with the winner being awarded an extra point. A team that loses a penalty shoot-out is eliminated from the tournament but it does not count as a defeat, for instance, the Netherlands are considered to have concluded the 2014 FIFA World Cup undefeated, despite being eliminated at the semi-final stage. The following is a summary of the procedure for kicks from the penalty mark, the procedure is specified in Law 10 of the IFABs Laws of the Game document. The referee tosses a coin to decide the goal at which the kicks will be taken, the choice of goal by the coin toss winner may only be changed by the referee for safety reasons or if the goal or playing surface becomes unusable. The referee tosses the coin a second time to determine which team will take the first kick, all players other than the kicker and the goalkeepers must remain in the pitchs centre circle. Each kick will be taken in the manner of a penalty kick. Each kick will be taken from the penalty mark, which is 12 yards from the line and equidistant from each touch line. Each team is responsible for selecting from the players the order in which they will take the kicks. The referee is not informed of the order, each kicker can kick the ball only once per attempt. Once kicked, the kicker may not play the ball again, no other player on either team, other than the designated kicker and goalkeeper, may touch the ball. The ball may touch the goalkeeper, goal posts, or crossbar any number of times before going into the goal as long as the referee believes the motion is the result of the initial kick
Beitar Nes Tubruk F.C.
Beitar Nes Tubruk Netanya, formerly Beitar Netanya, is a football club in Netanya, Israel. The club is one of the most successful youth academies in the country, however, the club won only three games in its first and only season in the top flight, and were relegated with just 10 points, the lowest ever total during a 16-team season. At the end of the 1991–92 Liga Artzit season the club was relegated to the third tier, the club rights were sold to a group of Israeli businessmen. The club relies heavily on transfer fees and loan arrangements, the annual budget is generally around 3 million shekels, with about a third of that budget coming from Yaakov Shahar of Maccabi Haifa and Meir Shamir. 1As Beitar Netanya Yehoshua Feigenbaum Shmulik Perlman Beni Lam Official Website Official page on IFA
Maccabi Sha'arayim F.C.
Maccabi Shaarayim is an Israeli football club from the city Rehovot, currently playing in Liga Leumit. The club spent the past seven seasons in the top division from 1963 to 1969, the club was promoted to Liga Leumit for the first time in 1963. In their first season in the league they finished 11th out of 15, the following season the club finished sixth, which remains their highest ever league position. In the 1965–66 season they avoided relegation, finishing one place above the relegation zone. In 1969 Maccabi reach the cup final for the first time, in the same season they finished second bottom of the league and were relegated back to Liga Alef. The final match of the 1971–72 season saw the club have a chance to return to the top flight, but they lost 2–1 to Hapoel Marmorek, which were promoted instead. Two years later qualified for the promotion/relegation play-offs, but failed to win any of their five matches. At the end of the 1977–78 season they finished bottom of Liga Artzit and were relegated to Liga Alef, however, they finished bottom, and were relegated back to Liga Artzit. At the end of the 2011–12 season the club returned to Liga Alef, in the 2015–16 season, the club won Liga Alef South division and promoted to Liga Leumit. Thus, the returned to the second tier of Israeli football after 23 years
Hapoel Jerusalem F.C.
Hapoel Jerusalem Football Club is an Israeli football club in Liga Leumit. Hapoel plays at Teddy Stadium in Malha, Jerusalem, Hapoel Jerusalem Club was established in 1926 and played in the inaugural season of the EIFA league, playing the leagues first match against local rivals Maccabi Hasmonean Jerusalem. The club played in the league for its first three seasons, however, the club was restricted to playing mainly in the Jerusalem area due to travelling difficulties. The club participated occasionally in the Palestine Cup, reaching the cup final in 1943, after the establishment of Israel, the club registered to play in the makeshift second tier league, Liga Meuhedet, in the Jerusalem-Central division, which the club won. The club continued to play in the division, until it was promoted to the top division at the end of the 1956–57 season. Following the promotion, the club stayed in the top division for 21 seasons, achieving its best position, 3rd, in 1971–72 the club reached the State Cup final, losing to Hapoel Tel Aviv 0–1. A season later, the reached the cup final again. The club was relegated to the division in 1979. The club continued to yo-yo between the two top divisions in the seasons, playing his last season at the top division in 1999–2000. In 1998, the club reached its fourth cup final, in the early 1990s, the club was transferred to businessmen Yossi Sassi and Victor Yona. The two ran the team together until falling out, leading to a business and legal dispute which lasted until 2009. The fan-based club was established in 2009 and progressed to the Liga Leumit in 2013–14, the club currently plays in second tier Liga Leumit, to which it promoted from Liga Alef in 2010–11. Katamon Stadium was razed in 1982, with the intention to build a modern stadium in its place. The new stadium in Katamon was never built, and instead Teddy Stadium was built in the Malha neighborhood, during the early years, support of the club came mostly from the labour organizations in Israel. City rivals Beitar were identified with the right-wing nationalist organizations, all this played out to create the Jerusalem derby. To this day the rivalry exists, though it is not nearly as heated as both clubs played in the top division of Israeli football. In 2007 a large majority of fans, unhappy with the management of the club, as to 11 February 2017 Club website Hapoel Jerusalem Israel Football Association
Hakoah Amidar Ramat Gan F.C.
Hakoah Maccabi Amidar Ramat Gan Football Club is an Israeli football club based in Ramat Gan. The club is currently in Liga Alef South division and plays at the Winter Stadium in Ramat Shikma, the club was established in 1959 by a merger of Hakoah Tel Aviv and Maccabi Ramat Gan. The new club was based at Maccabis Gali Gil stadium in Ramat Gan, in 1962 the club was promoted to Liga Leumit, then the top division. In their first season they finished third from bottom, in 1964–65 the club won its first championship, beating Hapoel Petah Tikva to the title on goal difference. In 1969 the club won its first State Cup, beating Maccabi Shaarayim 1–0 in the final, two seasons later they won the cup again, this time defeating Maccabi Haifa 2–1. In 1972–73 the club won their second title, but missed out on the double when they lost the cup final 2–0 to Hapoel Jerusalem, however, the following season they finished second from bottom and only avoided relegation after winning the promotion/relegation play-offs. In 1974–75 they finished in the zone again, but were reprieved after the Israel Football Association decided to expand the league from 16 to 18 clubs. At the end of the 1977–78 season Hakoah were relegated and they won Liga Artzit at the first attempt and made an immediate return to the top flight. However, they were relegated at the end of their first season back in the top division, the following year they finished fourth in Liga Artzit, a place below the promotion places. In 1982–83 the club finished second in Liga Artzit and returned to the top division again, however, they finished bottom of the league in 1984–85 and were relegated for the third time in less than a decade. In 1987–88, the club had dropped into Liga Alef, the third tier, in 1994, the club was involved in a match fixing scandal, and were punished by a points deduction, a fine and a ban on foreign players. They won the second divisions Toto Cup in 1996,1997 and 1999, at the end of the 2001–02 season the club finished 7th in Liga Leumit, but were demoted by the IFA due to financial problems. In September 2002 the club almost folded, with the money needed to only becoming available during the last hour. Despite their problems, they won first season at the first attempt to bounce back to Liga Leumit. At the end of their first season in their new guise, the finished second in the league, winning promotion to the Premier League. Although they finished second from bottom the following season, Hakoah won Liga Leumit in 2007–08 to make a return to the Premier League. In 2008–09, the club was relegated to Liga Leumit, in 2014–15, the club was relegated to Liga Alef. Despite the proximity, there were ties between the clubs of Hakoah Vienna and Austria Vienna
Israel State Cup
The State Cup, is a knockout cup competition in Israeli football, run by the Israeli Football Association. The State Cup was first held in 1928 as the Peoples Cup, the holders of the State Cup are the Israeli Premier League side Hapoel Ironi Kiryat Shmona, who beat Maccabi Netanya in the 2014 final on 7 May 2014. Maccabi Tel Aviv have 23 titles, having the record for most titles won, Hapoel Tel Aviv in 1937–1939 and 2010–2012 are the only club to have retained the State Cup for three consecutive seasons. The draw also determines which teams play at home. Each tie is played as a single leg, if a match is drawn, the game is settled with extra time and penalty shootouts, though until 1964 replays would be played until one team was victorious. Some ties took as many as three matches to settle, there are a total of 13 rounds in the competition—nine rounds, followed by quarter-finals, semi-finals, and the final. Which are contested by the lowest-ranked clubs, clubs playing in the Liga Alef are given exemption to the Fifth Round, and Liga Leumit teams are given exemption to the Eighth Round. The 18 winners from that round join the 14 clubs from the Israeli Premier League, as well as being presented with the trophy, the winning team also qualifies for the UEFA Europa League. If the winners have qualified for the UEFA Champions League via the Israeli Premier League. If they also have qualified for the UEFA Champions League, the place goes to the next highest placed finisher in the league table. The draw for round, performed by drawing the clubs name from a jar, is a source of great interest to clubs and their supporters. Sometimes two top clubs may be drawn against each other in the rounds, removing the possibility of them meeting in the final. Mid-ranked teams hope for a draw against a peer to improve their chances of reaching future rounds, top-ranked teams look for easy opposition, but have to be on their guard against giant-killers and lower teams with ambition. The balls are being drawn by the officials of the Israel Football Association, the semifinals and the finals are traditionally held in the national Ramat Gan Stadium in the middle of the week. The match considered more interesting to the public is usually the second, for the final, the two winning teams of the semifinal return to Ramat Gan, with the winning team being awarded the State Cup from the President of Israel. The presidents role is traditional, and entered the Israeli sports lexicon, Israel Football Association List of winners on IFA website State Cup Soccerway Israel – List of Cup Finals
Hapoel Acre F.C.
Hapoel Acre Football Club is an Israeli football club based in Acre, Israel. The club is currently in Liga Leumit, founded in 1946, the club dwelt in the lower leagues until they won Liga Bet North A in the 1962–63 season and promoted for the first time to Liga Alef, the second division by then. In 1973–74, they won Liga Alef North division, however, the Israel Football Association decided that season on promotion play-off, involving the top 2 clubs in each Liga Alef division, and the bottom two clubs in Liga Leumit. After finishing in 5th position, they were not promoted, after second-place finish in the 1974–75 season, Hapoel won Liga Alef North division in the 1975–76 and were promoted to the top division for the first time. After finishing 11th in their first season, they won two matches the next season, and were relegated to Liga Artzit, which was the new second division at the time. This proved to be their last appearance in the top division for the next 31 years, in 1982–83 the club had dropped into Liga Alef, the third tier at the time. In 1998–99 they were promoted to Liga Artzit, however, in 2003–04, the club finished as runners-up, and were promoted back to Liga Leumit. In 2005–06, the club won their first ever piece of silverware, in 2008–09, the club finished as runners-up, and promoted to the Premier League. In the 2010–11 season, the club achieved its best placing to date, on 3 June 2013, an agreement was signed between Hapoel Acre association and the municipality of Acre, and as a result, a new association was appointed by the municipality. In the 2012–13 and 2014–15 seasons, the club finished at the bottom of the league at the end of the regular season, however, they avoided relegation in both occasions, following a strong finish of the bottom play-offs. In the 2015–16 season, the finished second bottom and relegated to Liga Leumit. The clubs traditional ground was the 5, 000-seat Napoleon Stadium in Acre, whilst the ground was being refurbished, the club played in Nazareth Illit at Green Stadium shared with Hapoel Nazareth Illit in the 2009–10 and the 2010–11 seasons. In the 2011–12 season the club played in the first month at Ilut Stadium in Ilut, located near Nazareth in northern Israel, as of 21 June 2016 Momi Zafran Yaron Hochenboim Eli Cohen Shimon Hadari Yuval Naim Alon Harazi Shlomi Dora Yaron Hochenboim Momi Zafran Shlomi Dora Club website
Hapoel Rishon LeZion F.C.
Hapoel Rishon LeZion F. C. is an Israeli football club which currently plays in Liga Leumit, Israels second football division. Home matches are hosted at the Haberfeld Stadium, in 1991, the club changed its name to Hapoel Ironi Rishon LeZion, and in June 2008 the name was switched back to Hapoel Rishon LeZion following a change in ownership. Hapoel Rishon LeZion was one of the first clubs in the history of football in Israel. The football section of the Sports club was established in 1929, the club was formally established in 1940. Its best achievements were runner-up of the Israel State Cup in 1946 and 1996, on both occasions it lost to Maccabi Tel Aviv. Following its cup final in 1996, it played in UEFA Cup Winners Cup, in 1951–52, the club finished second bottom and dropped to the second tier. Between 1952 and 1994 the club played just three seasons in the top division, 1978-79, 1980–81 and 1981–82, in 2008–09, after the club changed its name back to Hapoel Rishon LeZion, it was promoted to Liga Leumit, the second tier. In 2010–11, the club was promoted to the Israeli Premier League and they were relegated back to Liga Leumit the following season. The club is known with their previous name Hapoel Ironi Rishon LeZion. On 4 December 2012, Hapoel Rishon LeZion won the 2012–13 Toto Cup Leumit, as to 19 March 2017 Arik Gilrovich Nissan Yehezkel Eyal Lahman Sharon Mimer Ofir Haim Gili Levanda Nir Berkovic Official Site fans Official Site