Assassination of Airey Neave
On 30 March 1979 the Irish National Liberation Army mortally wounded Airey Neave, the British Shadow Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, with a bomb fixed under his car which detonated in the Palace of Westminster car park in London. Neave subsequently died of his injuries; the Irish National Liberation Army, its political wing the Irish Republican Socialist Party, was formed at a meeting in a Dublin hotel in December 1974. In 1975 it began carrying out a paramilitary campaign in Northern Ireland on British Government facilities and officials with the strategic objective of removing Northern Ireland from the United Kingdom, using the front names of the "People's Liberation Army", the "Armagh People's Republican Army". Through the 1970s Neave, an influential Tory Member of the House of Commons, had been advocating within British political circles for an abandonment of the British Government's strategy of a containment of Irish paramilitary violence in Ulster against the British State, for the adoption of strategy of waging a military offensive against it seeking its martial defeat.
This brought him to the attention of both the Provisional Irish Republican Army and the I. N. L. A. as a potential threat to their organizations and activities. A member of I. N. L. A's leadership stated: "He was coming in on the heels of Mason to settle the Northern problem, made Mason look like a lamb, he wanted to bring in more Special Air Service, take the war to the enemy". After the Labour Government's defeat in the House of Commons on a vote of no confidence on 28 March 1979, a general election was called in the United Kingdom, with the Conservative Party expected to win the election, Neave, as the party's spokesman on Ulster, was set to become the new Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, which would place him in a position of governmental executive authority to bring his military strategy for the Province into fruition. A political source in Westminster hostile to Neave's statements on the security situation in Ulster is believed to have passed on information to the I. N. L. A. Which gave it the means to carry out the assassination attack upon him within the precincts of the Palace of Westminster.
The information it had received gave it a means of access to the House of Commons' car park, I. N. L. A. Decided to use a bomb with a mercury-tilt switch detonator which would explode when the device was at a certain acute angle on the House of Commons' car park ramp, as it lacked information on Neave's movements with the car to allow the effective use of a time bomb device. On Friday 30 March 1979 two I. N. L. A. Paramilitaries gained entry to the House of Commons' underground car park posing as workmen, carrying the bomb in a tool box. Once inside they identified Neave's car, fixed a 16 ounce explosive device with a mercury tilt detonator on to the floor panel under the driver's seat. Neave left the House of Commons a few minutes before 3 P. M; as he drove up the underground car park's exit ramp the angle tilted the bomb's mercury switch and it exploded, the blast knocking Neave unconscious, severing his legs and trapping him in the mangled wreckage of the vehicle. Neave was cut free from the wreckage by the emergency services, rushed to Westminster Hospital by ambulance, dying there a few minutes after arrival, not having regained consciousness.
The I. N. L. A. Issued a statement regarding the attack in the August 1979 edition of its publication The Starry Plough: In March, retired terrorist and supporter of capital punishment, Airey Neave, got a taste of his own medicine when an INLA unit pulled off the operation of the decade and blew him to bits inside the'impregnable' Palace of Westminster; the nauseous Margaret Thatcher snivelled on television that he was an'incalculable loss'—and so he was—to the British ruling class. Neave's death came just two days after the vote of no confidence which brought down Callaghan's government and a month before the 1979 general election, which saw a Conservative victory and Thatcher come to power as Prime Minister. Neave's wife Diana, whom he married on 29 December 1942, was subsequently elevated to the House of Lords as Baroness Airey of Abingdon. Neave's biographer Paul Routledge met a member of the Irish Republican Socialist Party, involved in the killing of Neave and who told Routledge that Neave "would have been successful at that job.
He would have brought the armed struggle to its knees". As a result of Neave's assassination the INLA was declared illegal across the whole of the United Kingdom on 2 July 1979. Neave's body was buried in the graveyard of St. Margaret's Church at Hinton Waldrist, in Oxfordshire. Brighton bombing Downing Street mortar attack Jack Holland, Henry McDonald, INLA – Deadly Divisions' The Lost Revolution: The Story of the Official IRA and the Workers' Party, Brian Hanley and Scott Millar, ISBN 1-84488-120-2 CAIN project Coogan, Tim Pat, The IRA, Fontana Books, ISBN 0-00-636943-X The Starry Plough – IRSP newspaper
1983 Royal Artillery Barracks bombing
On 10 December 1983 a bomb exploded at the Royal Artillery Barracks in Woolwich, South East London. The explosion caused minor damage to the building; the bomb exploded in a guard room. A Christmas party was underway in the Sergeants' Mess, around 300 yards away, when the bomb exploded; the Scottish National Liberation Army claimed responsibility for the bombing, stating that "more will follow", although Scotland Yard believed that the IRA were behind the attack. The IRA admitted responsibility for the attack. In November 1974 a pub close to the barracks, popular with local soldiers was bombed by the IRA in which a soldier and a barman were killed and over 30 people were injured. In May 2013 a soldier from the barracks was murdered just outside the base. Murder of Lee Rigby Clive Barracks bombing Kings Arms, Woolwich Deal barracks bombing Inglis Barracks bombing
1990 Eltham bombing
On 14 May 1990, a bomb attack on an army education office in Eltham, southeast London injured seven people. The Provisional IRA claimed responsibility in a statement from Belfast, its first in a mainland bombing campaign targeting'soft' military targets; the injured were all of them civilians. The bomb was plastic, up to 10 lb and hidden in a flowerbed at Eltham Palace - headquarters of the Royal Army Educational Corps - which could have killed many. Casualties were kept low by thin nylon film on the windows, which protected it from the flying glass; the attack parked cars. The Corps left the centre in Eltham in 1992. Two days an IRA bomb in a military facility at Wembley killed a soldier. Deal barracks bombing Inglis Barracks bombing Honourable Artillery Company bombing London Stock Exchange bombing 1990 Wembley bombing 1987 Rheindahlen bombing 1988 Netherlands Attacks Osnabruck mortar attack Lichfield gun attack Provisional Irish Republican Army campaign 1969–1997
Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2, it is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, the ninth-largest island in the world. In 2011, Great Britain had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan; the island of Ireland is situated to the west of Great Britain, together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles archipelago. The island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, Great Britain is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, constitutes most of its territory. Most of England and Wales are on the island; the term "Great Britain" is used to include the whole of England and Wales including their component adjoining islands. A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland by the 1707 Acts of Union.
In 1801, Great Britain united with the neighbouring Kingdom of Ireland, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, renamed the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" after the Irish Free State seceded in 1922. The archipelago has been referred to by a single name for over 2000 years: the term'British Isles' derives from terms used by classical geographers to describe this island group. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a collective name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, Roman-occupied Britain south of Caledonia; the earliest known name for Great Britain is Albion or insula Albionum, from either the Latin albus meaning "white" or the "island of the Albiones". The oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle, or by Pseudo-Aristotle, in his text On the Universe, Vol. III. To quote his works, "There are two large islands in it, called the British Isles and Ierne".
Pliny the Elder in his Natural History records of Great Britain: "Its former name was Albion. Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne; the French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Bryten, Breten. Britannia was used by the Romans from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together, it is derived from the travel writings of the Pytheas around 320 BC, which described various islands in the North Atlantic as far north as Thule. Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, described the island group as αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι; the peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the Priteni or Pretani. Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, which has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne used to refer to the early Brythonic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland; the latter were called Picts or Caledonians by the Romans. Greek historians Diodorus of Sicily and Strabo preserved variants of Prettanike from the work of Greek explorer Pytheas of Massalia, who travelled from his home in Hellenistic southern Gaul to Britain in the 4th century BC.
The term used by Pytheas may derive from a Celtic word meaning "the painted ones" or "the tattooed folk" in reference to body decorations. The Greco-Egyptian scientist Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. In his work, Geography, he gave the islands the names Alwion and Mona, suggesting these may have been the names of the individual islands not known to him at the time of writing Almagest; the name Albion appears to have fallen out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Britain, after which Britain became the more commonplace name for the island. After the Anglo-Saxon period, Britain was used as a historical term only. Geoffrey of Monmouth in his pseudohistorical Historia Regum Britanniae refers to the island as Britannia major, to distinguish it from Britannia minor, the continental region which approximates to modern Brittany, settled in the fifth and sixth centuries by migrants from Britain; the term Great Britain was first used in 1474, in the instrument drawing up the proposal for a marriage between Cecily the daughter of Edward IV of England, James the son of James III of Scotland, which described it as "this Nobill Isle, callit Gret Britanee".
It was used again in 1604, when King James VI and I styled himself "King of Great Brittaine and Ireland". Great Britain refers geographically to the island of Great Britain, it is often used to refer politically to the whole of England and Wales, including their smaller off shore islands. While it is sometimes used to refer to the whole of the United Kingdom, including Northern Ireland, this is not correct. Britain can refer to either all island
1979 Brussels bombing
The 1979 Brussels bombing was an attack carried out by volunteers belonging to the Provisional Irish Republican Army against a British Army band on the Grand Place, the central square of Brussels in Belgium on 29 August 1979. The bombing injured seven bandsmen and eleven civilians, caused extensive damage; the bombing was part of the IRA's European continental campaign against British targets in its fight to force the British out of Northern Ireland. The attack in Brussels was one of numerous ones from the IRA on the continent at the time. Earlier that year, Richard Sykes was assassinated in the Netherlands. A Brussels explosion on 25 June, narrowly missing American Alexander Haig, was intended for a British general. A bomb attack in Belgium's Antwerp targeted the British consulate building on 6 July 1979. Two days earlier, 18 British soldiers had been killed in Northern Ireland in the Warrenpoint ambush, Lord Mountbatten had been assassinated in the Republic of Ireland, both by the IRA; the band, from the Duke of Edinburgh's Royal Regiment based in Osnabrück, West Germany, was about to perform a concert as the bomb was planted underneath the open-air stage.
Only some of the band's 30 members had arrived, as the others were lucky enough to have been stuck in city traffic. Injuries were lessened and fatalities avoided since the band's members were dressing, away from the stage, at the time of the explosion; the bombing happened during. The IRA claimed responsibility in a telephone call to the city hall, according to Mayor Pierre Van Halteren. According to West German intelligence, the IRA planned the attack in co-ordination with the Palestine Liberation Organization. Warrenpoint ambush 1987 Rheindahlen bombing 1988 IRA attacks in the Netherlands Provisional Irish Republican Army campaign 1969–1997
Piccadilly is a road in the City of Westminster, London to the south of Mayfair, between Hyde Park Corner in the west and Piccadilly Circus in the east. It is part of the A4 road that connects central London to Hammersmith, Earl's Court, Heathrow Airport and the M4 motorway westward. St James's is to the south of the eastern section, while the western section is built up only on the northern side. Piccadilly is just under 1 mile in length, is one of the widest and straightest streets in central London; the street has been a main thoroughfare since at least medieval times, in the Middle Ages was known as "the road to Reading" or "the way from Colnbrook". Around 1611 or 1612, a Robert Baker acquired land in the area, prospered by making and selling piccadills. Shortly after purchasing the land, he enclosed it and erected several dwellings, including his home, Pikadilly Hall. What is now Piccadilly was named Portugal Street in 1663 after Catherine of Braganza, wife of Charles II, grew in importance after the road from Charing Cross to Hyde Park Corner was closed to allow the creation of Green Park in 1668.
Some of the most notable stately homes in London were built on the northern side of the street during this period, including Clarendon House and Burlington House in 1664. Berkeley House, constructed around the same time as Clarendon House, was destroyed by a fire in 1733 and rebuilt as Devonshire House in 1737 by William Cavendish, 3rd Duke of Devonshire, it was used as the main headquarters for the Whig party. Burlington House has since been home to several noted societies, including the Royal Academy of Arts, the Geological Society of London and the Royal Astronomical Society. Several members of the Rothschild family had mansions at the western end of the street. St James's Church was consecrated in 1684 and the surrounding area became St James Parish; the Old White Horse Cellar, at No. 155, was one of the most famous coaching inns in England by the late 18th century, by which time the street had become a favoured location for booksellers. The Bath Hotel emerged around 1790, Walsingham House was built in 1887.
Both the Bath and the Walsingham were purchased and demolished, the prestigious Ritz Hotel built on their site in 1906. Piccadilly Circus station, at the east end of the street, was opened in 1906 and rebuilt to designs by Charles Holden between 1925 and 1928; the clothing store Simpson's was established at Nos. 203–206 Piccadilly by Alec Simpson in 1936. During the 20th century, Piccadilly became known as a place to acquire heroin, was notorious in the 1960s as the centre of London's illegal drug trade. Today, it is regarded as one of London's principal shopping streets, its landmarks include the Ritz, Park Lane and Intercontinental hotels, Fortnum & Mason, the Royal Academy, the RAF Club, the Embassy of Japan and the High Commission of Malta. Piccadilly has inspired several works of fiction, including Oscar Wilde's The Importance of Being Earnest and the work of P. G. Wodehouse, it is one of a group of squares on the London Monopoly board. The street has been part of a main road for centuries, although there is no evidence that it was part of a Roman road, unlike Oxford Street further north.
In the Middle Ages it was known as "the road to Reading" or "the way from Colnbrook". During the Tudor period settled conditions made expansion beyond London's city walls a safer venture. Property speculation became a lucrative enterprise, developments grew so that the threat of disease and disorder prompted the government to ban developments. Owing to the momentum of growth, the laws had little real effect. A plot of land bounded by Coventry, Sherwood and Rupert streets and the line of Smith's Court was granted by Elizabeth I to William Dodington, a gentleman of London, in 1559–60. A year or so it was owned by a brewer, Thomas Wilson of St Botolph-without-Aldgate; the grant did not include a small parcel of land, 1 3⁄8 acres in area, on the east of what is now Great Windmill Street. That plot may have never belonged to the Crown, was owned by Anthony Cotton in the reign of Henry VIII. John Cotton granted it to John Golightly in 1547, his descendants sold it to a tailor, Robert Baker, in c. 1611–12.
Six or seven years Baker bought 22 acres of Wilson's land, thanks to money from his second marriage. Baker became financially successful by selling fashionable piccadills. Shortly after purchasing the land, he enclosed it and erected several dwellings, including a residence and shop for himself. A map published by Faithorne in 1658 describes the street as "the way from Knightsbridge to Piccadilly Hall". A nearby gaming house, known as Shaver's Hall and nicknamed "Tart Hall" or "Pickadell Hall", was popular with the gentry of London. Lord Dell lost £3000 gambling at cards there in 1641. After Robert Baker's death in 1623 and the death of his eldest son Samuel shortly afterward, his widow and her father purchased the wardship of their surviving children, their only daughter died, her widower Sir Henry Oxenden retained an interest in the land. Several relatives claimed it, but after Mary Baker's death in about 1665, the estate reverted to the Crown. A great-nephew, John Baker, obtained possession of part of it, but squabbled over the lands with his cousin, James Baker.
By the 1670s, Panton was developing the lands. Piccadilly was named Port
Selfridges, Oxford Street bombing 1975
On the 19 December 1974 the Provisional IRA exploded a car bomb, parked opposite to Selfridge's department store on Oxford Street in London. The bomb attack was carried out by an IRA active service unit known as the Balcombe Street Gang who carried out some 40 attacks in England between October 1974 - December 1975. Oxford Street was targeted in IRA bombings many other times during the Troubles. In August 1974, the Balcombe Street active service unit had been sent to England to await instructions on when to start operations, they opened their campaign with two devastating bombs in Guildford pubs which killed four off-duty British soldiers, one civilian and injured over 60 people. In the run up to Christmas 1974, the unit carried out a string of attacks. On 11 December, the unit carried out a bomb attack on the Long Bar of the Naval and Military Club in Piccadilly. A few minutes other members of the unit carried out a gun attack on the Cavalry Club, nobody was injured in either attack. On 14 December, the unit carried out a gun attack on the Churchill Hotel in Portman Square, three people were injured.
On 17 December, three time bombs exploded at telephone exchanges in London. In one of the explosions, George Arthur, a post office telephonist, was killed and one other person was injured. On Thursday the 19 December 1974 the IRA unit loaded a light blue Ford Cortina with 150 pounds of gelignite explosive into the boot of the car, the bomb was fitted with a pocket watch timing device and primed; this was the largest IRA bomb used in England up to that point. The IRA Volunteers drove the bomb car into Oxford Street and parked the stolen car at the side of Selfridge's building. At around 20:40 the leader of the IRA unit Joe O'Connell telephoned a warning to the Daily Mirror in London, giving security & emergency services about 15 – 20 minutes to clear the area. At about 21:00 the bomb exploded; the blast was so loud. The explosion shattered glass and blew in doors in shop fronts hundreds of yards away from the site of the bombing in both directions of Oxford Street. O'Connell had used 160 sticks of gelignite to construct the bomb, this had been the largest bomb the IRA had exploded in England up until that point and the explosion was estimated to have caused £1.5 million worth of damage.
Despite the warnings, nine people were injured in the blast and several people were treated for shock. A ceasefire between the IRA and the British forces in Northern Ireland was called in February 1975 and extended to mainland Britain; the ceasefire in Britain broke down in August 1975 when the IRA bombed a pub in Caterham injuring 33 people. This signaled the renewal of the bombing campaign in England. Oxford Street was again bombed by the IRA unit on 28 August 1975; the IRA unit was caught at the Balcombe St siege in December 1975, the four man unit spent 23 years in prison before being released in 1998. Oxford Street was targeted by IRA bombs many other times: twice in 1975, 1976, 1977, 1981, 1991 1992 and several times in both 1993 and 1994; the 1981 bombing killed 49 year old Kenneth Howorth, the Metropolitan Police explosives officer, attempting to defuse the bomb, planted outside a Wimpy Bar on Oxford Street on the 26 October 1981. "SYND 19 12 74 AFTERMATH OF OXFORD STREET BOMB BLAST - YouTube".
Youtube.com. Chronology of Provisional Irish Republican Army actions