Tom Bradley (American politician)
Thomas J. Bradley was an American politician and former police officer who served as the 38th Mayor of Los Angeles from 1973 to 1993, he has been the only African American Mayor of Los Angeles, his 20 years in office mark the longest tenure by any mayor in the city's history. His 1973 election made him the second African-American mayor of a major U. S. city. Bradley retired in 1993, after his approval ratings began dropping subsequent to the 1992 Los Angeles Riots. Bradley unsuccessfully ran for Governor of California in 1982 and 1986 and was defeated each time by the Republican George Deukmejian; the racial dynamics that appeared to underlie his narrow and unexpected loss in 1982 gave rise to the political term "the Bradley effect." In 1985, he was awarded the Spingarn Medal from the NAACP. Bradley, the grandson of a slave, was born on December 29, 1917, to Lee Thomas and Crenner Bradley, poor sharecroppers who lived in a small log cabin outside Calvert, Texas, he had four siblings — Lawrence, Willa Mae and Howard.
The family moved to Arizona to pick cotton and in 1924 to the Temple-Alvarado area of Los Angeles, where Lee was a Santa Fe Railroad porter and Crenner was a maid. Bradley attended Rosemont Elementary School, Lafayette Junior High School and Polytechnic High School, where he was the first black student to be elected president of the Boys League and the first to be inducted into the Ephebians national honor society, he was all-city tackle for the high school football team. He joined Kappa Alpha Psi fraternity. Among the jobs he had while at college was as a photographer for comedian Jimmy Durante. Bradley left his studies to join the Los Angeles Police Department in 1940, he became one of the "just 400 blacks" among the department's 4,000 officers. He recalled "the downtown department store that refused him credit, although he was a police officer, the restaurants that would not serve blacks." He told a Times reporter: When I came on the department, there were two assignments for black officers.
You either worked Newton Street Division, which has a predominantly black community, or you worked traffic downtown. You could not work with a white officer, that continued until 1964. Bradley and Ethel Arnold met at the New Hope Baptist Church and were married May 4, 1941, they had three daughters, Phyllis and a baby who died on the day she was born. He and his wife "needed a white intermediary to buy their first house in Leimert Park a all-white section of the city's Crenshaw district."Bradley was attending Southwestern University Law School while a police officer and began his practice as a lawyer when he retired from the police department. Upon his leaving the office of mayor in 1993, he joined the law offices of Brobeck, Phleger & Harrison, specializing in international trade issues, his entry into politics came. The club was part of the California Democratic Council, a liberal, reformist group organized in the 1950s by young Democrats energized by Adlai E. Stevenson's presidential campaigns.
It was predominantly white and had many Jewish members, thus marking the beginnings of the coalition, which along with Latinos, that would carry him to electoral victory so many times. His choice of a Democratic circle put him at odds with another political force in the African American community, representatives of poor, all-black areas who were associated with the political organization of Jesse M. Unruh an up-and-coming state assemblyman; the early stage of Bradley's political career was marked by clashes with African American leaders like onetime California Lieutenant Governor and former U. S. Representative Mervyn Dymally, an Unruh ally. Bradley applied for the 10th District seat in June 1961, when he was still a police lieutenant living at 3397 Welland Avenue; the City Council, which had the power to fill a vacancy, instead appointed Joe E. Hollingsworth, he ran against Hollingsworth in April 1963. There were only two candidates and Bradley, two elections — one for the unexpired term left by Controller Navarro, ending June 30, one for a full four-year term starting July 1.
Bradley won by 17,760 votes to 10,540 in the first election and by 17,552 votes to 10,400 in the second. By he had retired from the police force, he was sworn in as a councilman at the age of 45 on April 15, 1963, "the first Negro elected to the council."One of the first votes he made on a controversial subject was his opposition to a proposed study by City Attorney Roger Arnebergh and Police Chief William H. Parker of the Dictionary of American Slang, ordered in an 11-4 vote by the council. Councilman Tom Shepard's motion said the book was "saturated not only with phrases of sexual filth, but wordage defamatory of minority ethnic groups and definitions insulting religions and races."Bradley told Los Angeles Times reporter Richard Bergholz the next month that he "has been asked why he doesn't participate in public demonstrations. His answer: His power as a councilman can best be used in trying to bring groups together, that's where his time and energy should be spent." He said. In 1969, Bradley first challenged incumbent Mayor Sam Yorty, a conservative Democrat though the election was nonpartisan.
Armed with key endorsements, Bradley held a substantial lead over Yorty in the primary, but was a fe
Los Angeles City Council
The Los Angeles City Council is the governing body of the City of Los Angeles. The council is composed of fifteen members elected from single-member districts for four-year terms; the president of the council and the president pro tempore are chosen by the council at the first regular meeting of the term. An assistant president pro tempore is appointed by the President; as of 2015, council members receive an annual salary of $184,610 per year, among the highest city council salary in the nation. Regular council meetings are held in the City Hall on Tuesdays and Fridays at 10 am except on holidays or if decided by special resolution. A current annual schedule of all Council meetings, broken down by committee, is available as a.pdf download from the Office of the City Clerk. Officers: President of the Council: Herb Wesson President Pro Tempore: Nury Martinez Assistant President Pro Tempore: Joe Buscaino Los Angeles was governed by a seven-member Common Council under general state law from 1850 to 1889, when a city charter was put into effect.
Under the first charter of the city, granted by the Legislature in 1889, the city was divided into nine wards, with a councilman elected from each one by plurality vote. The first election under that system was held on February 21, 1889, the last on December 4, 1906. Two-year terms for the City Council began and ended in December, except for the first term, which started in February 1889 and ended in December 1890; the term of office was lengthened to three years effective with the municipal election of December 4, 1906, the last year this ward system was in use. Between 1909 and 1925, the council was composed of nine members elected at large in a first-past-the-post voting system. Council membership in those years was as follows: City population in 1910: 319,200 Election: December 7, 1909 / Term: December 10, 1909, to December 13, 1911 Election: December 5, 1911 / Term: December 13, 1911, to July 1, 1913 Election: June 3, 1913 / Term: July 1913 to July 1915 Election: June 1, 1915 / Term: July 1915 to July 1917 Election: June 5, 1917 / Term: July 1917 to July 1919 City population in 1920: 576,700 Election: June 3, 1919 / Term: July 7, 1919, to July 5, 1921 Election: June 7, 1921 / Term: July 1921 to July 1923 Election: June 5, 1923 / Term: July 1923 to July 1925 Regular terms begin on July 1 of odd-numbered years until 2017 and on the second Monday in December of even-numbered years starting with 2020.
Los Angeles Common Council List of Los Angeles municipal election returns Chronological Record of Los Angeles City Officials: 1850—1938, Compiled under Direction of Municipal Reference Library City Hall, Los Angeles March 1938 Official website Map of Los Angeles City Council districts
Los Angeles City Hall
Los Angeles City Hall, completed in 1928, is the center of the government of the city of Los Angeles and houses the mayor's office and the meeting chambers and offices of the Los Angeles City Council. It is located in the Civic Center district of downtown Los Angeles in the city block bounded by Main, Temple and Spring streets; the building was designed by John Parkinson, John C. Austin, Albert C. Martin, Sr. and was completed in 1928. Dedication ceremonies were held on April 26, 1928, it has 32 floors and, at 454 feet high, is the tallest base-isolated structure in the world, having undergone a seismic retrofit from 1998 to 2001 so that the building will sustain minimal damage and remain functional after a magnitude 8.2 earthquake. The concrete in its tower was made with sand from each of California's 58 counties and water from its 21 historical missions. City Hall's distinctive tower was based on the shape of the Mausoleum of Mausolus, shows the influence of the Los Angeles Public Library, completed shortly before the structure was begun.
An image of City Hall has been on Los Angeles Police Department badges since 1940. To keep the City's architecture harmonious, prior to the late 1950s the Charter of the City of Los Angeles did not permit any portion of any building other than a purely decorative tower to be more than 150 ft. Therefore, from its completion in 1928 until 1964, the City Hall was the tallest building in Los Angeles, shared the skyline with only a few structures having decorative towers, including the Richfield Tower and the Eastern Columbia Building. City Hall has an observation deck, free to the public and open Monday through Friday during business hours; the peak of the pyramid at the top of the building is an airplane beacon named in honor of Colonel Charles A. Lindbergh, cf Lindbergh Beacon. Circa 1939, there was an art gallery, in Room 351 on the third floor, that exhibited paintings by California artists; the building was designated a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument in 1976. In 1998 the building was closed during a total $135 million refurbishment which included upgrading it so it could withstand a magnitude 8.2 earthquake including permitting it to sway in a quake.
Prior to the completion of the current structure, the L. A. City Council utilized various other buildings: 1850s: used rented hotel and other buildings for City meetings 1860s: rented adobe house on Spring Street—across from current City Hall 1860s–1884: relocated to Los Angeles County Court House 1884–1888: moved to building at South Spring Street and West 2nd Street 1888–1928: moved to new Romanesque Revival building on 226-238 South Broadway between 2nd Street and 3rd Street; the Mayor of Los Angeles has an office in room 300 of this building and every Tuesday and Friday at 10:00am, the Los Angeles City Council meets in its chamber. City Hall and the adjacent federal and county buildings are served by the Civic Center station on the LA Metro Red Line and Purple Line; the Silver Line stops in front of the building. An observation level is open to the public on the 27th floor; the interior of this floor, comprises a single large and vaulted room distinguished by the iconic tall square columns that are far more familiar as one of the building's most distinguishing exterior features.
The Mayor Tom Bradley Room, as this large interior space is named, is used for ceremonies and other special occasions. The Los Angeles Dodgers wore a commemorative uniform patch during the 2018 season celebrating 60 years in the city depicting a logo of Los Angeles City Hall; the building has been featured in the following popular movies and television shows: Adventures of Superman: The building appears as the Daily Planet building beginning in the second season of the 1950s TV series. At the time the TV program was broadcast, the show's Daily Planet building was confused with the designed Pennsylvania Power & Light Building in Allentown built in 1928. Additionally, the exact design of this building is used as the Newstime magazine headquarters in the Superman comic books. Alias: A CIA black ops unit is located behind a maintenance door at Civic Station. Dragnet: The building appears as itself in the TV series; the first episode of Dragnet Season 1, Episode 1: "The Human Bomb", original air date 16 December 1951, was filmed at Los Angeles City Hall.
It was embossed on Sgt. Joe Friday's famous badge number 714, displayed under the credits. Perry Mason: The City Hall building appears in the view from Perry's office window; this has led viewers of the show to speculate where the fictional office would have been located in downtown Los Angeles. L. A. Confidential: The police in the 1997 neo-noir film operate out of the City hall, as well as the police badges featuring a depiction the building itself. At the time the film takes place no building in Los Angeles was allowed to be taller than City Hall, so the cameras were placed at certain points so that any building taller than City Hall would not be seen. Tower of Terror: In this 1997 made-for-TV movie, the main character's love interest works at a fictional newspaper, The Los Angeles Banner; the newspaper's logo is based on the top of the city hall. Adam-12: During the seventh season opening credits montage, City Hall is shown directly at the end, as the building that officers Reed and Malloy drive away from.
It is shown on the embossed badges numbered 744 and 2430. The 2003 Dragnet series used the L. A. City Hall building aerial shot and badge throughout its introduction. War of the Worlds: The Ci
Mayor of Los Angeles
The Mayor of the City of Los Angeles is the official head and chief executive officer of Los Angeles, United States. The officeholder is limited to serving no more than two terms. Under the Constitution of California, all judicial, school and city offices, including those of chartered cities, are nonpartisan. Eric Garcetti has been the city's 42nd and current mayor since 2013. California does not impose statewide term limits on school board members, but such limits can still be imposed on the local level. Los Angeles has a strong mayor–council form of government, giving the mayor the position of chief executive of the city; the mayor is given the authority to appoint general managers and commissioners, remove officials from city posts, is required to propose a budget each year. Most of the mayor's appointments and proposals are subject to approval by the Los Angeles City Council, but the mayor has the power of veto or approval of City Council legislation; the organization of the mayor's office changes with administration, but is always governed by a chief of staff, deputy chief of staff, director of communications, several deputy mayors.
Each mayor organizes his office into different offices containing the Los Angeles Housing Team, Los Angeles Business Team, International Trade Office, Mayor's Volunteer Corps, Office of Immigrant Affairs, among other divisions. The mayor has an office in the Los Angeles City Hall and resides at the Mayor's Mansion, Getty House, located in Windsor Square; as of 2017, the mayor received a salary of $248,141. The mayor is elected in citywide election. Elections follow a two-round system; the first round of the election is called the primary election. The candidate receiving a majority of the vote in the primary is elected outright. If no candidate receives a majority, the top two candidates advance to a runoff election, called the general election; the City Charter allows for write-in candidates for the primary election, but not for the runoff in the general election. The mayor is elected with a limit of two consecutive terms; the office of Mayor is nonpartisan by state law, although most mayoral candidates identify a party preference.
Elections for mayor were held in odd-numbered years from 1909 until 2013. In October 2014, the Los Angeles City Council recommended consolidating city elections with gubernatorial and presidential elections in even-numbered years in an effort to increase turnout. On March 3, 2015, voters passed a charter amendment to extend the term of the mayor elected in 2017 to five-and-a-half years. From 2022 and onward, mayoral elections will be consolidated with the statewide gubernatorial elections held every four years; the most recent election was held in March 2017. Incumbent mayor Eric Garcetti was re-elected for a second term. In the case of an office vacancy, the City Council has a choice to appoint a new mayor or to hold a special election; the replacement, if appointed, will serve until the next scheduled primary for a city general election. If any portion remains on the term, a special election will be held to elect a candidate to serve the remainder of the term; the mayor is subject to recall by registered voters if at least 15 percent of eligible voters sign a recall petition within 120 days of the first day of circulation.
If the petition is successful, a special election is held asking whether the incumbent should be removed and who among a list of candidates should replace the incumbent. If the recall is successful, the replacement candidate with the majority of votes succeeds the ousted incumbent. If no replacement candidate receives a majority of the votes, a special runoff election is held between the top two candidates; as of April 2019, 42 individuals have served as mayor of Los Angeles since its incorporation as a city in the state of California. Six individuals served non-consecutive terms, the first of which began in 1854 and the last of which ended in 1921; those who served non-consecutive terms are only counted once in the official count of mayoralties. Stephen Clark Foster was appointed as Mayor of Los Angeles in 1848 prior to California statehood and official incorporation of the city; the longest term was that of Tom Bradley, who served for 20 years over five terms prior to the establishment of successive term limits.
The shortest term, not counting city council presidents serving as acting mayor, was that of William Stephens, appointed to serve for less than two weeks after Arthur Cyprian Harper resigned from office. Two mayors died in office: Henry Mellus and Frederick A. MacDougall. Three Hispanics have served as mayor since incorporation: Antonio F. Coronel, Cristobal Aguilar, Antonio Villaraigosa. Many other Hispanics served as mayor prior to California joining the United States including Manuel Requena, who briefly served as acting mayor post-statehood in his role as city council president. Tom Bradley is the only African American to have served as mayor, but was the city's longest-serving mayor. Two French Canadians have served as mayor, including Damien Marchesseault, who served for three distinct periods, Prudent Beaudry; this list includes three Presidents of the City Council who served as Acting Mayor due to a vacancy in the office of the mayor but who were not appointed as mayor. The Council Presidents are not included in the count of mayors.
† Council presidents who temporarily served as acting mayor in case of a vacancy but were not appointed to the position are not included in the count of mayors. As of April 2019, three former Mayors of Los Angeles were alive, the oldest being Richard J. Riordan; the most recent mayor to die was Thomas Bradley, on September 29, 1998. History of Los Angeles T
Los Angeles City Council District 14
Los Angeles City Council District 14 is one of the 15 districts of the Los Angeles City Council. It is a Latino district in Boyle Heights and Northeast Los Angeles. Council Member Jose Huizar has represented it since 2005. District 14 consists of all or part of the neighborhoods of the Downtown, Boyle Heights, Eagle Rock, El Sereno, Glassell Park, Lincoln Heights, Monterey Hills; the Boyle Heights and Northeast sections are connected by a narrow strip of land. Huizar maintains field offices in Boyle Heights, El Sereno and Eagle Rock. A new city charter effective in 1925 replaced the former "at large" voting system for a nine-member council with a district system with a 15-member council; each district was to be equal in population, based upon the voting in the previous gubernatorial election. The numbering system established in 1925 for City Council districts began with No. 1 in the north of the city, the San Fernando Valley, ended with No. 15 in the south, the Harbor area. District 14 has always represented Highland Park.
As the city's population increased, it has expanded southward. The rough boundaries or descriptions of the district have been as follows: 1925 The communities of Eagle Rock, Highland Park and Annandale.1928 Westward extension to Allesandro Street.1932–33: East boundary: South Pasadena and Pasadena. North: Glendale. West: Glendale Boulevard.1935 Same general area as 1932, with the western boundary at Griffith Park, thus including the Atwater area. 1940 Same general area as with the west boundary at Glendale Boulevard.1955: Rose Hill is now included in the district's description.1971 "The district begins in the East Los Angeles Mexican-American barrios of El Sereno and Lincoln Heights extends westward across the Pasadena Freeway to Anglo middle-class homes in Glassell Park, Highland Park and Eagle Rock through Griffith Park. Around the western edge of the district is the Los Feliz District, with some of the city's more expensive homes."1986 No longer includes Los Feliz. Southern reach includes El Sereno, College Avenue, Huntington Drive and portions of Alhambra Avenue and Valley Boulevard across the San Bernardino Freeway to Brooklyn Avenue, East Beverly Boulevard, Fourth Street and Whittier Boulevard.
District 14 has been represented by 10 men and no women: Los Angeles City Council districts Los Angeles City Council Official Los Angeles City Council District 14 website City of Los Angeles: Map of District 14
Robert Kenneth Dornan is an American politician, a former Republican member of the United States House of Representatives from California. A boisterous former actor and television and radio talk show host, Dornan had a flair for the dramatic that drew supporters and detractors well beyond his congressional districts. Though never a major power in Washington, he became one of the most well-known members of the House of Representatives as a participant in televised "special orders" speeches and has been described as "one of the leading firebrands among American politicians." Dornan was born in the son of Gertrude Dornan and Harry Joseph Dornan. In New York, Dornan's mother had been a vaudeville performer as part of an act called The McFadden Sisters and a Ziegfeld Follies showgirl, had performed under the stage name Bara Wilkes. Harry Dornan owned a haberdashery, after moving to California, he became a real estate entrepreneur in West Los Angeles and was active in harness racing, a pastime in which many celebrities participated during the 1940s and 1950s.
Robert Dornan was able to take advantage of his family's entertainment industry experience and connections after he embarked on his own acting and talk show career, make use of celebrity endorsements and campaign contributions to launch his political career. Dornan attended Loyola University of Los Angeles until 1953. Harry Dornan was a veteran of World War II. At age 19, Robert emulated his father by volunteering to join the United States Air Force, he became a fighter pilot, during his time in the Air Force, he survived two emergency parachute ejections and two "dead stick" forced landings. Dornan served as a combat journalist and photographer on several missions in Vietnam and Cambodia during the Vietnam War and flew relief flights into Biafra, he was on active duty until 1958, attained the rank of Captain. He served in the California Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve until 1975. Bob Dornan took an active role in the civil rights movement, he took part in the historic 1963 March on Washington led by Martin Luther King Jr.
The following year he helped register African Americans to vote in Mississippi. Dornan was involved in the entertainment industry, he starred in the film The Starfighters, cast as Lt. Witkowski, an Air Force pilot, the son of a U. S. congressman. The Starfighters aired on Mystery Science Theater 3000. In 1962, he portrayed Air Force Lieutenant Alden in the episode "Dennis at Boot Camp" of the CBS sitcom, Dennis the Menace, starring Jay North and Gale Gordon, with Roy Roberts in this segment as Captain Stone. Dornan had a frequent role as Captain Fowler on ABC's Twelve O'Clock High television series and smaller roles on ABC's Bewitched and NBC's I Dream of Jeannie. Dornan was an Emmy-award-winning television talk show host on Tempo and The Robert K. Dornan Show broadcast from Los Angeles from 1967 to 1973. Dornan moved into politics in 1973 as national spokesman for the Citizens for Decency Through Law advocacy group, he made an unsuccessful run for mayor of Los Angeles the same year. In 1976, Dornan was elected to the House of Representatives, representing the 27th Congressional District in western Los Angeles County.
He was re-elected twice. He was such an unswerving advocate for the development of the B-1 bomber, that he was soon nicknamed "B-1 Bob."After the 1980 census, California's congressional map was redrawn. Dornan's district a Republican-leaning swing district, was made more Democratic. Believing he had no chance of winning this new district, he opted to run for the United States Senate in 1982, he finished fourth in the Republican primary behind San Diego mayor and future Governor Pete Wilson, who won in November. Dornan moved in the more Republican Orange County. In 1984, he was elected to Congress from the 38th District in central Orange County, defeating 10-year Democratic incumbent Jerry M. Patterson by a 53% to 45% margin amid Ronald Reagan's massive landslide that year. In 1986, he won a tough race against Democratic state Assemblyman Richard Robinson, winning by a 55% to 43% margin, he was served on the Intelligence Committee. Dornan made headlines in March 1985 for a confrontation with Representative Thomas Downey on the House floor.
Downey asked Dornan about comments he had made calling Downey "a draft-dodging wimp." According to Downey, grabbing him by collar and tie, said, "It's good you're being protected by the sergeant-at-arms. If I saw you outside, it would be a different story" and threatened him "with some form of bodily harm." Dornan claimed he was straightening Downey's tie and refused to apologize for the incident or the derogatory comment. A Dornan aide said, "It will be a cold day in hell before he gets an apology from Bob Dornan." Dornan was staunchly conservative. However, he did hold some positions that some might call liberal, including sponsoring animal protection acts, earning him the recognition of PETA in 1988. In 1995, he received a minor reprimand from the House for stating in a floor speech that President Bill Clinton had "given aid and comfort to the enemy" during the Vietnam War. In 1996, Dornan was a dark horse candidate for President of the United States, using his campaign as a vehicle to continue to criticize Clinton.
In a GOP debate in Iowa on January 13, Dornan called Clinton a "criminal" and a "pathological liar." When asked why voters should choose Dornan over his Republican rivals to challenge Clinton in the general election, he argued that he had more children and grandchildre
Government of Los Angeles
The Government of Los Angeles operates as a charter city under the Charter of the City of Los Angeles. The elected government is composed of the Los Angeles City Council with 15 city council districts and the Mayor of Los Angeles, which operate under a mayor–council government, as well as several other elective offices; the current mayor is Eric Garcetti, the current City Attorney is Mike Feuer and the current City Controller is Ron Galperin. In addition, there are numerous departments and appointed officers such as the Los Angeles Police Department, the Los Angeles Fire Department, the Los Angeles Department of Transportation, the Los Angeles Public Library, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power; the government of the city of Los Angeles includes the following city officers: Mayor Members of the Council City Attorney City Clerk Controller Treasurer The members of the boards or commissions of the departments and the chief administrative officer of each department and office An Executive Director of the Board of Police Commissioners Other officers as prescribed by ordinance The Mayor of Los Angeles is the chief executive officer of the city.
The officeholder is elected for a four-year term, limited to serving no more than two terms. Under the California Constitution, all judicial, school and city offices, including those of chartered cities, are nonpartisan; the 42nd and current Mayor is Eric Garcetti. The Los Angeles City Council is the governing body of Los Angeles; the council is composed of fifteen members elected from single-member districts for four-year terms and limited to three terms. The president of the council and the president pro tempore are chosen by the council at the first regular meeting after June 30 in odd-numbered years. An assistant president pro tempore is appointed by the president; the current president of the Los Angeles City Council is Herb Wesson, the president pro tempore is Mitchell Englander and the assistant president pro tempore is Nury Martinez. Regular council meetings are held in the City Hall on Tuesdays and Fridays at 10 am except on holidays or if decided by special resolution; the Los Angeles Police Department polices the city of Los Angeles.
It is governed by the Los Angeles Board of Police Commissioners and the Chief of the Los Angeles Police Department. The city maintains specialized police agencies; the Los Angeles General Services Police, which provided police coverage for Los Angeles city owned property and parks was absorbed into the LAPD in 2012. The Los Angeles Unified School District maintains it own separate police department, as do many other school districts and college campuses within the city; the Charter of the City of Los Angeles ratified by voters in 1999 created a system of advisory neighborhood councils that would represent the diversity of stakeholders, defined as those who live, work or own property in the neighborhood. The neighborhood councils are autonomous and spontaneous in that they identify their own boundaries, establish their own bylaws, elect their own officers. There are about 90 neighborhood councils; the Los Angeles City Attorney is an elected official whose job is legal counsel for the city and may prosecute misdemeanor criminal offenses within the city.
The Los Angeles City Clerk is in charge of record keeping for elections. The Los Angeles City Controller is the elected chief accounting officer of the city; the Los Angeles City Treasurer handles financial matters. In addition, there are numerous departments and appointed officers such as the: Los Angeles City Clerk Economic & Workforce Development Department Office of Finance Los Angeles Fire Department Los Angeles Housing + Community Investment Department Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles Port of Los Angeles Los Angeles Port Police Los Angeles Public Library Department of Recreation and Parks Los Angeles Department of Transportation Los Angeles Department of Water and Power Los Angeles Board of Water and Power Commissioners The most recent elections were in May 2013, with 13th district City Councilman Eric Garcetti defeating City Controller Wendy Greuel for Mayor; the voter turnout was about 19% of registered voters, one of the lowest turnouts on record, with Garcetti garnering about 54% of the votes.
The Charter of the City of Los Angeles is the founding document of Los Angeles. Pursuant to its Charter, all legislative power is vested in the Council and is exercised by ordinance subject to a veto by the Mayor. Pursuant to this power, the Council has caused to be promulgated the Administrative Code, consisting of administrative and procedural ordinances, the Municipal Code, consisting of codified regulatory and penal ordinances. Violations of the ordinances are misdemeanor crimes unless otherwise specified as an infraction and may be prosecuted by city authorities; the Los Angeles Superior Court, which covers the entire county, is not a County department but a division of the State's trial court system. The courthouses were county-owned buildings that were maintained at county expense, which created significant friction since the trial court judges, as officials of the stat