Christophe Jérôme Dugarry is a former French international footballer who played as a forward. His clubs include Bordeaux, Barcelona, Birmingham City and he was a member of the France team that won the 1998 World Cup and Euro 2000. Dugarry came through the ranks at Bordeaux alongside future France teammates Bixente Lizarazu. He spent eight years at Bordeaux, scoring 34 goals in 187 appearances and his two goals against A. C. Milan in the 1996 UEFA Cup quarter-finals helped to seal a move to that club for the 1996–97 season. Dugarry managed just 5 goals in 27 appearances for Milan, before joining Barcelona the following season, after only seven appearances in his sole season there, he returned to France, first with Marseille. He returned to Bordeaux, where he played another 65 games, in 2003, he joined Birmingham City on loan as the second World Cup-winner to join the team, the first being Argentinian Alberto Tarantini in 1978. His prominence earned him rough treatment from opposition defenders, after a run of 5 goals in 4 matches cemented the clubs Premier League status, moving them from the relegation zone to 13th, Dugarry joined the club on a permanent two-year deal in May 2003.
He saw out only the first season, scoring one goal in 15 appearances before leaving the club by mutual consent and he signed a one-year contract with Qatar SC, where he made no appearances. Following this, he retired from football in 2005 and he has since been inducted into Birmingham Citys Hall of Fame. Dugarry made his debut in a 1–0 win against Australia on 26 May 1994. He went on to be capped 55 times for the France national team, with France, Dugarry won the 1998 World Cup, Euro 2000 and the 2001 Confederations Cup. He played at Euro 96 and the 2002 World Cup
The Airbus A300 is a short- to medium-range wide-body twin-engine jet airliner that was developed and manufactured by Airbus. The A300 can typically seat 266 passengers in a layout, with a maximum range of 4,070 nautical miles when fully loaded. Development of the A300 began during the 1960s as a European collaborative project between various aircraft manufacturers in Britain and West Germany, in September 1967, the participating nations signed a Memorandum of Understanding to manufacture the aircraft. The British withdrew from the project on 10 April 1969, a new agreement was reached between Germany and France on 29 May 1969, and Airbus Industrie was formally created on 18 December 1970 to develop and produce the A300. The type first flew on 28 October 1972, Air France, the launch customer for the A300, introduced the type into service on 30 May 1974. During the 1990s, the A300 became popular with freight operators. Production of the A300 ceased in July 2007, along with its smaller A310 derivative, the freighter sales for which the A300 had previously competed in life are instead fulfilled by the A330-200F, a derivative of the newer Airbus A330.
To overcome this factor, the report recommended the pursuit of multinational collaborative projects between the leading aircraft manufacturers. European manufacturers were keen to explore prospective programs, the proposed 260-seat wide-body HBN100 between Hawker Siddeley, Nord Aviation, and Breguet Aviation being one such example. During the mid-1960s, both Air France and American Airlines had expressed interest in a twin-engine wide-body aircraft, indicating a market demand for such an aircraft to be produced. The word airbus at this point was an aviation term for a larger commercial aircraft. Addition work included moving elements of the wings being produced in the Netherlands, as such, the A300 would feature the first use of composite materials of any passenger aircraft, the leading and trailing edges of the tail fin being composed of glass fibre reinforced plastic. Béteille opted for English as the language for the developing aircraft, as well against using Metric instrumentation and measurements.
According to Airbus, this approach to market research had been crucial to the companys long term success. On 26 September 1967, the British and West German governments signed a Memorandum of Understanding to start development of the 300-seat Airbus A300, at this point, the A300 was only the second major joint aircraft programme in Europe, the first being the Anglo-French Concorde. Under the terms of the memorandum and France were each to receive a 37.5 per cent work share on the project, sud Aviation was recognized as the lead company for A300, with Hawker Siddeley being selected as the British partner company. In December 1968, the French and British partner companies proposed a revised configuration and it had been feared that the original 300-seat proposal was too large for the market, thus it had been scaled down to produce the A250. The dimensional changes involved in the reduced the length of the fuselage by 5.62 meters
Gwendal Peizerat is a French former competitive ice dancer. With Marina Anissina, he is the 2002 Olympic champion, the 1998 Olympic bronze medalist, the 2000 World champion, and a six-time French national champion. Both of Gwendal Peizerats parents were involved in skating, his father serving as the general secretary of the French federation. His sister is two years older, Peizerat holds a management degree from EMLYON Business School, a DEUG in materials science, and a maîtrise in STAPS from Claude Bernard University Lyon 1. He has two daughters and Lilas and he released a single Baby Rock in 2014. Peizerat started skating at age four when he and his sister followed their parents to the ice rink and he went into ice dancing straight away. He was coached by Muriel Boucher-Zazoui since the age of six, Boucher-Zazoui paired seven-year-old Peizerat with his first partner, French skater Marina Morel, who was the same age as him and Peizerat skated together for fourteen years. They won bronze at the 1989 World Junior Championships and silver in 1991, Anissina arrived in Lyon in February 1993 and wanted to take him to Russia but his family objected.
She settled in France, focusing intensely on skating and insisting her partner and their first year together produced many quarrels and they came close to splitting up. Their coach Muriel Boucher-Zazoui, immediately felt it was a partnership, saying They are like fire. Anissina and Peizerat were selected for the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer but her French citizenship was granted a few weeks too late, the Olympics, unlike most skating competitions, require both partners to be citizens of the country they are representing. Anissina and Peizerat won the 1998 Olympic bronze medal and 1998 and 1999 World silver medals behind Anjelika Krylova, the Russians retired due to injury and Anissina and Peizerat developed a rivalry with the Italians Barbara Fusar-Poli and Maurizio Margaglio. The French won the 2000 European and World Championships, in 2001, Anissina and Peizerat won European and World silver behind the Italians but surged past them in 2002 to reclaim their European title and become the Olympic Champions.
At the 2002 Olympics, they led after the compulsory dances, after the Olympics and Peizerat retired from competition but continued skating together for many years in shows around the world. During their career, they represented the club Lyon TSC and their signature move was Anissina lifting Peizerat off the ice, switching the traditional gender roles in lifts. Peizerat was named a Chevalier of the National Order of Merit in 1998 and he has done some choreography for other skaters. In 2003, Peizerat founded a firm, Soléus. He has worked for Eurosport, interviewing athletes, Gwendal Peizerat at the International Skating Union Anissina/Peizerat
Thuram played at the top flight in France and Spain for over 15 seasons, including ten in Serie A with both Parma and Juventus. With France, Thuram won the 1998 FIFA World Cup and [, a quick and versatile player, he was capable of playing both as a right-back or as a centre-back, and was competent both offensively and defensively. Thuram was born in Guadeloupe in the French West Indies and his family relocated to mainland France in 1981. Thurams football career began with Monaco in Ligue 1 in 1991 and he transferred to Parma and to Juventus for £25 million, and eventually to Barcelona in 2006. Thuram started his career with Monaco in 1991. He only made one appearance that season, but was promoted to the first team the following season. He was inserted into the starting XI by the end of 1992 and would go on to make 155 league appearances for the Ligue 1 outfit and he made his national team debut in 1994, while at Monaco. With Monaco, he most notably won the Coupe de France in 1991, in July 1996, Thuram made a high-profile transfer to Italy to join Serie A club Parma.
In his first season, he made over 40 appearances for the club in all competitions, scoring one goal and he maintained a starting position in defence throughout his time with Parma, making 163 Serie A appearances and scoring one league goal. In all, he made over 200 appearances for the club, really making a name for himself and his transfer cost the club 80,000 million Italian lire. In the summer of 2001, Thuram made a transfer to Juventus, in his first season with the club, as a right back under Marcello Lippi, Thuram won the 2001–02 Serie A title, reaching the final of the 2001–02 Coppa Italia. After five years with Juve, Thuram transferred to Barcelona in the Spanish La Liga and he managed over 200 total appearances for the club, with two goals. On 24 July 2006, Thuram signed with Barcelona for €5 million after Juventus were relegated to Serie B due to the calciopoli scandal. After his contract expired in the 2007–08 season, Thuram retired due to a heart condition which had a few years prior taken the life of his brother.
In the season before his retirement, he was the third- or fourth-choice centre-back after Carles Puyol, Gabriel Milito. After becoming world champion in 1998, Thuram was a part of Frances triumph at UEFA Euro 2000. He played in the 2002 World Cup,2006 World Cup, Euro 1996, Euro 2004 and Euro 2008, in addition to winning the 2003 FIFA Confederations Cup. Thuram scored only two goals, both of which came in one game – the 1998 World Cup semi-final against Croatia, in which France came back to win 2–1
History of France
The first written records for the history of France appear in the Iron Age. The Gauls, the largest and best attested group, were Celtic people speaking what is known as the Gaulish language, over the course of the 1st millennium BC the Greeks and Carthaginians established colonies on the Mediterranean coast and the offshore islands. Afterwards a Gallo-Roman culture emerged and Gaul was increasingly integrated into the Roman Empire, in the stages of the Roman Empire, Gaul was subject to barbarian raids and migration, most importantly by the Germanic Franks. The Frankish king Clovis I united most of Gaul under his rule in the late 5th century, Frankish power reached its fullest extent under Charlemagne. The war formally began in 1337 following Philip VIs attempt to seize the Duchy of Aquitaine from its holder, Edward III of England. Despite early Plantagenet victories, including the capture and ransom of John II of France, among the notable figures of the war was Joan of Arc, a French peasant girl who led French forces against the English, establishing herself as a national heroine.
The war ended with a Valois victory in 1453, victory in the Hundred Years War had the effect of strengthening French nationalism and vastly increasing the power and reach of the French monarchy. During the period known as the Ancien Régime, France transformed into an absolute monarchy. During the next centuries, France experienced the Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation, King of Navarre, scion of the Bourbon family, would be victorious in the conflict and establish the French Bourbon dynasty. A burgeoning worldwide colonial empire was established in the 16th century, French political power reached a zenith under the rule of Louis XIV, The Sun King, builder of Versailles Palace. In the late 18th century the monarchy and associated institutions were overthrown in the French Revolution, the country was governed for a period as a Republic, until the French Empire was declared by Napoleon Bonaparte. France was one of the Triple Entente powers in World War I, fighting alongside the United Kingdom, Italy, the United States and smaller allies against Germany and the Central Powers.
France was one of the Allied Powers in World War II, the Third Republic was dismantled, and most of the country was controlled directly by Germany while the south was controlled until 1942 by the collaborationist Vichy government. Living conditions were harsh as Germany drained away food and manpower, Charles de Gaulle led the Free France movement that one-by-one took over the colonial empire, and coordinated the wartime Resistance. Following liberation in summer 1944, a Fourth Republic was established, France slowly recovered economically, and enjoyed a baby boom that reversed its very low fertility rate. Long wars in Indochina and Algeria drained French resources and ended in political defeat, in the wake of the Algerian Crisis of 1958, Charles de Gaulle set up the French Fifth Republic. Into the 1960s decolonization saw most of the French colonial empire become independent, while smaller parts were incorporated into the French state as overseas departments, since World War II France has been a permanent member in the UN Security Council and NATO.
It played a role in the unification process after 1945 that led to the European Union
Jocelyn Gourvennec is a French football manager and former player in midfield role. He is currently the manager of Ligue 1 club Bordeaux since 2016, during his time as a player at Marseille, he played in the 1999 UEFA Cup Final. He was named EA Guingamp manager on May 2010, on May 3rd 2014, he led Guingamp to success in the Coupe de France for only their second time by beating his old club Stade Rennais. As of 2 April 2017 Guingamp Coupe de France, 2013–14 Jocelyn Gourvennec – French league stats at LFP
Motocross is a form of off-road motorcycle racing held on enclosed off-road circuits. The sport evolved from motorcycle trials competitions held in the United Kingdom, Motocross was first evolved in the U. K. from motorcycle trials competitions, such as the Auto-Cycle Clubss first quarterly trial in 1909 and the Scottish Six Days Trial that began in 1912. The first known scramble race took place at Camberley, Surrey in 1924, during the 1930s, the sport grew in popularity, especially in Britain where teams from the Birmingham Small Arms Company, Matchless, and AJS competed in the events. Off-road bikes from that era differed little from those used on the street, the intense competition over rugged terrain led to technical improvements in motorcycles. The period after World War II was dominated by BSA which had become the largest motorcycle company in the world, BSA riders dominated international competitions throughout the 1940s. In 1952, the FIM, motorcyclings international governing body, created an individual European Championship using a 500 cc engine displacement formula, in 1957 it was upgraded to World Championship status.
In 1962, a 250 cc world championship was created and it was in the smaller 250 cc category that companies with two-stroke motorcycles came into their own. Companies such as Husqvarna from Sweden, CZ from the former Czechoslovakia and Greeves from England, became popular due to their lightness, stars of the day included BSA works riders Jeff Smith and Arthur Lampkin, with Dave Bickers, Joe Johnson and Norman Brown on Greeves. By the 1960s, advancements in engine technology meant that the heavier. Riders from Belgium and Sweden began to dominate the sport during this period, the following year Hallman was joined by other motocross stars including Roger DeCoster, Joël Robert, and Dave Bickers. They dominated the event placing their lightweight two-strokes into the top six finishing positions, Motocross began to grow in popularity in the United States during this period, which fueled an explosive growth in the sport. By the late 1960s, Japanese motorcycle companies began challenging the European factories for supremacy in the motocross world, Suzuki claimed the first world championship for a Japanese factory when Joël Robert won the 1970250 cc crown.
The first stadium motocross event was held in 1972 at the Los Angeles Coliseum, in 1975, a 125 cc world championship was introduced. European riders continued to dominate throughout the 1970s but, by the 1980s, American riders had caught up. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, Japanese motorcycle manufacturers presided over a period in motocross technology. The typical two-stroke air-cooled, twin-shock rear suspension gave way to machines that were water-cooled and fitted with single-shock absorber rear suspension. By 2003, increasingly stringent environmental laws in California forced some manufacturers to develop environmentally friendly four-stroke technology, by 2004, all the major manufacturers have begun competing with four-stroke machines. European firms experienced a resurgence with Husqvarna, the sport evolved with sub-disciplines such as stadium events known as supercross and arenacross held in indoor arenas
Oceania, known as Oceanica, is a region centred on the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean. The term is used more specifically to denote a continent comprising Australia. The term was coined as Océanie circa 1812 by geographer Conrad Malte-Brun, the word Océanie is a French word derived from the Latin word oceanus, and this from the Greek word ὠκεανός, ocean. Natives and inhabitants of this region are called Oceanians or Oceanicans, as an ecozone, Oceania includes all of Micronesia and all of Polynesia except New Zealand. New Zealand, along with New Guinea and nearby islands, part of the Philippine islands, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, in geopolitical terms, New Zealand, the Solomon Islands and New Caledonia are almost always considered part of Oceania. Australia and Papua New Guinea are usually considered part of Oceania along with the Maluku Islands, puncak Jaya in Papua is often considered the highest peak in Oceania. Oceania was originally conceived as the lands of the Pacific Ocean and it comprised four regions, Micronesia and Melanesia.
The area extends to Sumatra in the west, the Bonin Islands in the northwest, the Hawaiian Islands in the northeast, Rapa Nui and Sala y Gómez Island in the east, and Macquarie Island in the south. Not included are the Pacific islands of Taiwan, the Ryukyu Islands and the Japanese archipelago, all on the margins of Asia, and the Aleutian Islands of North America. The islands at the extremes of Oceania are Bonin, a politically integral part of Japan, Hawaii, a state of the United States. There is a geographic definition that excludes land on the Sunda Plate. Biogeographically, Oceania is used as a synonym for either the Australasian ecozone or the Pacific ecozone, Oceania is one of eight terrestrial ecozones, which constitute the major ecological regions of the planet. The Oceania ecozone includes all of Micronesia and all of Polynesia except New Zealand, New Zealand, New Guinea, Melanesia apart from Fiji, and Australia constitute the separate Australasian ecozone. The Malay Archipelago is part of the Indomalaya ecozone, related to these concepts are Near Oceania, that part of western Island Melanesia which has been inhabited for tens of millennia, and Remote Oceania which is more recently settled.
The term is used to denote a continent comprising Australia. New Zealand forms the corner of the Polynesian Triangle. Its indigenous Māori constitute one of the cultures of Polynesia. It is also, considered part of Australasia, the history of Oceania in the medieval period was synonymous with the history of the indigenous peoples of Australasia, Melanesia, Polynesia
Laurent Dufresne is a French footballer. He is the team captain of Valenciennes FC. Laurent was born on March 2,1972, over his entire career, which started in 1992, he has scored over 100 goals in over 300 appearances. Dufresne first played professionally in 1992 when he first played for the Valenciennes FC and he was there for a full five years before he was transferred. These years were not to be his last at Valenciennes FC, Laurent Dufresne spent four years here, from the start of 1997 to 2001. He made his most appearances for a club here, and he scored the largest amount of goals he has scored for any club here for Châteauroux, Dufresne spent four years at the Nancy Football Club. From the 2001 season to the 2005 season, he proved to be an invaluable striker, the 2005-2006 saw that Laurent Dufresne was to be transferred to the Valenciennes FC, where he had first started his professional football career. This time, however, he was Team Captain of the group, even with Laurent Dufresne as their team captain, are faced with the challenge of deseating the five-times-in-a-row-winner of the French First Division, Olympique Lyonnais.
On his second run at Valenciennes, Dufresne led his team in goals in FIFA06 at many a game between Guerms and Francs. Despite being a mere 1 star team, Valenciennes managed to some great top class teams such as FC Barcelona. He return to Châteauroux in 2007 and retired the following year
Nicolas Fargues is a French novelist. From 1998 to 2002, he had jobs in journalism, libraries. He published two novels Le Tour du propriétaire and Demain si vous le voulez bien before achieving his first major public and critical success, with One Man Show, published in 2002. This book is based on his own experiences in the world where he encountered celebrities whom he found smaller. Two years later, he published Rade Terminus, which was inspired by his experience as an expatriate and his most recent books are Jétais derrière toi and Beau rôle. How I Write - Nicolas Fargues, Untitled Books Photograph of Fargues Review of Beau rôle
Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization with offices in over 40 countries and with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. It uses direct action, lobbying and ecotage to achieve its goals, the global organization does not accept funding from governments, corporations, or political parties, relying on 2.9 million individual supporters and foundation grants. Greenpeace is known for its actions and has been described as the most visible environmental organization in the world. Greenpeace has raised environmental issues to public knowledge, and influenced both the private and the public sector, in the late 1960s, the U. S. had plans for an underground nuclear weapon test in the tectonically unstable island of Amchitka in Alaska. Because of the 1964 Alaska earthquake, the plans raised concerns of the test triggering earthquakes. A1969 demonstration of 7,000 people blocked a major U. S. –Canada border crossing in British Columbia and its Your Fault If Our Fault Goes.
The protests did not stop the U. S. from detonating the bomb, while no earthquake or tsunami followed the test, the opposition grew when the U. S. announced they would detonate a bomb five times more powerful than the first one. Among the opposers were Jim Bohlen, a veteran who had served in the U. S. Navy, and Irving Stowe and Dorothy Stowe, as members of the Sierra Club Canada, they were frustrated by the lack of action by the organization. From Irving Stowe, Jim Bohlen learned of a form of resistance, bearing witness. Jim Bohlens wife Marie came up with the idea to sail to Amchitka, the idea ended up in the press and was linked to The Sierra Club. The Sierra Club did not like this connection and in 1970 The Dont Make a Wave Committee was established for the protest, early meetings were held in the Shaughnessy home of Robert Hunter and his wife Bobbi Hunter. Subsequently, the Stowe home at 2775 Courtenay Street became the headquarters, as Rex Weyler put it in his chronology, Greenpeace, in 1969, Irving and Dorothy Stowes quiet home on Courtenay Street would soon become a hub of monumental, global significance.
Some of the first Greenpeace meetings were held there, the first office was opened in a backroom, storefront on Cypress and West Broadway SE corner in Kitsilano, Vancouver. Within half a year Greenpeace would move in to share the office space with The Society Promoting Environmental Conservation at 4th. Irving Stowe arranged a concert that took place on October 16,1970 at the Pacific Coliseum in Vancouver. The concert created the basis for the first Greenpeace campaign. Amchitka, the 1970 concert that launched Greenpeace was published by Greenpeace in November 2009 on CD and is available as an mp3 download via the Amchitka concert website. Using the money raised with the concert, the Dont Make a Wave Committee chartered a ship, the ship was renamed Greenpeace for the protest after a term coined by activist Bill Darnell