By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and later by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem. This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles later renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, Espan, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians, Basques and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula. The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
Real Madrid C.F.
Real Madrid Club de Fútbol, commonly known as Real Madrid, or simply as Real outside Spain frontiers, is a professional football club based in Madrid, Spain. Founded in 1902 as Madrid Football Club, the team has worn a white home kit since inception. The word Real is Spanish for Royal and was bestowed to the club by King Alfonso XIII in 1920 together with the crown in the emblem. The team has played its matches in the 85, 454-capacity Santiago Bernabéu Stadium in downtown Madrid since 1947. Unlike most European sporting entities, Real Madrids members have owned and operated the club throughout its history. The club was estimated to be worth €3.24 billion in 2015, the club is one of the most widely supported teams in the world. Real Madrid is one of three founding members of the Primera División that have never relegated from the top division, along with Athletic Bilbao. The club holds many long-standing rivalries, most notably El Clásico with Barcelona, Real Madrid established itself as a major force in both Spanish and European football during the 1950s, winning five consecutive European Cups and reaching the final seven times. This success was replicated in the league, where the club won five times in the space of seven years. In domestic football, the club has won a record 32 La Liga titles,19 Copa del Rey, nine Supercopa de España, a Copa Eva Duarte, and a Copa de la Liga. Real Madrid was recognised as the FIFA Club of the 20th Century on 23 December 2000, the club received the FIFA Centennial Order of Merit in 2004. The club is ranked first in the latest IFFHS Club World Ranking, setting a new ranking-points record, the club also leads the current UEFA club rankings. They founded Football Club Sky in 1897, playing on Sunday mornings at Moncloa and it split into two clubs in 1900, New Foot-Ball de Madrid and Madrid Football Club. On 6 March 1902, after a new Board presided by Juan Padrós had been elected, three years after its foundation, in 1905, Madrid FC won its first title after defeating Athletic Bilbao in the Spanish Cup final. The club became one of the sides of the Royal Spanish Football Federation on 4 January 1909. After moving between grounds the team moved to the Campo de ODonnell in 1912, in 1920, the clubs name was changed to Real Madrid after King Alfonso XIII granted the title of Real to the club. In 1929, the first Spanish football league was founded, Real Madrid led the first league season until the last match, a loss to Athletic Bilbao, meant they finished runners-up to Barcelona. Real Madrid won its first League title in the 1931–32 season, Real won the League again the following year, becoming the first team to have won the championship twice
Francisco Franco Bahamonde was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator for 36 years from 1939 until his death. As a conservative and a monarchist, he opposed the abolition of the monarchy, with the 1936 elections, the conservative Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups lost by a narrow margin and the leftist Popular Front came to power. Intending to overthrow the republic, Franco followed other generals in attempting a coup that precipitated the Spanish Civil War. With the death of the generals, Franco quickly became his factions only leader. Leaving half a million dead, the war was won by Franco in 1939. He established a dictatorship, which he defined as a totalitarian state. Franco proclaimed himself Head of State and Government under the title El Caudillo, under Franco, Spain became a one-party state, as the various conservative and royalist factions were merged into the fascist party and other political parties were outlawed. Although Francos Spain maintained a policy of neutrality during World War II. Francos regime has been called a fascist one, Spain was isolated by the international community for nearly a decade after World War II. By the 1950s, the nature of his regime changed from being openly totalitarian, by the 1960s Spain saw incremental reforms and progressive economic development. After a 36-year rule, Franco died in 1975 and he restored the monarchy before his death, which made King Juan Carlos I his successor, who led the Spanish transition to democracy. After a referendum, a new constitution was adopted, which transformed Spain into a democracy under a constitutional monarchy. Franco was born at half past noon on December 4,1892, at 108 Calle Frutos Saavedra in Ferrol and his father was of Andalusian ancestry. His mother was María del Pilar Bahamonde y Pardo de Andrade, Francisco was to follow his father into the Navy, but as a result of the Spanish–American War the country lost much of its navy as well as most of its colonies. Not needing any more officers, the Naval Academy admitted no new entrants from 1906 to 1913, to his fathers chagrin, Francisco decided to try the Spanish Army. In 1907, he entered the Infantry Academy in Toledo, graduating in 1910 as a lieutenant, two years later, he obtained a commission to Morocco. Spanish efforts to occupy their new African protectorate provoked the protracted Rif War with native Moroccans and their tactics resulted in heavy losses among Spanish military officers, and also provided an opportunity to earn promotion through merit. It was said that officers would receive either la caja o la faja, Franco quickly gained a reputation as a good officer
Founded on 20 June 1928, it plays in Segunda División, holding home games at Estadio Nuevo José Zorrilla, which seats 26,512 spectators. It currently ranks 14th on the All-Time La Liga table, founded from the amalgamation of Real Unión Deportiva de Valladolid and Club Deportivo Español, Valladolid first reached the top level in the 1947–48 season, as champions of Segunda División. In the following year, the team pushed on from success and reached the finals of the domestic cup in the Chamartín Stadium against Athletic Bilbao. He had originally been a goalkeeper for the club and subsequently went on to many roles. Valladolid swung between the first and second divisions in subsequent years, falling as low as to the division in 1970–71. Promoted in 1992–93, the team was sent down after the 2003–04 season. In 1984, Valladolid also won the Spanish League Cup, over Atlético Madrid, in the 2006–07, after signing Basque José Luis Mendilibar as coach, Valladolid had one of its best years in history while playing in the second level. Two relatively successful seasons in the top division followed, finishing in 15th place while avoiding relegation after a 1–1 draw on the last day of both seasons. After a slow start to 2009–10, Mendilibar was sacked on 1 February 2010, the week following his sacking, Valladolid dropped for the first time to the relegation zone, with former player Onésimo Sánchez now in charge. After a brief breather, Valladolid again returned to the last three, then faced a must-win last game at the Camp Nou, against an FC Barcelona squad that needed a win to secure the title. The 2011-12 season saw return to La Liga under the management of Miroslav Đukić. Valladolid were relegated back to the Segunda on the last day of the 2013–14 season, Real Valladolid play at the 26, 512-capacity Estadio Nuevo José Zorrilla, finished in 1982 to replace the previous stadium of the same name which had stood since 1940. Both grounds are named after José Zorrilla y Moral, a 19th-century poet from the city. After opening for the club on 20 February 1982, it hosted the Copa del Rey Final on 13 April of that year, there are plans to expand the stadium to 40,000 spectators. This project is known as Valladolid Arena, the following list shows Valladolids record as well as all the presidents and coaches for every season since its foundation in 1929. All presidents and coaches are Spanish unless otherwise noted,41 seasons in La Liga 34 seasons in Segunda División 10 seasons in Tercera División As of 1 February 2017. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules
Real Club Deportivo Mallorca, S. A. D. is a Spanish football team based in Palma, in the Balearic Islands. Founded on 5 March 1916 it currently plays in Segunda División, team colours are red shirts with black shorts and black socks. The oldest club in the Balearic Islands, Mallorca was founded in 1916 by Adolfo Vázquez, a republican engineer, the first stadium, called Buenos Aires, was inaugurated on March 25,1916, with a 0–8 loss against Barcelona. And, on June 28,1916, Spanish king Alfonso XIII de Borbón honored the team with the title Real Sociedad, in 1917, the Catalan Federation admitted Real Sociedad Alfonso XIII into the Catalan Championship tournament. The Mallorcan team reached the final in Barcelona, where played against FC Palafrugell. And so, the Mallorcan club tried to broaden its sporting repertoire by incorporating a cycling team in 1919 and this coupled with the influence of the Second Spanish Republic caused the club to change its name to Club Deportivo Mallorca. Still with that name in 1945, the club inaugurated Es Fortínas the new stadium of the Balearic club. But, during that season and in honor of the man who had started working and preparing that ground three years prior, the club changed the name of the stadium Lluís Sitjar. In 1960, RCD Mallorca earned its first promotion to the División de Honor under the tutelage of coach Juan Carlos Lorenzo, in 1964, RCD Mallorca again earned promotion, this time to the Primera Division, under coach Cesar Rodriguez and president Baron de Vidal. Then, in 1969, RCD Mallorca earned its promotion to the Primera Division, with coach Juancho Forneris. This decade produced three promotions to the Primera Division, including the first in Club history, however, it also produced the same number of relegations. The scorer of the first goal for RCD Mallorca in the Primera Division was Joan Forteza and he was the only player to survive the roster changes from the previous season after President Jaime Roselló Pascual dismissed all other members of the roster. Meanwhile, the coach of that 1960´s squad was Argentine Juan Carlos Lorenzo and he led the team into the Primera Division all the way from the depths of the third division, for the first time on April 17,1960. It was a mere 44 years since the club was founded under the name of Alfonso XIII FBC, RCD Mallorca was one of only 16 professional teams to compete in this top division. And the team reinforced by picking up players from FC Barcelona, among others, in the following season, the team finished eleventh. And so, with ups and downs, RCD Mallorca did not last more than three years in the top echelon of Spanish soccer. The team dropped into the division until 1964-65, when it rose up again. But, in day in age, the only direct promotion came via winning the Segunda Division
Usually abbreviated to Villarreal CF or just Villarreal, is a Spanish football club based in Vila-real, a city in the province of Castellón within the Valencian Community. Founded in 1923, it plays in La Liga, holding home games at Estadio de la Cerámica, Villarreal has often been touted as an example of a small but successful club. Villarreal CF was founded as Villarreal CD on 10 March 1923 to promote all sports especially Soccer, the stadium was rented for 60 pesetas a month and ticket prices were set at half a peseta for men and a quarter of a peseta for children. On 17 June 1923, Castellón, a rival of the club. On 21 October of that year, Villarreal played their first game ever, Villarreal started off with a kit of white shirts and black shorts, reflected in their first badge. Villarreal entered regional competitions within the Spanish football pyramid from 1929–30 onwards, the 1934–35 season saw the team lose to Cartagena when a win would have seen them promoted to the nationwide Second Division. The following season saw Villarreal win the First Division of the region before the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, when the war finished in 1939, the club played again in the Second Division of the region, before promotion in 1950–51 to the first. In 1942, the changed their name to CAF Villarreal. The F stood for Foghetcaz, a club and supporter of the team. The name changed again to the current Villarreal CF in 1954 and they finished seventh and then fourth twice in the First regional league before being promoted to the Tercera Liga as champions in 1956. They were relegated in 1960–61 after finishing 14th, the club adopted their present badge in the middle of 1966. In 1966–67, Villarreal returned to the Tercera as champions, in 1970, they reached the national Segunda for the first time. After narrowly avoiding relegation in their first season, they were relegated the following season, in 1975–76, they were relegated from the Tercera to the Regionals, but were promoted back again the next season. In 1986–87, Villarreal were promoted to the Segunda Liga B, in 1990, they finished 18th and were relegated back to the Tercera. There were back-to-back promotions as the returned to Segunda B and finished second. From 1992–93, Villarreal were often in low or mid-table positions, the two-legged play-off was against Compostela. Villarreal hosted the first leg which was a 0–0 draw, but the leg at the home of the Galician team was a 1–1 draw. Villarreals Primera Liga debut started with a match against reigning European champions Real Madrid at the Santiago Bernabéu Stadium on 31 August 1998, the first home game was against Celta de Vigo the week after
Getafe Club de Fútbol, or simply Getafe, is a Spanish professional football club contesting in Segunda División. The club is based in Getafe, a city in the Madrid metropolitan area, Getafe was founded in 1946 and refounded in 1983. Getafe has been in the top level since 2004–05, the clubs home stadium is Coliseum Alfonso Pérez which was founded in 1998 and can hold 17,393 spectators. The clubs main rivalries are against Leganés, based in close proximity to the city of Getafe, Getafe Football Club was founded in 1924, only playing in lower divisions from 1928 to 1932. Officially founded on 24 February 1946, the club was named Club Getafe Deportivo, the club originally played in the Campo del Regimiento de Artillería, which lacked goal posts. Shortly after, the moved to San Isidro, housed in the current Municipal Sports Center of San Isidro. Here, Club Getafe was promoted to the division following their victory against CP Villarrobledo in the 1956–57 season. Getafe was nearly promoted to the Segunda in 1957–58, but was defeated by CD Almería, on 2 September 1970, the club inaugurated its own stadium after being promoted back to the Tercera División. Presided by chairman Francisco Vara, Las Margaritas won a 3–1 victory over Michelín, the team survived in the third level that season, and six years later gained their first promotion to the second division. Club Getafe Deportivo played six seasons in the Segunda División, with little success, from 1976 to 1982, they placed below tenth level all six years. In 1978, they advanced to play against Barcelona in the Copa del Rey round of 16, playing at home in the first leg, Getafe drew with a star-studded Barcelona team 3–3, before traveling away for the second leg and being thrashed 8–0 at the Nou Camp. At the conclusion of the 1981–82 season, players having not been paid, Getafe was automatically relegated, meanwhile, on 1 September 1976, a new club was founded in the National Sports Council and the Regional Federation of Castille. The club was called Peña Madridista Getafe and this club played for four seasons in various divisions, until taking the name Club Deportivo Peña Getafe, and played under this name for a further two seasons. On 10 July 1982, they joined forces with the much older Club Getafe Promesas, based on the merger the previous year, the present Getafe Club de Fútbol was officially founded on 8 July 1983, after passing through the general partners assembly. Starting in the leagues in 1983–84, Getafe was promoted for four consecutive seasons until reaching Segunda División B. The club started a new period with its promotion into Segunda in 1994–95, threatening absolute disappearance just a few years later in 1997, Getafe survived relegation into the fourth level Tercera División following a two-legged playoff victory over Huesca. Meanwhile, Getafes current stadium, the Coliseum Alfonso Pérez, was inaugurated on 1 January 1998, returning to the second division for 1999–2000, Getafe lasted another two seasons. Consolidating their position after one year, Getafe had a season in Segunda