Liverpool Football Club is a professional association football club based in Liverpool, Merseyside, England. They compete in the Premier League, the top tier of English football, the club has won 5 European Cups,3 UEFA Cups,3 UEFA Super Cups,18 League titles,7 FA Cups, a record 8 League Cups, and 15 FA Community Shields. The club was founded in 1892 and joined the Football League the following year, the club has played at Anfield since its formation. The club holds many long-standing rivalries, most notably the North West Derby against Manchester United, the clubs supporters have been involved in two major tragedies. The second was the Hillsborough disaster in 1989, where 96 Liverpool supporters died in a crush against perimeter fencing, the team changed from red shirts and white shorts to an all-red home strip in 1964 which has been used ever since. The clubs anthem is Youll Never Walk Alone, Liverpool F. C. was founded following a dispute between the Everton committee and John Houlding, club president and owner of the land at Anfield. After eight years at the stadium, Everton relocated to Goodison Park in 1892, the team won the Lancashire League in its début season, and joined the Football League Second Division at the start of the 1893–94 season. After finishing in first place the club was promoted to the First Division, Liverpool reached its first FA Cup Final in 1914, losing 1–0 to Burnley. Liverpool suffered its second Cup Final defeat in 1950, playing against Arsenal, the club was relegated to the Second Division in the 1953–54 season. Soon after Liverpool lost 2–1 to non-league Worcester City in the 1958–59 FA Cup, the club was promoted back into the First Division in 1962 and won it in 1964, for the first time in 17 years. In 1965, the club won its first FA Cup, in 1966, the club won the First Division but lost to Borussia Dortmund in the European Cup Winners Cup final. Liverpool won both the League and the UEFA Cup during the 1972–73 season, and the FA Cup again a year later, Shankly retired soon afterwards and was replaced by his assistant, Bob Paisley. In 1976, Paisleys second season as manager, the club won another League, the following season, the club retained the League title and won the European Cup for the first time, but it lost in the 1977 FA Cup Final. Liverpool retained the European Cup in 1978 and regained the First Division title in 1979, Paisley retired in 1983 and was replaced by his assistant, Joe Fagan. Liverpool won the League, League Cup and European Cup in Fagans first season, Liverpool reached the European Cup final again in 1985, against Juventus at the Heysel Stadium. Before kick-off, Liverpool fans breached a fence separated the two groups of supporters, and charged the Juventus fans. The resulting weight of people caused a wall to collapse, killing 39 fans. The incident became known as the Heysel Stadium disaster, the match was played in spite of protests by both managers, and Liverpool lost 1–0 to Juventus
Newcastle United F.C.
Newcastle United Football Club is an English professional association football club based in Newcastle upon Tyne. Following the clubs most recent relegation from the top-flight during the 2015–16 season, Newcastle returned to the Football Leagues 2nd tier, the Championship, for the 2016–17 campaign. Newcastle United was founded in 1892 by the merger of Newcastle East End and Newcastle West End, the ground was developed into an all-seater stadium in the mid-1990s and now has a capacity of 52,354. They have won four League Championship titles, six FA Cups and a Charity Shield, as well as the 1969 Inter-Cities Fairs Cup, Newcastle United has the ninth highest total of trophies won by an English club. The clubs most successful period was between 1904 and 1910, when they won an FA Cup and three of their First Division titles. The club were successful in the Premier League in the 1990s and early 2000s, but have been mostly struggling since the 2006–07 season. Newcastle has a local rivalry with Sunderland, and the two clubs have engaged in the Tyne–Wear derby since 1898. The clubs traditional kit colours are black and white striped shirts, black shorts and their traditional crest takes elements of the city coat of arms, which features two grey seahorses. The club has been owned by Mike Ashley since 2007, succeeding long term chairman, the club is the seventeenth highest revenue producing club in the world in terms of annual revenue, generating €169. 3m in 2015. Historically, Newcastles highest placing was in 1999 when they were the fifth highest revenue producing club in the world. The first record of football being played on Tyneside dates from 3 March 1877 at Elswick Rugby Club, later that year, Newcastles first football club, Tyne Association, was formed. The origins of Newcastle United Football Club itself can be traced back to the formation of a club by the Stanley Cricket Club of Byker in November 1881. This team was renamed Newcastle East End F. C. in October 1882, to avoid confusion with the club in Stanley. Rosewood F. C. of Byker merged with Newcastle East End a short time later, in 1886, Newcastle East End moved from Byker to Heaton. In August 1882, Newcastle West End F. C. formed from West End Cricket Club, and in May 1886, the two clubs became rivals in the Northern League. In 1889, Newcastle East End became a team, before becoming a limited company the following March. However, on the hand, Newcastle West End were in serious financial trouble. With only one club in the city for fans to support
Wembley Stadium (1923)
The Original Wembley Stadium was a football stadium located in Wembley Park, London. It stood on the now occupied by its successor, the new Wembley Stadium. The great Brazilian footballer Pelé once said of the stadium, Wembley is the cathedral of football and it is the capital of football and it is the heart of football in recognition of its status as the worlds best-known football stadium. It also hosted music events, including the 1985 Live Aid charity concert. The twin towers were an icon for England and Wembley, debris from the Original Wembley Stadium was used to make the award-winning Northala Fields in Northolt, Ealing. The stadiums first turf was cut by King George V, much of Humphrey Reptons original Wembley Park landscape was transformed in 1922–23 during preparations for the British Empire Exhibition of 1924–25. First known as the British Empire Exhibition Stadium or simply Empire Stadium, the stadium cost £750,000, and was constructed on the site of an earlier folly called Watkins Tower. The architects were Sir John Simpson and Maxwell Ayrton and the Head Engineer Sir Owen Williams, the stadium had gone into liquidation, after it was pronounced financially unviable. Elvin offered to buy the stadium for £127,000, using a £12,000 downpayment and they then immediately bought it back from Elvin, leaving him with a healthy profit. Instead of cash he received shares, which gave him the largest stake in Wembley Stadium, the electric scoreboard and the all-encircling roof, made from aluminium and translucent glass, were added in 1963. The stadiums distinctive Twin Towers became its trademark and nickname, also well known were the 39 steps needed to be climbed to reach the Royal box and collect a trophy. Wembley was the first pitch to be referred to as Hallowed Turf, in 1934, the Empire Pool was built nearby. The Wembley Stadium Collection is held by the National Football Museum, the stadium closed in October 2000, and demolition commenced in December 2002, completing in 2003 for redevelopment. The top of one of the towers was erected as a memorial in the park on the north side of Overton Close in the Saint Raphaels Estate. Wembley is best known for hosting football matches, having hosted the FA Cup Final annually as well as numerous England International fixtures, the Empire Stadium was built in exactly 300 days at the cost of £750,000. Described as the worlds greatest sporting arena, it was ready only 4 days before the White Horse Final in 1923, the FA had not considered admission by ticket, grossly underestimating the number of fans who arrived at the 104 gates on match day. However, after the game, every event, apart from the 1982 replay, was ticketed, the first event held at the stadium was the FA Cup Final on 28 April 1923 between Bolton Wanderers and West Ham United. This is known as the White Horse Final, the crowds overflowed onto the pitch as there was no room on the terraces
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region. Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud. From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a later date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Referee (association football)
In association football, the referee is the person responsible for enforcing the Laws of the Game during the course of a match. At higher levels of play the referee may also be assisted by an official who supervises the teams technical areas. Referees remuneration for their services varies between leagues, Referees are licensed and trained by the same national organisations that are members of FIFA. Each national organisation recommends its top officials to FIFA to have the honour of being included on the FIFA International Referees List. International games between national teams require FIFA officials, otherwise, the local national organisation determines the manner of training, ranking and advancement of officials from the youngest youth games through professional matches. The referees powers and duties are described by Law 5 of the Laws of the Game, as per Law 9 of the game, if during the game the ball hits the referee there is no stoppage in play. However the officials would be expected to position themselves such that this would be unlikely to occur. Modern day referees and their assistants wear a uniform consisting of a jersey, badge, shorts and socks, since then, most referees have worn either yellow or black, but the colours and styles adopted by individual associations vary greatly. For international contests under the supervision of FIFA, Adidas uniforms are worn because Adidas is the current sponsor, FIFA allows referees to wear five colours, black, red, yellow, green and blue. Along with the jersey, referees are required to wear shorts, black socks. The badge, which displays the referees license level and year of validity, is affixed to the left chest pocket. All referees carry a whistle, a watch, penalty cards, a wallet with pen and paper. Most are encouraged to have more than one of each on them in case they drop a whistle or a pen runs out, often, referees utilize two watches so that they can use one to calculate time lost for stoppages for the purposes of added time. In matches with goal-line technology, the referee will have on their person a device to receive the systems alerts, Referees use a whistle to help in match control. The whistle is sometimes needed to stop, start or restart play but should not be used for all stoppages, fIFAs Laws of the Game document gives guidance as to when the whistle should and should not be used. Overuse of the whistle is discouraged since, as stated in the Laws, the whistle is an important tool for the referee along with verbal, body and eye communication. Before the introduction of the whistle, referees indicated their decisions by waving a white handkerchief, the whistles that were first adopted by referees were made by Joseph Hudson at Mills Munitions in Birmingham, England. The Acme Whistle Company first began to mass-produce pea whistles in the 1870s for the Metropolitan Police Force, Referees in football are first described by Richard Mulcaster in 1581
Berks & Bucks Football Association
The Berks & Bucks Football Association is the County Football Association for Berkshire and Buckinghamshire. It is responsible for the development of football in the ceremonial counties of Berkshire and Buckinghamshire. It organises cup competitions between affiliated football clubs and the two representative teams. It was formed in 1878, with the first president and driving force being Mr J H Clark from Maidenhead, the Berks & Bucks FAs administrative headquarters are in Abingdon. It is affiliated to Englands national football association, the Football Association, the Berks & Bucks FA organises a number of county cup competitions for its members. The flagship event is its Senior Invitation Cup, which was first held in 1878, the leagues are self-governing and some members are registered with another county football association. A number of small-sided, womens football and youth leagues are also affiliates
1973 FA Cup Final
The 1973 FA Cup Final was the 92nd final of the FA Cup. In one of the biggest shocks in the history of the competition and it remains Sunderlands only major trophy since World War II. Sunderlands team were the only FA Cup winners of the 20th century not to any full internationals. Leeds looked anxious, lacking their usual composure, the match itself was decided by two crucial moments that would be talked about for years to come. After 31 minutes Sunderland took the lead when Vic Halom chested down a corner from Billy Hughes, assisted by Dave Watson between two defenders, the deflected high ball was controlled by Ian Porterfield who shot home from 12 yards. Leeds, shocked, battled back with predictable determination, sunderland’s goalkeeper Jimmy Montgomery was outstanding, defying Leeds with a string of fine saves and preserving his team’s lead. The turning point of the match midway through the second half. Montgomery dived to palm away a close range header from Trevor Cherry and it fell into the path of Lorimer who blasted goalward from 10 yards but Montgomery managed to divert the ball on to the underside of the bar and Malone scrambled the ball clear. The save has been compared with that made by England’s Gordon Banks in the 1970 FIFA World Cup match against Brazil, the North East team survived more pressure from Leeds to secure a notable upset. Sunderlands triumph made them the first FA Cup winners to lift the trophy with a side featuring no full international players, the 1973 showpiece is the only FA Cup final ever to be played with an orange ball. Sunderlands FA Cup record, Sunderland All the Way, was recorded by comedian Bobby Knoxall, game facts at soccerbase. com Match report in Daily Telegraph
1975 FA Cup Final
The 1975 FA Cup Final was contested by West Ham United and Fulham at Wembley. The Fulham team contained two former England captains in former West Ham captain Bobby Moore, making his last appearance at Wembley, West Ham won 2–0, with the two goals scored by Alan Taylor. The 1975 West Ham United team are the last all-English team to win the FA Cup and it also remains the only occasion that Fulham have appeared in an FA Cup final and their last major final until the 2010 UEFA Europa League Final
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Where more than two competitors can play in each match, such as in a shootout poker tournament, players are removed when they can no longer play until one player remains from the group. This player moves on to the next round, some competitions are held with a pure single-elimination tournament system. Others have many phases, with the last being a final stage called playoffs. The round before the quarterfinals is sometimes called the round of sixteen, Last Sixteen, or pre-quarterfinals, earlier rounds are typically numbered counting forwards from the first round, or by the number of remaining competitors. If some competitors get a bye, the round at which they enter may be named the first round, with the matches called a preliminary round. Many Olympic single-elimination tournaments feature the bronze medal if they do not award bronze medals to both losing semifinalists. The FIFA World Cup has long featured the third place match, the number of distinct ways of arranging a single-elimination tournament is given by the Wedderburn–Etherington numbers. Brackets are set up so that the top two seeds could not possibly meet until the round, none of the top four can meet prior to the semifinals. If no seeding is used, the tournament is called a random knockout tournament. One version of seeding is where brackets are set up so that the quarterfinal pairings would be the 1 seed vs. the 8 seed,2 vs.7,3 vs.6 and 4 vs. This may be done after each round, or only at selected intervals, in American team sports, for example, the MLS, NFL and WNBA employ this tactic, but the NBA does not. MLB does not have teams in its playoff tournament where re-seeding would make a large difference in the matchups. In international fencing competitions, it is common to have a group stage, participants are divided in groups of 6–7 fencers who play a round-robin tournament, and a ranking is calculated from the consolidated group results. Single elimination is seeded from this ranking, the single-elimination format enables a relatively large number of competitors to participate. There are no dead matches, and no matches where one competitor has more to play for than the other, the format is less suited to games where draws are frequent. In chess, each fixture in a single-elimination tournament must be played multiple matches, because draws are common. In association football, games ending in a draw may be settled in extra time, another perceived disadvantage is that most competitors are eliminated after relatively few games. Variations such as the tournament allow competitors a single loss while remaining eligible for overall victory
The FA Cup, known officially as The Football Association Challenge Cup, is an annual knockout association football competition in mens domestic English football. First played during the 1871–72 season, it is the oldest association football competition in the world and it is organised by and named after The Football Association. For sponsorship reasons, from 2015 through to 2018 it is known as The Emirates FA Cup. A concurrent womens tournament is held, the FA Womens Cup. A record 763 clubs competed in 2011–12, the tournament consists of 12 randomly drawn rounds followed by the semi-finals and the final. The last entrants are the Premier League and Championship clubs, into the draw for the Third Round Proper, in the modern era, only one non-league team has ever reached the quarter finals, and teams below Level 2 have never reached the final. As a result, as well as who wins, significant focus is given to those minnows who progress furthest, especially if they achieve an unlikely giant-killing victory. Winners receive the FA Cup trophy, of which there have two designs and five actual cups, the latest is a 2014 replica of the second design. Winners also qualify for European football and a place in the FA Community Shield match, in 1863, the newly founded Football Association published the Laws of the Game of Association Football, unifying the various different rules in use before then. On 20 July 1871, in the offices of The Sportsman newspaper, the inaugural FA Cup tournament kicked off in November 1871. After thirteen games in all, Wanderers were crowned the winners in the final, Wanderers retained the trophy the following year. The modern cup was beginning to be established by the 1888–89 season, following the 1914–15 edition, the competition was suspended due to the First World War, and did not resume until 1919–20. The 1922–23 competition saw the first final to be played in the newly opened Wembley Stadium, due to the outbreak of World War II, the competition was not played between the 1938–39 and 1945–46 editions. Having previously featured replays, the modern day practice of ensuring the semi-final and final matches finish on the day, was introduced from 2000 onwards. Redevelopment of Wembley saw the final played outside of England for the first time, the final returned to Wembley in 2007, followed by the semi-finals from 2008. The competition is open to any club down to Level 10 of the English football league system which meets the eligibility criteria, all clubs in the top four levels are automatically eligible. Clubs in the six levels are also eligible provided they have played in either the FA Cup. Newly formed clubs, such as F. C. United of Manchester in 2005–06 and also 2006–07, all clubs entering the competition must also have a suitable stadium
1965 FA Cup Final
The 1965 FA Cup Final was an association football match between Liverpool and Leeds United on 1 May 1965 at Wembley Stadium, London. It was the match of the 1964–65 FA Cup, the 93rd season of Englands primary cup competition. Liverpool were appearing in their final, they had lost the previous two in 1914 and 1950, while Leeds were appearing in their first. Both teams entered the competition in the third round, the majority of Liverpools matches were close affairs, they didnt score more than two goals in any of their matches and this was also their biggest margin of victory. Leeds matches ranged from close affairs to comfortable victories and they won their third round tie against Stockport County 3–0, while they beat Manchester United 1–0 in a semi-final replay following a 0–0 draw in the initial match. Watched by a crowd of 100,000, the first 90 minutes of the match were goalless as both struggled to create goalscoring chances. Liverpool defender Gerry Byrne broke his collarbone early in the match and he was involved in the opening goal in extra time. Byrne found striker Roger Hunt in the 93rd minute, with a cross from the side of the pitch. Leeds equalised seven minutes later when Billy Bremner scored, however, Liverpool regained the lead in the 113th minute when striker Ian St. John headed in a pass from Ian Callaghan. Liverpool won the match 2–1 to win the FA Cup for the first time, Liverpool manager Bill Shankly was delighted with his teams victory and hailed it as his greatest moment in management. His Leeds counterpart, Don Revie, conceded Liverpool had been the better team, the national media was critical of the final, labelling it boring. Liverpool entered the competition in the round, where they were drawn with West Bromwich Albion. Roger Hunt gave Liverpool the lead in the held at West Bromwichs home ground, The Hawthorns. They extended their lead in the 63rd minute when Ian St. John scored, West Bromwich were awarded a penalty in the 77th minute, after Liverpool defender Ron Yeats handled the ball, thinking the referee had blown for a free-kick. Cram missed the subsequent penalty, but West Bromwich scored three minutes later through Jeff Astle, however, they were unable to score a second and Liverpool won 2–1 to progress to the fourth round. Stockport County were the opposition in the fourth round, the match, at Anfield, finished 1–1, Gordon Milne equalised for Liverpool after Len White had given Stockport the lead in the 18th minute. Liverpool won the replay, at Edgeley Park, 2–0 courtesy of two goals from Hunt, bolton Wanderers were the opposition in the fifth round. The match at Boltons home ground, Burnden Park, remained goalless until the 85th minute when Liverpool midfielder Ian Callaghan scored, the goal caused the Liverpool fans behind the goal to surge forward, which resulted in the collapse of a wooden railing
1955 FA Cup Final
The 1955 FA Cup Final was contested by Newcastle United and Manchester City at Wembley. Newcastle won 3–1, with goals from Jackie Milburn in the first minute, Bobby Mitchell, the game was virtually decided when Man City fullback Meadows was turned inside out by the elusive and mercurial Bobby Mitchell and after 22 minutes was stretchered off with a bad leg injury. The process of substitutions were not allowed in English football until 1967, Newcastle were already leading and this just added to Citys woes, as their much-vaunted Revie Plan failed to fire. Man City had flashy tracksuits, so the game was the Gaudies v the Geordies, match report at www. fa-cupfinals. co. uk FA Cup Final lineups
Nottingham Forest F.C.
Nottingham Forest Football Club is a professional association football club based in Nottinghamshire, England. The team play in the Championship, the tier of English football. The club, often referred to as Forest, have played matches at the City Ground since 1898. Founded in 1865, Forest were founder members of the Football Alliance in 1889, since then, they have mostly competed in the top two League tiers, bar five seasons in the third tier. Forest won the FA Cup in 1898 and 1959, Forest were founded in 1865 as Nottingham Forest Football and Bandy Club by a group of shinty players shortly after their neighbours Notts County, in 1862. They joined the Football Alliance in 1889, and won the competition in 1892, in their early years Forest were a multi-sports club, as well as their roots in bandy and shinty, the baseball club Forest deployed were British champions in 1899. Forests charitable approach to the sport helped teams like Liverpool, Arsenal, in 1886, Forest donated a set of football kits to help Arsenal establish themselves – the North London team still wear red. Forest also donated shirts to Everton and helped secure a site to play on for Brighton, Forest claimed their first major honour when they won the 1898 FA Cup, beating Derby County 3–1 at Crystal Palace. However, for much of the first half of the 20th century the club spent life in the Second Division and had to seek re-election in 1914 after finishing bottom. In 1949 the club were relegated to the Third Division, but were promoted back two years later as champions having scored a record 110 goals in the 1950–51 season. They therefore became the first team to defeat the Wembley hoodoo, by this time Forest had replaced Notts County as the biggest club in Nottingham and went on to become runners-up in the First Division and FA Cup semi-finalists in 1967. However, after a successful period for the club, Forest were relegated from the First Division in 1972. Clough became the most successful manager in the history of Nottingham Forest, cloughs first game in charge was the third round FA Cup replay against Tottenham Hotspur, a 1–0 victory thanks to a goal by Scottish centre-forward Neil Martin. Nottingham Forest became one of the few teams to win the First Division Championship a year after winning promotion from the Second Division and they also won the European Super Cup and two League Cups. The club reached the semi-finals of the UEFA Cup in 1983–84 but were knocked out by Anderlecht in controversial but uncertain circumstances. The case was dismissed and Anderlecht was acquitted from all charges Nottingham Forests next major trophies came in 1989 when they won the Football League Cup. Cloughs side retained the League Cup in 1990 when they beat Oldham Athletic 1–0, in Forests team that day was young Irish midfielder Roy Keane, who had joined the club the previous summer. In the summer of 1991, Brian Clough broke Forests transfer record fee by signing the top scorer, Millwall striker Teddy Sheringham
The Football Association
The Football Association, also known simply as the FA, is the governing body of association football in England, and the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man. Formed in 1863, it is the oldest football association in the world and is responsible for overseeing all aspects of the amateur, the FA sanctions all competitive football matches within its remit at national level, and indirectly at local level through the County Football Associations. It runs numerous competitions, the most famous of which is the FA Cup, the FA is a member of both UEFA and FIFA and holds a permanent seat on the International Football Association Board which is responsible for the laws of the game. As the first football association, it not use the national name English in its title. The FA is based at Wembley Stadium, London, the FA is a member of the British Olympic Association, meaning that the FA has control over the mens and womens Great Britain Olympic football team. All of Englands professional football teams are members of the Football Association, although it does not run the day-to-day operations of the Premier League, it has veto power over the appointment of the League Chairman and Chief Executive and over any changes to league rules. The English Football League, made up of the three professional divisions below the Premier League, is self-governing, subject to the FAs sanctions. Another set of rules, the Sheffield Rules, was used by a number of clubs in the North of England from the 1850s, eleven London football clubs and schools representatives met on 26 October 1863 to agree on common rules. The founding clubs present at the first meeting were Barnes, Civil Service, Crusaders, Forest of Leytonstone, many of these clubs are now defunct or play rugby union. Civil Service FC, who now plays in the Southern Amateur League, is the one of the original eleven football clubs still in existence. There are only three institutions which have been members of the F. A. since 1863, those being Civil Service, Forest School and Kings College. Central to the creation of the Football Association and modern football was Ebenezer Cobb Morley and he was a founding member of the Football Association in 1863. In 1862, as captain of Barnes, he wrote to Bells Life newspaper proposing a governing body for the sport led to the first meeting at The Freemasons Tavern that created the FA. He was the FAs first secretary and its president and drafted the Laws of the Game generally called the London Rules at his home in Barnes. As a player, he played in the first ever match in 1863, the first version of the rules for the modern game was drawn up over a series of six meetings held in The Freemasons Tavern from October till December. Of the clubs at the first meeting, Crusaders, Surbiton and Charterhouse did not attend the subsequent meetings, replaced instead by the Royal Navy School, Wimbledon School, at the final meeting, F. M. Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA, the term soccer dates back to this split to refer to football played under the association rules. The Richmond side were obviously unimpressed by the new rules in practice because they helped form the Rugby Football Union in 1871
Burnley Football Club is a professional association football club based in Burnley, Lancashire. Nicknamed The Clarets, due to the dominant colour of their home shirts, Burnley have been Football League Champions twice, in 1920–21 and 1959–60, have won the FA Cup once, in 1914, and have won the Community Shield twice, in 1960 and 1973. The Clarets also reached the 1961 quarter-finals of the European Cup and they are one of only three teams to have won all top four professional divisions of English football, along with Wolverhampton Wanderers and Preston North End. The club colours of claret and blue were adopted in 1910 in tribute to the dominant club of English football at the time and their home ground since 1883 has been Turf Moor and their current manager is Sean Dyche. During May 1882, Burnley Rovers Football Club decided to shift their allegiance from rugby union to football, in 1883 the club moved to Turf Moor and remain there, only their Lancashire rivals Preston North End having occupied the same ground continuously for longer. Burnley first appeared in the FA Cup in 1885–86 but were ignominiously beaten 11–0 when eligibility restrictions meant that their side had to be fielded against Darwen. On 13 October 1886, Turf Moor became the first ground to be visited by a member of a Royal Family, when it was decided to found the Football League for the 1888–89 season, Burnley were among the 12 founders of that competition. William Tait of Burnley scored the first ever hat-trick in League football and that season did, however, present Burnley with their first honours, winning the Lancashire Cup with a 2–0 final victory over Blackburn Rovers. Before Burnley won a trophy again, they were relegated to the Second Division in 1896–97 and they responded to this by winning promotion the next season, losing only 2 of their 30 matches along the way before gaining promotion through a play-off series then known as Test Matches. Burnley and Stoke City both entered the last match, to be played between the two teams, needing a draw for promotion. A 0–0 draw ensued, reportedly The Match without a shot at goal, Burnley needed a win against Forest in the last match of the season to escape relegation. This is the earliest recorded case of match fixing in football, Burnley changed their colours from green to the claret and sky blue of Aston Villa, the most successful club in England at the time, for the 1910–11 season. The 1912–13 season saw them win promotion to the First Division once more, as well as reaching the FA Cup semi-final, only to lose to Sunderland. The next season was one of consolidation in the top flight, but more importantly their first major honour and this cup final was historic in that King George V became the first reigning monarch to present the cup to the winning captain. The winning Burnley team also got special medals with English Cup Winners written on it instead of the usual FA Cup Winners inscription. World War I impacted the 1914–15 season, in which Burnley finished 4th in the First Division, before English football reorganised itself, Burnley struggled in English footballs second tier, narrowly avoiding a further relegation in 1931–32 by only two points. The years through to the outbreak of the Second World War were characterised by uninspiring league finishes, broken only by an FA Cup semi-final appearance in 1934–35 and the arrival of Tommy Lawton. Burnley participated in the football leagues that continued throughout the war
Hillsborough Stadium in Sheffield, England has been the home ground of Sheffield Wednesday F. C. since opening in 1899. It is a 39,732 capacity stadium, making it the largest club ground in England outside of the Premier League until Newcastle United and it is located in the Sheffield suburb of Owlerton. Although the ground has received little investment since Euro 1996, it is regarded as a beautiful ground oozing character. It has two large two-tiered stands and two large single-tiered stands, all of them covered, all four stands are of a similar capacity with the South Stand being the largest and the West stand the smallest. Only one corner of the ground is filled, between the West and North Stands and this area, known as the North West corner, is uncovered and is only used for visiting supporters when the West Stands upper and lower tiers are full. On the other corner of the West Stand is a screen which was installed in 2015. On 15 April 1989, the ground was the scene of the Hillsborough disaster in which 96 Liverpool fans were crushed to death at an FA Cup semi-final. Plans by the club to renovate the stadium and expand capacity to 44,825 have been approved by Sheffield City Council with the aim of hosting World Cup matches. The playing surface has been upgraded to a Desso GrassMaster including a replacement of the Under-soil heating. The stadium previously played host to World Cup and European Championship football in 1966 and 1996 respectively, during the 1898–99 season Sheffield Wednesday were told that the land rented at Olive Grove would be needed for railway expansions. They were allowed to remain there for the rest of season but had to find a new ground for the next season. Several locations were considered but fell through for various reasons, an alternative was offered by the Midland Railway Company but it did not meet the requirements of the club. Finally James Willis Dixon of Hillsborough House, owner of the Silversmiths James Dixon & Sons, offered a 10-acre site at Owlerton, the land was part of the Hillsborough House estate which was being sold off by the Dixons. It was successfully bought for £5,000 plus costs, soil was dumped at both ends of the ground to level out the ground which was initially meadowland covered with dandelions. The 2,000 capacity stand at Olive Grove was then transported to the new site and was joined by a newly constructed 3,000 capacity stand for the start of the next season, the first match to be played was on 2 September 1899 against Chesterfield. The match was kicked off by the Lord Mayor of Sheffield William Clegg and it was a Chesterfield player, Herbert Munday, who scored the first goal at the new stadium but Wednesday came back to win the game 5–1. Despite the location of the several miles outside the city boundaries. The ground was known as the Owlerton Stadium until 1914, when it was renamed Hillsborough to coincide with a series of ground improvements, the ground took its new name from the newly created parliamentary constituency
Leicester City F.C.
Leicester City Football Club, also known as the Foxes, is an English professional football club based at the King Power Stadium in Leicester. They compete in the Premier League, Englands top tier of football, having been promoted as champions of the Football League Championship in 2013–14, this signalled a return to the top flight of English football after a decade away. The club was founded in 1884 as Leicester Fosse F. C. playing on a field near Fosse Road and they moved to Filbert Street in 1891, were elected to the Football League in 1894 and adopted the name Leicester City in 1919. They moved to the nearby Walkers Stadium in 2002, which was renamed the King Power Stadium after a change of ownership in 2011, Leicester City won the 2015–16 Premier League, their first top-level football championship. They are one of six clubs to have won the Premier League since its inception in 1992. A number of newspapers described their title win as the greatest sporting upset ever, multiple bookmakers had never paid out at such long odds for any sport. Due to the magnitude of the title win, it went down in English football history as one of the games finest ever achievements. The clubs previous highest ever finish was second place in the top flight, throughout Leicesters history, they have spent all but one season within the top two leagues of English football. They hold a joint-highest seven second-tier titles, the club have been FA Cup finalists four times, in 1948–49, 1960–61, 1962–63 and 1968–69. This is a tournament record for the most defeats in the final without having won the competition, City have several promotions to their name, two play-off final wins, and one League One title. In 1971, they won the FA Community Shield, and in 2016 and they have also won the League Cup three times in 1964,1997 and 2000, as well as being runners up in 1964–65 and 1999. Formed in 1884 by a group of old boys of Wyggeston School as Leicester Fosse, before moving to Filbert Street in 1891, the club played at five different grounds, including Victoria Park south-east of the city centre and the Belgrave Road Cycle and Cricket Ground. The club also joined the Midland League in 1891, and were elected to Division Two of the Football League in 1894 after finishing second. Leicesters first ever Football League game was a 4–3 defeat at Grimsby Town, with a first League win the following week, the same season also saw the clubs largest win to date, a 13–0 victory over Notts Olympic in an FA Cup qualifying game. In 1907–08 the club finished as Second Division runners-up, gaining promotion to the First Division, however, the club were relegated after a single season which included the clubs record defeat, a 12–0 loss against Nottingham Forest. In 1919, when League football resumed after World War I, the club was reformed as Leicester City Football Club, particularly appropriate as the borough of Leicester had recently been given city status. However the 1930s saw a downturn in fortunes, with the relegated in 1934–35 and, after promotion in 1936–37. City reached the FA Cup final for the first time in their history in 1949, the club, however, was celebrating a week later when a draw on the last day of the season ensured survival in Division Two
Villa Park is a football stadium in Aston, Birmingham, England, with a seating capacity of 42,682. It has been the home of Aston Villa Football Club since 1897, the ground is less than a mile from both Witton and Aston railway stations and has hosted sixteen England internationals at senior level, the first in 1899 and the most recent in 2005. It was the first English ground to stage international football in three different centuries, Villa Park has hosted more FA Cup semi-finals than any other stadium, having hosted 55 matches in total. In 1897, Aston Villa moved into the Aston Lower Grounds, a ground in a Victorian amusement park in the former grounds of Aston Hall. The stadium has gone through stages of renovation and development, resulting in the current stand configuration of the Holte End, Trinity Road Stand, North Stand. The club has planning permission to redevelop the North Stand. Before 1914, a track ran around the perimeter of the pitch where regular cycling meetings were hosted as well as athletic events. Aside from football-related uses, the stadium has seen various concerts staged along with sporting events including boxing matches and international rugby league. In 1999, the last ever final of the UEFA Cup Winners Cup took place at Villa Park, Villa Park also hosted the 2012 FA Community Shield, as Wembley Stadium was unavailable due to it staging the final of the Olympic football tournament. The Aston Lower Grounds, later renamed Villa Park, was not the first home of Aston Villa F. C and their previous venue, Wellington Road faced increasing problems including an uneven pitch, poor spectator facilities, a lack of access and exorbitant rents. As a result, in 1894, Villas committee began negotiations with the owners of the Aston Lower Grounds, situated in the former grounds of Aston Hall, a Jacobean stately home, the Lower Grounds had seen varied uses over the years. The current pitch stands on the site of the Dovehouse Pool, the committee immediately engaged an architect who began preparing plans for the site, which included construction of a new 440 yards cement cycle track to replace the existing cinder one. The main stand was to be built to the east on the Witton Lane side, with the track, construction of the final phase of the stadium began in the winter of 1896 following negotiations with contractors over the price. Several months behind schedule, the stadium finally opened on 17 April 1897. The process of fixing issues with the work would continue for a number of months thereafter. As built, the stadium could house 40,000 spectators, the first match at the ground, a friendly against Blackburn Rovers, took place on 17 April 1897, one week after Aston Villa had completed the League and FA Cup Double. After winning the championship in 1899, Villas record-breaking average crowd of 21,000 allowed the club to invest in a two-stage ground improvement programme. In 1911, Villa bought the freehold of the ground for £8,250, the buildings in the old aquarium and car park area for £1,500
Old Trafford is a football stadium in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, England, and the home of Manchester United. It is about 0.5 miles from Old Trafford Cricket Ground, future expansion is likely to involve the addition of a second tier to the South Stand, which would raise the capacity to around 95,000. The stadiums record attendance was recorded in 1939, when 76,962 spectators watched the FA Cup semi-final between Wolverhampton Wanderers and Grimsby Town and it also hosted football matches at the 2012 Summer Olympics, including womens international football for the first time in its history. Before 1902, Manchester United were known as Newton Heath, during time they first played their football matches at North Road. However, both grounds were blighted by wretched conditions, the pitches ranging from gravel to marsh, while Bank Street suffered from clouds of fumes from its neighbouring factories. Including the purchase of the land, the construction of the stadium was originally to have cost £60,000 all told. The subsidy would have come to the sum of £10,000, however, despite guarantees for the loan coming from the club itself and two local breweries, both chaired by club chairman John Henry Davies, the Cheshire Lines Committee turned the proposal down. The CLC had planned to build a new station adjacent to the new stadium, the station – Trafford Park – was eventually built, but further down the line than originally planned. The CLC later constructed a modest station with one timber-built platform immediately adjacent to the stadium and it was initially named United Football Ground, but was renamed Old Trafford Football Ground in early 1936. It was served on match days only by a service of steam trains from Manchester Central railway station. It is currently known as Manchester United Football Ground, construction was carried out by Messrs Brameld and Smith of Manchester and development was completed in late 1909. The stadium hosted its game on 19 February 1910, with United playing host to Liverpool. However, the side were unable to provide their fans with a win to mark the occasion. A journalist at the game reported the stadium as the most handsomest, the most spacious, as a football ground it is unrivalled in the world, it is an honour to Manchester and the home of a team who can do wonders when they are so disposed. Before the construction of Wembley Stadium in 1923, the FA Cup Final was hosted by a number of different grounds around England including Old Trafford. The first of these was the 1911 FA Cup Final replay between Bradford City and Newcastle United, after the tie at Crystal Palace finished as a no-score draw after extra time. Bradford won 1–0, the goal scored by Jimmy Speirs, in a match watched by 58,000 people, the grounds second FA Cup Final was the 1915 final between Sheffield United and Chelsea. Sheffield United won the match 3–0 in front of nearly 50,000 spectators, most of whom were in the military, leading to the final being nicknamed the Khaki Cup Final
Joseph Kevin Keegan, OBE is an English former football player and manager. A forward, he played for clubs including Liverpool and Hamburger SV. He went on to manage Newcastle United, Fulham and Manchester City and he also managed the England national team. As a player in the 1970s and 1980s, he has described as arguably the first superstar English player to attract the modern media spotlight. He began his career at Scunthorpe United in 1968, before moving to Liverpool in 1971. At Liverpool, Keegan won three First Division titles, the UEFA Cup twice, the FA Cup and the European Cup and he also gained his first England cap in 1972, and moved to West German club Hamburger SV in the summer of 1977. At Hamburg, he was named European Footballer of the Year in 1978 and 1979, won the Bundesliga title in 1978–79, Keegan moved to Southampton that summer, and spent two seasons at the club before a transfer to Newcastle United in the English second division in 1982. He helped Newcastle to promotion in his season, and retired from football in 1984, having been capped 63 times for England. He moved into management at Newcastle in 1992, winning promotion as First Division champions, Newcastle then finished second in the Premier League in 1995–96, after leading for most of the season. After a spell at Fulham, he took charge of the England team in February 1999 and he then became manager of Manchester City in 2001 and spent four years at the club before resigning in 2005. He had been out of football for almost three years when he returned to Newcastle United for a spell as manager in January 2008. This spell lasted only eight months, however, as Keegan resigned on 4 September 2008 following speculation regarding a dispute with the clubs directors. Keegan was born in Armthorpe in Doncaster to English parents of part Irish ancestry and attended his school, St. Peters High School. As a schoolboy, Keegan had a trial for Coventry City, despite being one of two players kept on for an extra six-week period, the club did not offer Keegan a contract. He also had a trial with Doncaster Rovers, who felt he was too short, Keegan made his debut against Peterborough United at the age of 17, making 29 league starts in his first season. He became a regular in the first team by the 1969–70 season and this season saw the team reach the fifth-round of the FA Cup, beating Football League First Division side Sheffield Wednesday along the way. Keegan played regularly in a right midfield role for the Scunthorpe United first team despite his age – he scored 18 goals in 124 games for the club. In 1971, he attracted the attention of Liverpools head scout Geoff Twentyman and he was thus transferred to Liverpool for £35,000 in 1971, at the age of 20
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. It is headquartered at Broadcasting House in London, the BBC is the worlds oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees. It employs over 20,950 staff in total,16,672 of whom are in public sector broadcasting, the total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time, flexible, and fixed contract staff are included. The BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport. The fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, and used to fund the BBCs radio, TV, britains first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920. It was sponsored by the Daily Mails Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian Soprano Dame Nellie Melba, the Melba broadcast caught the peoples imagination and marked a turning point in the British publics attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts. But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests, John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast. The company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved manufacturers, to this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to inform, educate and entertain. The financial arrangements soon proved inadequate, set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee and this was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired. The BBCs broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, the BBC was also banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00, and required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee, by now the BBC under Reiths leadership had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a service rather than a commercial enterprise. The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production and with restrictions on news bulletins waived the BBC suddenly became the source of news for the duration of the crisis. The crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position, the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PMs own
David Robert Coleman OBE was a British sports commentator and TV presenter who worked for the BBC for 46 years. He retired from the BBC in 2000, later that year he became the first broadcaster to receive the Olympic Order award, in recognition of his contribution to the Olympic movement. Born in Alderley Edge, Cheshire, of Irish heritage, Coleman was an amateur runner. He competed as a middle distance runner. In 1949, Coleman won the Manchester Mile as a member of Stockport Harriers and he competed in the English National Cross-Country Championships for Manchester Athletic Club in 1952 and 1953. He ran 440 yards for Staffordshire, injury eventually caused him to give up competitive running, and he later became president of the Wolverhampton & Bilston Athletics Club. Coleman worked as a reporter for the Stockport Express, and during service in the Royal Corps of Signals he worked for the British Army Newspaper Unit. Part of his time in service was in Kenya. He joined Kemsley Newspapers after demobilisation and at 22 became editor of the Cheshire County Express and he did not attend the 1952 Olympic trials because of hamstring injuries. Instead he approached the BBC to see if they would like any help with athletics coverage, although he did not have an audition, the BBC asked him to cover Roger Bannister at Bradford City Police Sports. The following year he began freelance work in Manchester. In 1954 Coleman moved to Birmingham and joined the BBC as a news assistant and his first television appearance was on Sportsview, coincidentally on the day that Roger Bannister broke the four-minute mile. In November 1955, he was appointed Sports Editor for the BBCs Midlands Region, in October 1958, the BBCs Head of Sport Peter Dimmock recruited Coleman to be the presenter of the new Saturday afternoon sports programme Grandstand. He continued as the presenter until 1968. He also presented the BBC Sports Personality of the Year from 1961 and he even covered the return of The Beatles from the United States and the 1959 General Election for the BBC from the Press Association headquarters. As well as a presenter, Coleman was also a sports commentator and he presented and/or commentated on 11 Olympic Games from Rome 1960 to Sydney 2000, as well as eight Commonwealth Games. He covered six World Cups as a commentator, including the finals of 1974 and 1978, Coleman returned for the 1978 final before Motson took over the following year. Colemans statements during match commentary could either amuse or annoy football supporters, for example his peremptory reaction to a goal by shouting, in 1968, at the Mexico Olympics Coleman was recorded at 200 words per minute while commentating on David Hemerys win in the 400m Hurdles
Offside (association football)
Offside is one of the laws of association football, codified in Law 11 of the Laws of the Game. The law states that players in a position, when the ball is touched or played by a teammate. When the offside offence occurs, the referee stops play and awards a free kick to the defending team from the position of the offending player. The offside offence is neither a foul nor a misconduct, players are never booked or sent off for offside, like fouls, however, any play that occurs after an offence has taken place but before the referee is able to stop the play is nullified. Players that continue such play may be booked based on the assessment of how significant or intentional the play was. One of the duties of the assistant referees is to assist the referee in adjudicating offside — their position on the sidelines giving a more useful view sideways across the pitch. Assistant referees communicate that an offence has occurred by raising a signal flag. However, as with all officiating decisions in the game, adjudicating offside is ultimately up to the referee, the application of the offside rule may be considered in three steps, offside position, offside offence and offside sanction. A player is in a position if he is in the opposing teams half of the field and is also nearer to his opponents goal line than both the ball and the second-last opponent. By the 2014/2015 Laws, the interpretation included the proviso that The arms are not included in this definition, in other words, a player is in an offside position if three conditions are met, The player is in the opposing teams half of the field. The player is closer to the goal line than the ball is. There are one or zero opposing players between the player and the goal line. Regardless of position, there is no offside offence if a player receives the ball directly from a goal kick, however, an offside offence may occur if a player receives the ball directly from either a direct free kick or an indirect free kick. Determining whether a player is in play can be complex. The quote, If youre not interfering with play, what are you doing on the pitch, has been attributed to Brian Clough and Danny Blanchflower. FIFA issued new guidelines for interpreting the law in 2003. This was further clarified by FIFA in 2015, the restart for an offside sanction is an indirect free kick for the opponent at the place where the offence occurred, even including if it is in the player’s own half of the field of play. The difficulty of offside officiating is often underestimated by spectators, some researchers believe that offside officiating errors are optically inevitable
William Shankly OBE was a Scottish football player and manager, who is best known for his time as manager of Liverpool. Shankly came from a small Scottish mining community as one of five brothers who played football professionally and he played as a ball-winning right-half and was capped twelve times for Scotland, including seven wartime internationals. He spent one season at Carlisle United before spending the rest of his career at Preston North End and his playing career was interrupted by his service in the Royal Air Force during the Second World War. He became a manager after he retired from playing in 1949 and he later managed Grimsby Town, Workington and Huddersfield Town before moving to become Liverpool manager in December 1959. Shankly took charge of Liverpool when they were in the Second Division and rebuilt the team into a force in English. He led the Liverpool team out for the last time at Wembley for the 1974 FA Charity Shield and he died seven years later at the age of 68. Bill Shankly was born in a small Ayrshire coal mining village, called Glenbuck, whose population in 1913, people born there would often move to find work in larger coal mines. Shanklys parents, John and Barbara, lived in one of the Auchenstilloch Cottages with their 10 children, five boys, Shankly was the ninth child and the youngest boy. Although he was known as Bill throughout his career, his name in the family was Willie. His father was a postman who became a tailor of handmade suits but, despite the pedigree in his family. All five Shankly brothers played football and Shankly claimed that once. Bob became a manager, guiding Dundee to victory in the Scottish championship in 1962. Their maternal uncles, Robert and William Blyth were also professional players, Shankly wrote in his autobiography that times were hard during his upbringing and that hunger was a prevailing condition, especially during the winter months. He admitted that he and his friends used to steal vegetables from nearby farms, bread, biscuits and fruit from suppliers wagons and he was at school from age five until 14. Discipline at both home and school was strict but Shankly said it was character-building and his favourite subject was geography and he played football as often as possible, especially in the school playground, but there was no organised school team. After Shankly left school in 1928, he worked at a mine alongside his brother Bob. He did this for two years until the pit closed and he faced unemployment and it was unbelievable how we survived. Going home to wash in a tub was the biggest thing, the first time I was in a bath was when I was 15
Robert Bob Paisley OBE was an English footballer and manager who spent almost fifty years with Liverpool as a wing half, physiotherapist, coach and manager. Due to his achievements as Liverpool manager, Paisley is one of the most successful English football managers of all time, Paisley and Carlo Ancelotti are the only managers to have won the European Cup three times. During his nine-year tenure as Liverpool manager, Paisley won honours at a rate of 2.2 per season, Paisley came from a small Durham mining community and, in his youth, played for Bishop Auckland before he signed for Liverpool in 1939. During the Second World War, he served in the British Army, in the 1946–47 season, he was a member of the Liverpool team that won the First Division title for the first time in 24 years. In 1951, he was club captain and remained with Liverpool until he retired from playing in 1954. He stayed with Liverpool and took on two roles as reserve team coach and club physiotherapist, by this time, Liverpool had been relegated to the Second Division and their facilities were in decline. In December 1959, Bill Shankly was appointed Liverpool manager and he promoted Paisley to work alongside him as his assistant in a team that included Joe Fagan. Under their leadership, the fortunes of Liverpool turned around dramatically and, in the 1961–62 season, Paisley filled an important role as tactician under Shanklys leadership and the team won numerous honours during the next twelve seasons. In 1974, Shankly retired as manager and, despite Paisleys own initial reluctance, at the time of his retirement, he had won the Manager of the Year Award a record six times. He retired from management in 1983 and was succeeded by Joe Fagan and he died in 1996, aged 77, after suffering from Alzheimers Disease for several years. Bob Paisley was born on Thursday 23 January 1919, in the small County Durham coal mining village of Hetton-le-Hole which is seven miles from Sunderland, Paisley described it as a close-knit community where coal was king and football was religion. His father Sam was a miner and his mother Emily a housewife and they had four sons, Willie, Bob, Hugh and Alan in age order. On the day Paisley was born,150,000 miners nationwide went on strike for a working week. Paisley attended a school until he was thirteen and, like his friends there, had to rely on soup kitchens to supplement a meagre diet. In 1926, during the General Strike when he was seven, Paisley was an outstanding footballer at Eppleton Primary School and helped his team win seventeen trophies in a four-year period. Throughout his playing career, he was a left half, the mine was closed down and he trained to become a bricklayer. Paisley had joined Hetton Football Club after leaving school in 1933 and he had a boyhood dream of playing for Sunderland but when he was recommended to them by Hetton he was rejected as being too small. Instead, he signed for Bishop Auckland before the 1937–38 season for three shillings and sixpence per match, Paisley played for the Bishops for two seasons until he was signed by Liverpool in May 1939, a few months after his twentieth birthday
1974 FA Charity Shield
The 1974 FA Charity Shield was the 52nd FA Charity Shield, an annual English association football match played between the winners of the previous seasons Football League First Division and FA Cup. The match was contested by Leeds United, the champions of the 1973–74 Football League First Division, and Liverpool and it was held at Wembley Stadium on 10 August 1974. Watched by a crowd of 67,000 and televised, the match ended in a 1–1 draw and was decided by a penalty shoot-out which was won 6–5 by Liverpool, the game was the first in which Bob Paisley and Brian Clough managed Liverpool and Leeds respectively. In recognition of his services to the club, Liverpool asked their retired manager Bill Shankly to lead the team out onto the field. The match is remembered for Billy Bremner and Kevin Keegan being jointly dismissed from the field by referee Bob Matthewson in the 60th minute after they had a fight. Keegan, who claimed provocation, was furious about being sent off, Bremner copied him and the two players were afterwards charged with bringing football into disrepute. The FA Disciplinary Committee imposed tough punishments but were heavily criticised by people in football who doubted their competence. In 1921, it was played by the champions of the Football League First Division. Furthermore, it was televised live for the first time ever, Liverpool had been managed by Bill Shankly since December 1959 and Leeds by Don Revie since March 1961. Both managers had lifted their clubs out of the Second Division, since Liverpool were promoted in 1962, they had won the league championship three times, the FA Cup twice and the UEFA Cup once. Leeds since promotion in 1964 had won the championship twice, the FA Cup once, the Football League Cup once and the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup twice. The two clubs had met at Wembley in May 1965 when Liverpool won the FA Cup for the first time. Having won the championship and the FA Cup respectively in 1973–74, Revie. On 4 July 1974, Revie was appointed as manager of the England national team in succession to Sir Alf Ramsey, only eight days later, on 12 July, Shankly announced his retirement from football management in a press conference at Anfield. There was much speculation about how two such high-profile jobs would be filled, in one case, at Liverpool, there was a straightforward solution which resulted in their young team taking, in the words of Leeds Uniteds own website, a vice like grip on the English game. At Leeds, however, the succession to Revie could not have been controversial, especially when, as the Leeds website itself says of the clubs ageing team. On 20 July, Brian Clough was appointed manager of Leeds, parting company with Brighton & Hove Albion and his erstwhile assistant Peter Taylor. Clough had been a long-term and outspoken critic of Revies team, problems quickly surfaced, beginning only two days later when Mike Bamber, the Brighton chairman, accused Leeds of reneging on a gentlemans agreement to compensate his club for Cloughs services
Alan Kennedy is a former English professional footballer who played as a left back. He was active as a professional in England, Denmark, Belgium and Wales and he also represented England at senior international level. He is the uncle of current professional footballer Tom Kennedy, Kennedy became the first player to score winning goals in two European Cup finals with goals in the 1981 and 1984 finals. He also earned two caps for the England national team in 1984
Doncaster Rovers F.C.
Doncaster Rovers Football Club is a professional association football club based in the town of Doncaster, South Yorkshire, England. The team competes in League Two, the tier of the English football league system. The club was founded in 1879 and turned professional in 1885, the clubs colours have traditionally been red and white. Their home strip is red and white hoops, which has been the design of the clubs home shirt since 2001. The associated Doncaster Rovers Belles L. F. C. are one of the most successful clubs in English football. The club was formed in 1879 by Albert Jenkins, a fitter at Doncasters Great Northern Railway works and he gathered together some friends to play a match against the Yorkshire Institute for the Deaf and Dumb in September 1879. On walking back from the game, the took a rest at the Hall Cross. The first match under the name was on 3 October 1879, gradually, they became the main team in the town, and appear to have had their first professional players in 1887–88. Rovers first entered the FA Cup in 1888–89, losing 9–1 to Rotherham Town at home, season 1890–91 was to be a significant move forward. The club were a member of the Midland Alliance League. The following season, saw them enter the Sheffield and Hallamshire FA Challenge Cup and that same season, they also moved up to the Midland League, becoming Champions in 1896–97 and 1898–99. They were first elected to the Football League in 1901, as a replacement for New Brighton Tower and their first season in the League was in fact the one when Doncaster achieved their highest position ever. They only lasted two seasons in the league before being voted out in favour of local rivals Bradford City and they spent the following season in the Midland League, only managing 11th place out of 18 but were elected back to Division 2. This time, in 1904–05, Doncaster finished bottom with W3 D2 L29, adrift by 12 points and they were voted out once again. The following several seasons saw them finish lower midtable of the Midland League, the last few years before the war mediocrity returned, and in August 1914 debts run up over the years led to voluntary liquidation. However, a new club was formed in time for the 1914–15 season and was accepted into the Midland League to continue where the old club had left off. The outbreak of the First World War meant the club closed down, the Club reformed as a limited company after the war in 1919, rejoining the Midland League a year later playing at their new temporary Bennetthorpe Ground. The first two seasons Rovers finished lower-mid table, the third season they moved to Belle Vue, finished runners up and were accepted into the Football League Division 3 North for 1923–24 to replace Stalybridge Celtic
Carlisle United F.C.
Carlisle United Football Club is a professional association football club based in Carlisle, Cumbria, where they play at Brunton Park. The team play in League Two, the tier of the English football league system. Formed in 1904, they have won three titles and two cup competitions in their history. They played in the then First Division in the 1974–75 season, making the city of Carlisle the smallest location, by population, to have had a resident top-flight English football club since 1906. The club has reached the final of the Football League Trophy 6 times, more than any other team, the clubs traditional kit is blue with white and red detail. The badge takes elements from the coat of arms including two wyverns which are the regent of Cumbria. The club was formed on 17 May 1904 at Shaddongate Uniteds annual general meeting where the members voted to change the teams name to Carlisle United. The newly formed club initially played at Milhome Bank and later at Devonshire Park, when the Carlisle United first team left to join the Football League the reserve team resumed its place in the competition. Carlisle United were crowned champions of the North Eastern League in 1922, the 1927–28 season was Carlisles last in the North Eastern League. An excellent home record helped them to second in the table finishing a full 10 points behind Champions Sunderland Reserves, the close season meant the usual round of applications to join the Football League. Carlisle went up against Chester City, Durham City, Nelson, on 4 June 1928 a delegation of representatives from Carlisle United took their seats at the Football League meeting in London to hear the results of the vote. Carlisle received the second-most votes with 33, and replaced Durham City and their next game was played against Hartlepool United and still stands to this day as their record victory at 8 goals to nil. When the Second World War began in 1939, Carlisle United withdrew from national and regional competitions, when the war was over the club returned to the Football League and appointed Ivor Broadis as player-manager, making him the youngest league club manager in history. He then had the distinction of becoming the first manager to transfer himself when he moved to Sunderland, he continued to live, Broadis returned to Carlisle United in 1955 an ex-England international. In 1949, the became the first to appoint Bill Shankly as manager. It is at Carlisle where he met local player Geoff Twentyman, who he would sign as head scout at Liverpool. According to Shankly, he said to Broadis, What do you think youre doing, who do you think you are. If you do the training we do you can train with us and well play five-a-side, Carlisle were members of the Third Division North until 1958 when it combined with the Third Division South to become the Fourth Division
Ipswich Town F.C.
Ipswich Town Football Club is a professional association football club based in Ipswich, Suffolk, England. They play in the Championship, the tier of the English football league system. The club was founded in 1878 but did not turn professional until 1936 and they play their home games at Portman Road in Ipswich. The clubs traditional colours are blue shirts and white shorts. Ipswich have won the English league title once, in their first season in the top flight in 1961–62 and they won the FA Cup in 1977–78, and the UEFA Cup in 1980–81. They have competed in the top two tiers of English football uninterrupted since 1957–58. They have competed in all three European club competitions, and have never lost at home in European competition, defeating Real Madrid, AC Milan, Internazionale, Lazio and Barcelona F. C. among others. The club was founded as a side in 1878 and were known as Ipswich A. F. C. until 1888 when they merged with Ipswich Rugby Club to form Ipswich Town Football Club. The team won a number of cup competitions, including the Suffolk Challenge Cup. The club won the league a further three times, in 1929–30, 1932–33 and 1933–34, before becoming members of the Eastern Counties Football League at the end of the 1934–35 season. A year later, the club turned professional and joined the Southern League, Ipswich were elected to The Football League on 30 May 1938, and played in Division Three until the end of the 1953–54 season, when they won the title and promotion to Division Two. The club won the Division Three title again in 1956–57, and this time, Ipswich established themselves in Division Two, and as the division champions, won promotion to the top level of English football, Division One, in 1960–61. In the top flight for the first time, Ipswich became Champions of the Football League at the first attempt in 1961–62, as English league champions, they qualified for the 1962–63 European Cup, defeating Maltese side Floriana 14–1 on aggregate before losing to Milan. Ramsey quit the club in April 1963 to take charge of the England national team, after the team won the 1966 World Cup, Ramsey was replaced by Jackie Milburn, under whose leadership fortunes on the pitch plummeted. Milburn quit after just one season and was replaced by Bill McGarry in 1964. McGarry left to manage Wolves and was replaced by Bobby Robson in January 1969, Robson led Ipswich to two major trophies and several seasons in top flight European football. The successful period began in 1973 when the won the Texaco Cup and finished fourth in the league. Ipswich regularly featured in the top five of the league and in the UEFA Cup, at their peak in the 1979–80 season, they beat Manchester United 6–0 in a league game at Portman Road, a game where United goalkeeper Gary Bailey also saved three penalties
Bristol City F.C.
Bristol City Football Club is a professional association football club based in Bristol, England. Their ground is Ashton Gate, located in the southwest of the city and they currently play in the Championship, the second tier of English football, after winning League One during the 2014–15 season. In sealing the League One title, Bristol City became only the team to win both the third-tier championship and Football League Trophy double during the same season. Bristol City won the Welsh Cup – despite being an English club – in 1934, in 1907 they finished runners-up in Football League Division One, which is their highest ever final position. In 1909 they lost the FA Cup final to Manchester United, since relegation in 1911, however, they only returned to the top division from 1976 to 1980 and did not contend for any honours then. In 1982, Bristol City became the first English club to three consecutive relegations. With victories in 1986,2003 and 2015, Bristol City are now the most successful team in the Football League Trophy, the clubs nickname is The Robins, and a robin featured on the clubs badge from 1976 to 1994. Official club merchandise, including replica kits, still has a showing a robin. An attempt by the club to alter the badge was abandoned after it was criticised fiercely by fans, the teams main rivals are Bristol Rovers in the Bristol derby and Cardiff City in the Severnside derby, along with other regional teams in the West Country derby. Bristol Citys current manager is Lee Johnson, a former Bristol City player who made 199 appearances for the club. Coincidentally, he is the son of former City manager Gary Johnson, who took City to the Championship play-off final in 2008, where they eventually lost 0–1 to Hull City. The club was founded in 1894 as Bristol South End and changed their name to Bristol City on adopting professionalism three years later when they were admitted into the Southern League. Finishing as runners-up in three of the first four seasons, in 1900 the club amalgamated with local Southern League rivals Bedminster, City joined the Football League in 1901 when they became only the third club south of Birmingham to perform in the competition. Their first game in the Football League was on 7 September 1901 at Bloomfield Road, nicknamed the Bristol Babe at this time, they finished as runners-up in their inaugural First Division campaign. Unfortunately, there was no such award to help them in the Final at the Crystal Palace as Manchester United took the honours 1–0. The 1920s were a time as City bounced between the Second Division and the Southern Section of the Third Division. By the 1930s they had slumped into the division. Harry Dolman became chairman in 1949, a post he would hold for over 30 years, an engineer who had bought out the firm he worked for, he designed the first set of floodlights installed at Ashton Gate in the early 1950s
English Football League
The English Football League is a league competition featuring professional football clubs from England and Wales. Founded in 1888 as the Football League, the league is the oldest such competition in world football and it was the top-level football league in England from its foundation in the 19th century until 1992, when the top 22 clubs split away to form the Premier League. The league has 72 clubs evenly divided into three divisions, which are known as the Championship, League One and League Two, with 24 clubs in each division, the Football League has been associated with a title sponsor between 1983 and 2016. As this sponsor changed over the years the league too has been known by various names, the English Football League is also the name of the governing body of the league competition, and this body also organises two knock-out cup competitions, the EFL Cup and the EFL Trophy. The operations centre of the Football League is in Preston, while its commercial office is in London, the commercial office was formerly based in Lytham St Annes, after its original spell in Preston. The Football League consists of 70 professional association football clubs in England and 2 in Wales and it runs the oldest professional football league competition in the world. It also organises two knockout cup competitions, the Football League Cup and Football League Trophy, the Football League was founded in 1888 by then Aston Villa director William McGregor, originally with 12 member clubs. Steady growth and the addition of more divisions meant that by 1950 the League had 92 clubs, the Football League therefore no longer includes the top 20 clubs who belong to this group, although promotion and relegation between the Football League and the Premier League continues. In total,136 teams have played in the Football League up to 2013, the Football Leagues 72 member clubs are grouped into three divisions, the Football League Championship, Football League One, and Football League Two. Each division has 24 clubs, and in any season a club plays each of the others in the same division twice, once at their home stadium. This makes for a total of 46 games played each season, clubs gain three points for a win, one for a draw, and none for a defeat. At the end of the season, clubs at the top of their division may win promotion to the higher division. At the top end of the competition, three Championship clubs win promotion from the Football League to the Premier League, with the bottom three Premier League clubs taking their places, reserve teams of Football League clubs usually play in the Central League or the Football Combination. Since the 2004–05 season, penalties have existed for clubs entering financial administration during the season and it is also required that a club exiting administration agree a Creditors Voluntary Agreement, and pay in full any other footballing creditors. Failure to do either of these result in a second. The other main situation in which is a club may lose points is by fielding an improperly registered or otherwise ineligible player. If a club is found to have done this, then any points earned from any match that player participated in will be deducted, the EFL organises two knock-out cup competitions, the EFL Cup and the EFL Trophy. The EFL Cup was established in 1960 and is open to all EFL and Premier League clubs, the EFL Trophy is for clubs belonging to EFL League One and EFL League Two
Anfield is a football stadium in Anfield, Liverpool, England which has a seating capacity of 54,074 making it the sixth largest football stadium in England. It has been the home of Liverpool F. C. since their formation in 1892 and it was originally the home of Everton F. C. from 1884 to 1891, before they moved to Goodison Park after a dispute with the club president. The stadium has four stands, the Spion Kop, Main Stand, Centenary Stand, the record attendance of 61,905, was set at a match between Liverpool and Wolverhampton Wanderers in 1952. The ground converted to a stadium in 1994 as a result of the Taylor Report which greatly reduced its capacity. Two gates at the ground are named after former Liverpool managers, Bill Shankly, a statue of Shankly is situated outside the stadium. The ground is 2 miles from Liverpool Lime Street railway station, construction for an extension to the Main Stand began on 8 December 2014. This extension increased the capacity to 54,074, making it one of the largest all-seater single stands in European football. There are future plans to expand the Anfield Road Stand which would bring the size to around 59,000. Opened in 1884, Anfield was originally owned by John Orrell, Everton, who previously played at Priory Road, were in need of a new venue owing to the noise produced by the crowd on match days. Orrell lent the pitch to the club in exchange for a small rent, the first match at the ground was between Everton and Earlestown on 28 September 1884, which Everton won 5–0. The ground was considered of international standard at the time, playing host to the British Home Championship match between England and Ireland in 1889. Anfields first league match was played on 8 September 1888, between Everton and Accrington F. C. Everton quickly improved as a team, and became Anfields first league champions in the 1890–91 season. In 1892, negotiations to purchase the land at Anfield from Orrell escalated into a dispute between Houlding and the Everton F. C. committee over how the club was run, events culminated in Evertons move to Goodison Park. Houlding was left with an empty stadium, and decided to form a new club to occupy it. The new team was called Liverpool F. C. and Athletic Grounds Ltd, Liverpools first Football League match at Anfield was played on 9 September 1893, against Lincoln City. Liverpool won 4–0 in front of 5,000 spectators, a new stand capable of holding 3,000 spectators was constructed in 1895 on the site of the present Main Stand. Designed by architect Archibald Leitch, the stand had a red and white gable. Another stand was constructed at the Anfield Road end in 1903, built from timber, after Liverpool had won their second League championship in 1906, a new stand was built along the Walton Breck Road
Belle Vue (Doncaster)
Belle Vue was the home of English professional football club Doncaster Rovers from 1922 to 2006. The ground was called by fans Old Belle Vue or OBV. The ground was opened by Charles E. Sutcliffe from the Football League on Saturday,26 August 1922, the initial capacity was for 7,000 spectators, which was extended year-on-year as finances allowed. A fire in the Main Stand one night in June 1995 caused extensive damage and he was charged with conspiracy to commit arson and was subsequently found guilty. He was sentenced to four years imprisonment and his accomplices Ian Hay and Alan Cracknall both received nine-month prison sentences suspended for two years. In the summer of 2003 work began to repair the Town End terrace, to replace the old seating in the Main Stand, in the summer of 2004 the Popular Stand terrace was also extended and executive boxes were built at the Town End of the stadium. New club offices, a new bar and the application of tarmac to the car park completed a much needed facelift. In a move that some fans Belle Vue was renamed Earth Stadium as part of a sponsorship deal with Rotherham based finance company Earth Finance. The capacity reached the region of 11,500, a new stadium had long been mooted for Doncaster Rovers. The stadium finally started to become a reality when planning permission was granted, construction started on 17 October 2005 of a 15,000 all-seater community stadium complex. The new ground was named the Keepmoat Stadium, the last ever game at Belle Vue was on 23 December 2006 against League One leaders, Nottingham Forest. Doncaster finished their time at the stadium with a win, with a goal from Theo Streete ensuring a 1-0 victory. It was rumoured in the town earlier in the evening somebody had broken into the stadium and stolen the boiler, while leaving the gas pipes open. Two different men later entered the stadium through wide open gates and doors before inadvertently igniting the gas, causing the explosion. The alarm was raised at 3. 17am on Wednesday,7 February, One man in his 20s was arrested in connection with the incident and was questioned by police. Demolition of the stadium, home to Doncaster Rovers for 84 years, was expected to be imminent because of the safety threat that the site posed to the public. Following the explosion, demolition of the stadium was rapidly speeded up, the site was patrolled by security following the explosion and was fenced off whilst demolition work was undertaken. Since demolition, the security fences have remained to prevent access onto the site, the ground was renowned for having one of the top five biggest pitches in the UK, at 110 yards long, and 72 yards wide
Football League First Division
The Football League First Division is a former division of the Football League. Between 1888 and 1992 it was the division in the English football league system. Following the creation of the FA Premier League it was a second-level division, in 2004 it was rebranded as the Football League Championship. The Football League was founded in 1888 by Aston Villa director William McGregor and it originally consisted of a single division of 12 clubs, known as The Football League. When the League admitted additional members from the rival Football Alliance in 1892, for the next 100 years, the First Division was the top professional league in English football. Then, in 1992 the 22 clubs making up the First Division elected to resign from the Football League, the Football League was consequently re-organised, with the Second, Third and Fourth Divisions now renamed the First, Second and Third respectively. Thus, the First Division, while still the top level of the Football League, the First Division was renamed as the Football League Championship prior to the start of the 2004–05 season, as part of a league-wide rebrand. Liverpool were the most frequent winners of the First Division when it was the top flight of English football, winning it a total of 18 times. After the creation of the Premier League, the new Division One title was won more than once by one club, Sunderland. The First Division initially consisted of 12 founder clubs, since then it has undergone a series of expansions as football became more popular, as of the 1975–76 season players had to make 14 appearances for their club during the season in order to qualify for a winners medal. See List of English football champions, see List of winners of English Football League Championship and predecessors
Brunton Park is a football stadium and the home of Carlisle United F. C. It is situated in the city of Carlisle, Cumbria and has a capacity for the 2011/12 season of 18,202. Brunton Parks grandstand burned down in 1953 and the stadium flooded completely in 2005, Brunton Park is split into four separate stands, Warwick Road End, East Stand, Main Stand and the Petteril End, which remains closed unless exceptionally large crowds are in attendance. Brunton Park is the largest football stadium in England which is not all-seated, Carlisle United plan to move away from Brunton Park in the near future to a 12,000 capacity all-seater stadium. Before the 2012/13 season Cumbria County Council inspected Brunton Park and they deemed that certain areas of the stadium were unsafe, as a result, they reduced the capacity to 17,001 for the forthcoming season. In 1904 Shaddongate United became Carlisle United F. C. an association football club who played at the Millholme Bank ground to the west of Carlisle. The ground was too small for their purposes and they sometimes used the Rugby Ground which would later be the adjacent neighbour of Brunton Park. In 1905 United joined the Lancashire Combination league and required larger facilities so moved to Devonshire Park, in 1909 they were evicted from premises by the Duke of Devonshire and moved eastwards to establish Brunton Park, the clubs home ever since. In 1953 the original wooden grandstand which sat where the Main Stand now sits was burned to the ground in a cause by an electrical fault. The sale of local player Geoff Twentyman to Liverpool for £12,500 enabled the club to rebuild the stadium into what is the West Stand today. 2005 On the evening of Friday 7 January 2005, the rivers Eden, Caldew, the worst affected area was Warwick Road, where Brunton Park is situated. For the following six weeks Carlisle United were forced to play their games at Christie Park in Morecambe while repair work took place. United were still able, however, to reach the playoffs in the Conference that season,2015 The Stadium was severely flooded following Storm Desmond. It caused the team to play fixtures at Prestons Deepdale Ground, Blackburns Ewood Park, other floods In November 2009 and November 2015, half the pitch and the match day car park were flooded but the stadium wasnt damaged. The match day car park is flooded a least once every year, the West Stand, is a 6,000 capacity mixed terraced and seated area. It is regarded as the stand at Brunton Park and on average receives the highest attendance of home fans. The stand accommodates the offices and changing rooms as well as media facilities for radio. The lower tier is mainly a paddock terrace which runs the length of the pitch, the home and away dugouts are situated in front of this stand with the tunnel dividing it through the centre
Manchester United F.C.
Manchester United Football Club is a professional football club based in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, England, that competes in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. Nicknamed the Red Devils, the club was founded as Newton Heath LYR Football Club in 1878, changed its name to Manchester United in 1902 and moved to its current stadium, Old Trafford, in 1910. Manchester United have won a record 20 League Titles, a joint-record 12 FA Cups,5 League Cups, the club has also won three European Cups, one UEFA Cup Winners Cup, one UEFA Super Cup, one Intercontinental Cup and one FIFA Club World Cup. In 1998–99, the became the first in the history of English football to achieve the treble of the Premier League, the FA Cup. The 1958 Munich air disaster claimed the lives of eight players, in 1968, under the management of Matt Busby, Manchester United became the first English football club to win the European Cup. Alex Ferguson won 38 trophies, including 13 Premier League titles,5 FA Cups and 2 UEFA Champions Leagues, José Mourinho is the clubs current manager, having been appointed on 27 May 2016. As of June 2015, it is the worlds most valuable football brand and it is one of the most widely supported football teams in the world. In August 2012, Manchester United made a public offering on the New York Stock Exchange. The club holds several rivalries, most notably with Liverpool, Manchester City and Leeds United, Manchester United was formed in 1878 as Newton Heath LYR Football Club by the Carriage and Wagon department of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway depot at Newton Heath. By 1888, the club had become a member of The Combination. Following the leagues dissolution after only one season, Newton Heath joined the newly formed Football Alliance and this resulted in the club starting the 1892–93 season in the First Division, by which time it had become independent of the railway company and dropped the LYR from its name. After two seasons, the club was relegated to the Second Division, in January 1902, with debts of £2,670 – equivalent to £260,000 in 2017 – the club was served with a winding-up order. The following season began with victory in the first ever Charity Shield, Manchester United won the First Division for the second time in 1911, but at the end of the following season, Mangnall left the club to join Manchester City. In 1922, three years after the resumption of football following the First World War, the club was relegated to the Second Division, relegated again in 1931, Manchester United became a yo-yo club, achieving its all-time lowest position of 20th place in the Second Division in 1934. Gibson, who, in December 1931, invested £2,000, in the 1938–39 season, the last year of football before the Second World War, the club finished 14th in the First Division. Busby led the team to second-place league finishes in 1947,1948 and 1949, in 1952, the club won the First Division, its first league title for 41 years. With an average age of 22, the title winning side of 1956 were labelled the Busby Babes by the media. In 1957, Manchester United became the first English team to compete in the European Cup, despite objections from The Football League, who had denied Chelsea the same opportunity the previous season
Ashton Gate Stadium
Ashton Gate Stadium is a stadium in Ashton Gate, Bristol, England, and is the home of Bristol City F. C. and Bristol Rugby. Located in the south-west of the city, just south of the River Avon, the ground has also played a part in the history of rugby in the city. Several rugby internationals have been held, starting with England versus Wales in 1899,100 years later, the All Blacks took on Tonga in a 1999 Rugby World Cup pool match. As of the 2014-2015 season, Bristol Rugby permanently moved to Ashton Gate and it has hosted two England under-21 international friendlies. The first was against Romania’s under-21’s on 21 August 2007, the other was against Uzbekistan’s under-21’s on 10 August 2010. The hosts beat the visitors 2 -0 with Danny Rose scoring on the 64th minute and it marked the completion of the redevelopment of Ashton Gate and The Lansdown Stand is the largest in the stadium and has a capacity of 11,000. It has two tiers and is equipped with multiple executive boxes, the roof is covered in solar panels to provide a renewable energy source to power the entire stadium. Beneath the stand lies the changing rooms and offices, Dolman Stand The Dolman Stand, which lies opposite the Lansdown Stand, was built in 1970. At that time it was built it had a small, flat Family Enclosure in front of it, in the summer of 2007, the original wooden seats in the upper area were replaced by modern plastic seats. It is named after the club chairman and president Harry Dolman. This stand was redeveloped over the summer of 2015 as part of the redevelopment of Ashton Gate, Atyeo Stand The Atyeo stand is the smallest in the stadium and was built in 1994 to replace an open terrace. It contains new dressing rooms and a large gymnasium and it is named after Bristol City legend John Atyeo, who played 645 times for City and scored 351 goals, making him the clubs top goalscorer ever. He died in 1993, a year before the new stand opened, after the demolition of the Wedlock Stand, the north-east section of this stand was used to house the away fans. As the construction of the Lansdown Stand has been completed, away fans are situated in the Western three-quarters of the Atyeo Stand, for cup matches this can be extended to the whole of this stand. South Stand The South Stand was completed just after the end of the 2014-15 season as part of the redevelopment of Ashton Gate and it has a capacity of 6,071 and is all-seater. Unlike the other stands at Ashton Gate, it is not named after a person who had ties with the club. The stand is linked to the neighbouring Dolman and Lansdown stands via a concourse, Wedlock East End Stand The old East End was demolished during the summer of 2014 and has been completely rebuilt to modern standards. It was built as a terrace in 1928, converted to seats in the 1990s and was the traditional home fans end until 1994
Leeds United F.C.
Leeds United Football Club is a professional association football club in Leeds, West Yorkshire, England. The club was formed in 1919 following the disbanding of Leeds City F. C. by the Football League and they play in the Championship, the second tier of the English football league system. Leeds United have won three First Division league titles, one FA Cup and one League Cup, the club has also won two Inter-Cities Fairs Cups. The majority of the honours were won under the management of Don Revie in the 1960s and 1970s, Leeds lost the 1975 European Cup Final against Bayern Munich and reached the semi-finals of the tournaments successor, the Champions League, in 2001. Leeds play in all-white kits, leading to their nickname being the whites, the clubs badge features the White Rose of York together with the monogram LUFC. The clubs anthem is Marching On Together, Leeds Uniteds predecessor team, Leeds City, was formed in 1904, and were elected League members in 1905. At first they found it hard to draw big crowds to Elland Road, in 1919, Leeds United was formed and they received an invitation to enter the Midland League, being voted into it on 31 October, taking the place vacated by Leeds City Reserves. Following Leeds Citys disbanding, Yorkshire Amateurs bought their stadium Elland Road, Yorkshire Amateurs offered to make way for the new team under the management of former player Dick Ray. The chairman of Huddersfield Town, Hilton Crowther loaned Leeds United £35,000 and he brought in Barnsleys manager Arthur Fairclough and on 26 February 1920, Dick Ray stepped down to become Faircloughs assistant. On 31 May 1920, Leeds United were elected to the Football League, over the following few years, they consolidated their position in the Second Division and in 1924 won the title and with it promotion to the First Division. They failed to establish themselves and were relegated in 1926–27, after their relegation, Fairclough resigned, which paved the way for Ray to return as manager. In the years up until the start of World War II Leeds were twice relegated, on 5 March 1935, Ray resigned and was replaced by Billy Hampson, who remained in charge for 12 years. In the 1946–47 season after the war, Leeds were relegated again, after this season, Hampson resigned and was replaced in April 1947 by Willis Edwards. In 1948, Sam Bolton replaced Ernest Pullan as the chairman of Leeds United, Edwards was moved to assistant manager in April 1948 after just one year as manager. He was replaced by Major Frank Buckley, Leeds remained in the Second Division until 1955–56, when they once again won promotion to the First Division, inspired by John Charles. Charles was hungry for success at the highest level, and manager Raich Carter was unable to convince him that Leeds could satisfy his ambitions, Charles was sold to Juventus for a then world record of £65,000. The loss of Charles resulted in Leeds being relegated to the Second Division in the 1959–60 season, in March 1961, the club appointed former player Don Revie as manager, following the resignation of Jack Taylor. His stewardship began in adverse circumstances, the club was in financial difficulty, Revie implemented a youth policy and a change of kit colour to an all-white strip in the style of Real Madrid, and Leeds soon won promotion to the First Division in 1963–64
Elland Road is a football stadium in Leeds, West Yorkshire, England, which has been the home of Leeds United F. C. since the clubs foundation in 1919. The stadium is the 13th largest football stadium in England, the ground has hosted FA Cup semi-final matches as a neutral venue, and England international fixtures, and was selected as one of eight Euro 96 venues. Elland Road was used by rugby league club Hunslet in the mid-1980s, the stadium has hosted concerts, including performances by rock bands Queen, U2, Happy Mondays and the Kaiser Chiefs. Elland Road has four stands – the Revie Stand, the East Stand, the South Stand and the John Charles Stand–, the record attendance of 57,892 was set on 15 March 1967 in an FA Cup 5th round replay against Sunderland. This was before the stadium became a venue as stipulated by the Taylor Report. The first occupants were Holbeck Rugby Club who moved from Holbeck Recreation Ground after buying the Old Peacock Ground from Bentleys for £1,100, the club erected a new stand in readiness for the 1898–99 season. The ground eventually became simply as Elland Road. Helens and the ground was put on the market, after a meeting at the Griffin Hotel in Boar Lane in August, a new club, Leeds City, was formed and it was agreed that the Elland Road ground would be rented for the upcoming season. The lease was signed on 13 October 1904, for a rent of £75 per year, the club had an option to buy the ground for £5,000 in March 1905, but in November, the price was reduced to £4,500. After Citys first season in the Football League, the built an 5. Attendances were rising, culminating in over 22,500 people cramming into the stadium to watch a local derby with Bradford City on 30 December, an expansion programme continued and the clubs directors ensured that the initial success was built upon, employing a ground committee to oversee developments. In February 1906,3,961 square yards of land on the Churwell, the committee built a 4, 000-seater grandstand which the Lord Mayor, Joseph Hepworth unveilled before a match against Chelsea on 17 November. The project cost £3,000 and over half a mile of steel was used, there was a training track for the players that ran the length of the stand, dressing and officials rooms and a motor garage. Drainage work was carried out on the pitch to prevent it from becoming waterlogged, City experienced financial hardships jeopardising the clubs future but after much uncertainty an offer of £1,000 and an annual rental of £250 was accepted for the ground. The ground was used during the Great War as a venue for drill, City started that season brightly, but scandal arose involving illegal payments to players during the war years and the club was expelled from the Football League after only eight games. This led some local businessmen to contemplate digging up the clay deposits under the pitch, Yorkshire Amateurs became the tenants, and that club played there for a brief spell saving the ground from development. In 1920, Yorkshire Amateurs sold Elland Road to the newly formed Leeds United for £250, in the 1920s, the South Stand terrace was covered with a wooden barrel-shaped roof and came to be known as the Scratching Shed. Another stand was built on the east side terracing called the Lowfields, no significant changes were made to Elland Road in the 1930s, and 1940s, although it did see some large attendances
Hendon Football Club is an English semi-professional football club based in West Hendon in the London Borough of Brent. The club is competing in the Ryman Isthmian Football League Premier Division. After three seasons ground-sharing at Harrow Borough F. C. ’s Earlsmead Stadium in South Harrow, Hendon began season 2016-17 at a new stadium, Silver Jubilee Park in West Hendon. Prior to the founding of the present club, there was a club with the same name which appeared in the FA Cup between 1877 and 1887. One of the clubs players, Charles Plumpton Wilson made two appearances for England in 1884. At the start of the 1909–10 season the club were renamed Hampstead Town and they also won Division Two at the first attempt, earning promotion to the First Division, which they won in 1911–12. The club then joined the London League and Middlesex League, before being elected to the Athenian League in 1914, however, the 1914–15 season was postponed due to World War I. In 1926 the club was renamed Hampstead, before becoming Golders Green in 1933, in 1946 the club adopted its current name. In 1952–53 the club won its first Athenian League title, in 1954–55 they reached the final of the FA Amateur Cup, losing 2–0 to Bishop Auckland. They went on to win the Athenian League title again in 1955–56, a third Athenian League title was achieved in 1960–61. In 1963 the club switched to the Isthmian League, and have remained in the division since. In 1964–65 the club won the Isthmian League and Amateur Cup double and they reached the final of the Cup again the following season, but lost 3–1 to Wealdstone. After winning their third Amateur Cup with a 2–0 win against Enfield in 1971–72, the following season they reached the third round of the FA Cup, where they drew Newcastle United. After holding Newcastle to a 1–1 draw at St James Park, in 1975–76 the club defeated a Football League club for the first time, beating Reading 1–0 in the first round, before losing to Swindon Town in the second round. At the end of the 2005–06 season the finished in the relegation zone. In 2008–09 the club left its Claremont Road ground, initially groundsharing at nearby non-League clubs, over the summer of 2010, the club was bought out by the Hendon FC Supporters Trust, an Industrial and Provident Society. Until 26 September 2009, Hendon played in the suburb of Cricklewood, within the London Borough of Barnet, at a ground known by the local road name. The ground was opened on 18 September 1926 before an FA Cup tie with Berkhamsted