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1975 NFL season

The 1975 NFL season was the 56th regular season of the National Football League. It was the first NFL season without a tie game; the league made two significant changes to increase the appeal of the game: The surviving clubs with the best regular season records were made the home teams for each playoff round. Game sites rotated by division; the league pioneered the use of equipping referees with wireless microphones to announce penalties and clarify complex and/or unusual rulings to both fans and the media. Instead of a traditional Thanksgiving Day game hosted by the Dallas Cowboys, the league scheduled a Buffalo Bills at St. Louis Cardinals contest; this was the first season since 1966. The season ended with Super Bowl X when the Pittsburgh Steelers repeated as champions by defeating the Dallas Cowboys 21–17 at the Orange Bowl in Miami. After a fourth down incomplete pass goes in or through the end zone, the other team will take possession at the previous line of scrimmage, it resulted in a touchback.

The penalty for pass interference on the offensive team is reduced from 15 yards to 10. If there are fouls by both teams on the same play but one results in a player ejection, the penalties will still offset but the player will still be ejected. Referees were equipped with wireless microphones to announce penalties and clarify complex and/or unusual rulings to both fans and the media; the NFL thus became the first professional league in North America to adopt this technology. Jerry Seeman, who would go on to serve as referee for Super Bowl XXIII and Super Bowl XXV before a 10-year tenure as the NFL's Director of Officiating from 1991-2001, was hired as a line judge. Fred Swearingen, the referee in the 1972 Raiders-Steelers playoff game which produced the Immaculate Reception, was demoted to his former position, field judge. Gene Barth, the line judge on Jim Tunney's crew the previous four seasons, was promoted. Detroit moved into the Pontiac Silverdome. New Orleans moved into the Louisiana Superdome.

The New York Giants played their home games at Shea Stadium, which they shared for 1975 with the New York Jets. Starting in 1970, through 2001, there were three divisions in each conference; the winners of each division, a fourth “wild card” team based on the best non-division winner, qualified for the playoffs. The tiebreaker rules were changed to start with head-to-head competition, followed by division records, records against common records, records in conference play. Baltimore finished ahead of Miami in the AFC East based on head-to-head sweep. N. Y. Jets finished ahead of New England in the AFC East based on head-to-head sweep. Minnesota was the top NFC playoff seed based on point rating system. Chicago finished ahead of Green Bay in the NFC Central based on better division record. *Pittsburgh did not play Cincinnati in the Divisional playoff round because both teams were in the same division. The 1975 NFL Draft was held from January 28 to 29, 1975 at New York City's Hilton at Rockefeller Center.

With the first pick, the Atlanta Falcons selected quarterback Steve Bartkowski from the University of California. Atlanta Falcons: Marion Campbell began his first full season as head coach, he replaced Norm Van Brocklin, fired after starting the 1974 season at 2–6. Baltimore Colts: Ted Marchibroda joined the Colts as head coach. Howard Schnellenberger was fired after three games into the 1974 season, General Manager Joe Thomas served for the remainder of the season. Chicago Bears: Abe Gibron was fired and replaced by Jack Pardee. Cleveland Browns: Forrest Gregg replaced the fired Nick Skorich. Green Bay Packers: Dan Devine left to join the Notre Dame Fighting Irish. Former Packers quarterback Bart Starr was named to replace Devine. Houston Oilers: Bum Phillips replaced Sid Gillman. Kansas City Chiefs: Hank Stram, the team's only head coach in franchise history, was relived of his duties. Paul Wiggin was named as the team's new head coach. New Orleans Saints: John North was fired after a 1-5 start to the season.

Ernie Hefferle served as interim. New York Jets: Charley Winner was fired nine games into the season after only posting two wins. Offensive coordinator Ken Shipp served as interim for the last five games. NFL Record and Fact Book NFL History 1971–1980 Total Football: The Official Encyclopedia of the National Football League

Cristina Bowerman

Cristina Bowerman is an Italian chef, who holds a Michelin star at Glass Hostaria in Rome. She studied foreign languages and law, worked as a graphic designer. However, she began working as a chef when she returned to Italy. Cristina Bowerman was born in southern Italy, she first trained in foreign languages and studied law, went on to work as a graphic designer in Austin, Texas. Bowerman studied culinary arts for two years at the University of Texas at Austin and Le Cordon Bleu, she said that the chef Egil Valentin had been her most significant teacher and praised the experience she gained at David Bull's restaurant, 5 Diamonds. When she returned to Italy in 2006, Bowerman began working at the Glass Hostaria restaurant in Rome. For the first three years, the restaurant struggled, as although Bowerman would bring in new dishes, the locals wouldn't visit during the week and only order traditional dishes when they did on the weekend. In 2010, the restaurant was awarded a Michelin star, with Bowerman being the only woman to win one that year.

After winning a Michelin star, she opened Romeo Chef & Baker in a former warehouse in Testaccio, opened Giulietta Pizzeria next door to it. She continues to split her time between Austin. In 2017, she was one of 20 chefs to cook at the 32nd Chef's Tribute to Citymeals. Bowerman is one of the judges for the final of the 2018 S. Pellegrino Young Italian Chef competition

Oregon Route 182

Oregon Route 182 was an Oregon state highway running from Devils Punch Bowl State Park in Lincoln County to US 101 near Newport, United States. OR 182 was known as the Otter Rock Highway No. 182. It was 0.75 miles long and ran east–west within Lincoln County. It functioned as a spur route to the state park. OR 182 was established in 2002 as part of Oregon's project to assign route numbers to highways that were not assigned, and, as of July 2007, was unsigned. OR 182 was transferred from ODOT jurisdiction September 26, 2005 and is no longer part of the Oregon state highway system, though it may be maintained as a highway class roadway by either county or local government. OR 182 began at Devils Punch Bowl State Park, it headed east to an intersection with US 101 four miles north of Newport, where it ends. OR 182 was assigned to the Otter Rock Highway in 2002, it was cancelled in 2005. The entire route is in Lincoln County. US 101 Oregon Department of Transportation, Descriptions of US and Oregon Routes, https://web.archive.org/web/20051102084300/http://www.oregon.gov/ODOT/HWY/TRAFFIC/TEOS_Publications/PDF/Descriptions_of_US_and_Oregon_Routes.pdf, page 27.

Oregon Department of Transportation, Otter Rock Highway No. 182, ftp://ftp.odot.state.or.us/tdb/trandata/maps/slchart_pdfs_1980_to_2002/Hwy182_2000.pdf

Post-concussion syndrome

Post-concussion syndrome is a set of symptoms that may continue for weeks, months, or a year or more after a concussion – a mild form of traumatic brain injury. About 15% of individuals with a history of a single concussion develop persistent symptoms associated with the injury. A diagnosis may be made when symptoms resulting from concussion last for more than three months after the injury. Loss of consciousness is not required for a diagnosis of post-concussion syndrome. Though there is no specific treatment for PCS, symptoms can be improved with medications and physical and behavioral therapy. Education about symptoms and details about expectation of recovery are important; the majority of PCS cases resolve after a period of time. In the past, the term PCS was used to refer to immediate physical symptoms or post-concussive symptoms following a minor TBI or concussion; the severity of these symptoms decreases rapidly. In addition, the nature of the symptoms may change over time: acute symptoms are most of a physical nature, while persisting symptoms tend to be predominantly psychological.

Symptoms such as noise sensitivity, problems with concentration and memory, irritability and anxiety may be called'late symptoms' because they do not occur after the injury, but rather in the days or weeks after the injury. Nausea and drowsiness occur acutely following concussion. Headache and dizziness occur after the injury, but can be long lasting; the condition is associated with a wide range of symptoms: physical, such as headache. Many of the symptoms associated with PCS are common or may be exacerbated by other disorders, so there is considerable risk of misdiagnosis. Headaches that occur after a concussion may feel like tension-type headaches. Most headaches are tension-type headaches, which may be associated with a neck injury that occurred at the same time of the head injury. A common condition associated with PCS is headache. While most people have headaches of the same type they experienced before the injury, people diagnosed with PCS report more frequent or longer-lasting headaches.

Between 30% and 90% of people treated for PCS report having more frequent headaches and between 8% and 32% still report them a year after the injury. Dizziness is another common symptom reported in about half of people diagnosed with PCS and is still present in up to a quarter of them a year after the injury. Older people are at high risk for dizziness, which can contribute to subsequent injuries and higher rates of mortality due to falls. About 10% of people with PCS develop sensitivity to light or noise, about 5% experience a decreased sense of taste or smell, about 14% report blurred vision. People may have double vision or ringing in the ears called tinnitus. PCS may cause fatigue, or other problems with sleep. Psychological conditions, which are present in about half of people with PCS, may include irritability, depression, a change in personality. Other emotional and behavioral symptoms include restlessness and mood swings; some common symptoms, such as apathy, irritability, or lack of motivation, may result from other co-occurring conditions, such as depression.

Common symptoms associated with a diagnosis of PCS are related to cognition and memory short-term memory, which can worsen other problems such as forgetting appointments or difficulties at work. In one study, one in four people diagnosed with PCS continued to report memory problems a year after the injury, but most experts agree that cognitive symptoms clear within six months to a year after injury in the vast majority of individuals; the question of the cause or causes of PCS has been debated for many years and remain controversial. It is not known to what degree the symptoms are due to physiological changes or to other factors, such as pre-existing psychiatric disorders or factors related to secondary gain or disability compensation; the subjectivity of the complaints complicates assessment and makes it difficult to determine whether symptoms are being exaggerated or feigned. While the causes of symptoms occurring after a concussion are to be physiological, it is less evident that persistent post-concussive symptoms have an organic basis, nonorganic factors are to be involved in symptoms that last longer than three months.

PCS may be exacerbated by psychosocial factors, chronic pain, or an interaction of some or all of these. The majority of experts believe that PCS results from a mix of factors, including preexisting psychological factors and those directly relating to the physical injury, it is not known what causes PCS to occur and persist, or why some people who suffer a minor traumatic brain injury develop PCS while others do not. The nature of the syndrome and the diagnosis itself have been the subject of intense debate since the 19th century. However, certain risk factors have been identified. Physiological and psychological factors present before and after the injury are all thought to be involved in the development of PCS; some experts believe post-concussion symptoms are caused by structural damage to the brain or disruption of neurotransmitter systems, resulting from the impact that caused the concussion. Others believe. Most common symptoms like headache and sleep prob

Black rot (grape disease)

Grape black rot is a fungal disease caused by an ascomycetous fungus, Guignardia bidwellii, that attacks grape vines during hot and humid weather. “Grape black rot originated in eastern North America, but now occurs in portions of Europe, South America, Asia. It can cause complete crop loss in warm, humid climates, but is unknown in regions with arid summers.” The name comes from the black fringe. The disease attacks other parts of the plant, “all green parts of the vine: the shoots and fruit stems and fruit; the most damaging effect is to the fruit”. Grape black rot affects many grape growers throughout the United States, therefore, it is important to understand the disease life cycle and environmental conditions to best manage the disease. Once infection takes place, different methods are available to control the disease; the grape black rot pathogen overwinters in many parts of the grape vine and is able to overwinter on the ground in mummies. In addition, the pathogen can overwinter for at "least 2 years within lesions of infected shoots that are retained as canes or spurs."

Rains release the overwintering spores that form within mummies on the ground and can be blown by the wind. Some of the mummies on the ground can have a significant discharge of ascospores that begins about two to three weeks after bud breaks and will mature one to two weeks after the start of bloom. A second type of spore can form within cane lesions or mummies that have remained within the "trellis, these are dispersed short distances by splashing rain drops." Infection occurs when either of the spore types land on green grape tissue and tissue remains wet for a "sufficient length of time, dependent on temperature." The period that these overwintering spores are allowed to cause infection depends on the source. If there is a large source for infection, the infection will set in early. In the presence of moisture, these ascospores germinate, taking 36 to 48 hours, but penetrates the young leaves and fruit stems; the infections become visible after 8 to 25 days. When the weather is moist, ascospores will be produced and released throughout the entire spring and summer, providing continuous primary infection.

When the weather is moist, ascospores are produced and released throughout the entire spring and summer, providing continuous primary infection. The black rot fungus requires warm weather for optimal growth. A period of two to three days of rain, drizzle, or fog is required for infection. "Conidia spores can form, within cane lesions or on mummies that have remained within the trellis, these are dispersed by splashing rain drops.” Raindrops transfer these spores by moving the spores to different plant parts susceptible young leaves. "If water is present, the conidia penetrate young tissue. New black rot infections continue into late spring and summer during prolonged periods of warm, rainy weather; the conidia are capable of causing infection several months after being formed. During August, the pycnidia are transformed into an overwintering stage that, in turn, gives rise to pseudothecia within which the spring spores are produced; this ascospore is "forcibly discharged into the air and can travel considerable distances."

"Research has shown that ascospores are an important source of primary infections in the spring." In the spring during wet weather, the "pycnidia on infected tissues absorb water and conidia are squeezed out." "Conidia are splashed about randomly by rain and can infect any young tissue in less than 12 hours at temperatures between 60-90 degrees." A film of water on the vine surface is necessary for the infection to inoculate. This completes the disease cycle.” Small, brown circular lesions develop on infected leaves and within a few days tiny black spherical fruiting bodies protrude from them. Elongated black lesions on the petiole may girdle these organs, causing the affected leaves to wilt. Shoot infection results in large black elliptical lesions; these lesions may contribute to breakage of shoots by wind, or in severe cases, may girdle and kill young shoots altogether. This fungus bides its time. Most plants show little signs of infection until its too late, they will look healthy until fruit sets.

Flowering will be normal. Infection of the fruit is the most serious phase of the disease and may result in substantial economic loss. Infected berries first appear chocolate brown; that spot will infect more of the fruit bunch and more of the plant. This creates masses of black pycnidia developing on the surface. Infected berries shrivel and turn into hard black raisin-like bodies that are called mummies. A mixture of cultural and chemical control practices can manage grape black rot disease caused by Guignardia bidwellii. Cultural control aspects involve the basics in plant care and field sanitation as well as cleanup after an infectious outbreak. Chemical control has a large influence to prevent but not eliminate disease. Cultural control Cultural control consists of the management of the fields and sanitation methods to optimally grow grape crops. Many universities and professors suggest the following cultural control practices: The first cultural control method is to choose the right grape cultivar for the region that the grape will be grown in.

Grape cultivars differ in their susceptibility to diseases, including differences in the disease black rot. Some varieties are less susceptible, while others are more prone to the disease when the right e

Nucleic acid test

A nucleic acid test is a technique used to detect a particular nucleic acid sequence and thus to detect and identify a particular species or subspecies of organism a virus or bacteria that acts as a pathogen in blood, urine, etc. NATs differ from other tests in that they detect genetic materials rather than antigens or antibodies. Detection of genetic materials allows an early diagnosis of a disease because the detection of antigens and/or antibodies requires time for them to start appearing in the bloodstream. Since the amount of a certain genetic material is very small, many NATs include a step that amplifies the genetic material—that is, makes many copies of it; such NATs are called nucleic acid amplification tests. There are several ways of amplification, including polymerase chain reaction, strand displacement assay, or transcription mediated assay. All nucleic acid amplification methods and detection technologies use the specificity of Watson-Crick base pairing. Therefore, the design of probe strands is significant to raise the sensitivity and specificity of the detection.

However, the mutants which forms the genetic basis for a variety of human diseases are slightly different from the normal nucleic acids. They are only different in a single base, e.g. insertions and single-nucleotide polymorphisms. In this case, imperfect probe-target binding can occur, resulting in false-positive outcomes such as mistaking a strain, commensal for one, pathogenic. Much research has been dedicated to achieving single-base specificity. In 2012, Yin's research group published a paper about optimizing the specificity of nucleic acid hybridization, they introduced a ‘toehold exchange probe ’ which consists of a pre-hybridized complement strand C and a protector strand P. Complement strand is longer than protector strand to have unbound tail in a toehold. Complement is complementary with the target sequence; when the correct target reacts with the toehold exchange probe, P is released and hybridized product XC is formed. The standard free energy of the reaction is close to zero. On the other hand, if the toehold exchange probe reacts with spurious target, the reaction forwards, but the standard free energy increases to be less thermodynamically favorable.

The standard free energy difference is significant enough to give obvious discrimination in yield. The discrimination factor Q is calculated as, the yield of correct target hybridization divided by the yield of spurious target hybridization. Through the experiments on different toehold exchange probes with 5 correct targets and 55 spurious targets with energetically representative single-base changes, Yin's group concluded that discrimination factors of these probes were between 3 and 100 + with the median 26; the probes function robustly from 10 °C to 37 °C, from 1 mM to 47 mM, with nucleic acid concentrations from 1 nM to 5 M. They figured out the toehold exchange probes work robustly in RNA detection. Further researches have been studied thereafter. In 2013, Seelig's group published a paper about fluorescent molecular probes which utilizes the toehold exchange reaction; this enabled the optical detection of correct SNP target. They succeeded in the detection of SNPs in E. coli-derived samples.

In 2015, David's group achieved high selectivity of single-nucleotide variants by introducing the system called ‘competitive compositions’. In this system, they constructed a kinetic reaction model of the underlying hybridization processes to predict the optimal parameter values, which vary based on the sequences of SNV and wildtype, on the design architecture of the probe and sink, on the reagent concentrations and assay conditions, their model succeeded in a median 890-fild selectivity for 44 cancer-related DNA SNVs, with a minimum of 200, which represents at least a 30-fold improvement over previous hybridization-based assays. In addition, they applied this technology to assay low VAF sequences from human genomic DNA following PCR, as well as directly to synthetic RNA sequences. Based on the expertise, they developed, it is a temperature-robust PCR which selectively amplifies all sequence variants within a 20 nt window by 1000-fold over wildtype sequences, allowing easy detection and quantitation of hundreds of potentials variants at ≤ 0.1% allele frequency.

BDA achieve similar enrichment performance across anneal temperatures ranging from 56 °C to 64 °C. This temperature robustness facilitates multiplexed enrichment of many different variants across the genome, furthermore enables the use of in- expensive and portable thermocycling instruments for rare DNA variant detection. BDA has been validated on sample types including clinical cell-free DNA samples collected from the blood plasma of lung cancer patients. Diagnosis of Gonococcal and other Neisserial infections: Amplification of specific N. gonorrhoea DNA or RNA sequences for detection. Diagnosis of urogenital C. trachomatis infections Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Detection of HIV RNA or DNA Detection of zoonotic coronaviruses