1962 Pacific typhoon season
The 1962 Pacific typhoon season had no official bounds. The majority of the Pacific typhoons in 1962 formed in the Pacific Ocean north of the equator and west of the International Date Line with two exceptions: Tropical Depressions Fifty and Sixty-three formed in the Central Pacific. All tropical depressions are assigned a number. Most systems reaching tropical storm strength were assigned a name. Ninety tropical waves formed in the 1962 season. Only 78 of these became major easterly waves. 38 of these waves became tropical depressions, 30 became 23 become typhoons. This record of 24 typhoons beat 1952 record which had 21; this record was beaten in the 1964 season with 26 typhoons. Six super typhoons formed in 1962 which were Georgia, Ruth, Opal and Karen. With the high activity, only about half the cyclones in 1962 made landfall. There were seventeen suspect cyclones discovered by the JTWC in post-season reports. Three were reported to reach typhoon intensity, three at tropical storm status and two needed tropical depression warnings.
Two depressions, 50 and 63, formed in the Central Pacific under the Joint Hurricane Warning Center's jurisdiction and were included in the JTWC archives. Both depressions had no effects on land; the Central Pacific got Nora, Ruth, Gilda and Thelma, the remnants of Nadine and the ending of Karen near the end of the season. Six typhoons entered the Bering Sea: Nora, Ruth, Thelma and Emma. Four of the six were super typhoons. Three typhoons just missed entering the Bering Sea: Typhoons Hope and Gilda. Typhoons Georgia, Joan, Opal, Thelma, Amy, Gilda and Karen all lasted for at least one week with Opal lasting for eighteen straight days from a wave to the day the JMA ceased advisories; the second tropical wave of the season formed on the morning of February 2 off the southeastern coast of the Philippines. The storm intensified into a tropical depression and soon into the first tropical storm of the 1962 season; the intensifying tropical cyclone went through the latter half of February 2 as a 45 mph tropical storm, progressing southwest towards Indonesia.
However, on the early morning of February 3, the storm curved to the northeast and away from Indonesia. The strength remained unchanged during the day and before long reached its peak winds speeds of 50 mph. Continuing northward away from the coast of the Philippines, Fran remained at peak winds until the evening of February 4. During the morning hours of February 5, Fran dropped down to 45 mph tropical storm and continued northward, weakening to 40 mph. On the morning of February 6, Fran weakened into a tropical depression and the final advisory was released six hours after. A surge from an outdraft in the Southern Hemisphere entered the western Pacific on the afternoon of April 13; this surge began to come together near the island of Woleai and progressed northwestward through the Pacific. After crossing over Woleai, the system neared the island of Yap and began forming into the second tropical depression of the 1962 season. On the afternoon of April 16, the system was declared a tropical depression.
The depression made a curve to the south during the north and early on April 17 reconnaissance aircraft found surface winds of 65 mph. The storm was upgraded to a tropical storm on April 17 as the system continued curving, turning to the east. An eye began to form during the afternoon, it got to be 50 miles wide; the developing cyclone was declared a typhoon on the afternoon with winds of 85 mph. By the morning of April 18, Georgia had curved again, now to the north, gaining strength and developing an elliptical eye. Through the afternoon of April 18, Georgia continued to strengthen, reaching Category 2 status during the morning. Rapid strengthening and development continued through the afternoon, with minimum pressures of 952 millibars on the surface reported. Entering the morning of April 19, Georgia began forming a well-defined eye, having strengthened into a Category 3 cyclone. Intensification continued throughout the day with sustained winds reaching 145 mph by the end of the day; the next morning, Typhoon Georgia reached its peak sustained winds of 150 mph just west of the island of Guam.
The lowest minimum pressure recorded at that point was 930 millibars. The typhoon retained its strength for most of April 20, but in the late afternoon, the system began to weaken as it entered colder waters. Georgia curved to the northeast and weakened during April 21, by the end of the day, the eye was beginning to come apart. During the morning of April 22, surface winds were reported at only 90 mph and sustained winds soon followed; the cold waters continued to take its toll on the system, becoming a minimal Category 1 typhoon by the evening with no well-defined eye. On the morning of April 23, Georgia weakened into a tropical storm and weakened during the day as it began a transition into an extratropical cyclone. On the morning of April 24, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center ceased following the storm as it had become extratropical with winds of 60 mph; the extratropical remnants of Georgia continued northward east of the coast of Japan. On April 26, the extratropical remnants passed to the southeast of the Kamchatka Peninsula.
During the day, the system curved once again. During the day on April 27, the system returned to its northeaste
Typhoon Karen was the most powerful tropical cyclone to strike the island of Guam, has been regarded as one of the most destructive events in the island's history. It was first identified as a tropical disturbance on November 6, 1962, well to the southeast of Truk. Over the following two days, the system tracked northward and intensified. Karen became a tropical storm late on November 7, within two days it explosively intensified into a Category 5-equivalent super typhoon on the Saffir–Simpson scale. Turning westward, the typhoon maintained its intensity and struck Guam with winds of 280 km/h on November 11. Once clear of the island, it strengthened and reached its peak intensity on November 13 with winds of 295 km/h and a barometric pressure of 894 mb; the storm gradually turned northward as it weakened, brushing the Ryukyu Islands on November 15, before moving east-northeastward over the open waters of the Pacific. Karen continued to weaken and transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on November 17 before losing its identity the following day between Alaska and Hawaii.
Karen devastated Guam with wind gusts estimated up to 280 km/h. Ninety-five percent of homes were destroyed, leaving at least 45,000 people homeless. Communication and utilities were crippled, forcing officials to set up water distribution centers to prevent disease. Total losses on the island amounted to $250 million. Despite the severity of the damage, only 11 people were killed. In the wake of the storm, a massive relief operation evacuated thousands to California and Wake Island. Thousands more were sheltered in public buildings, tent villages, for many months. More than $60 million in relief funds were sent to Guam over the following years to aid in rehabilitation. Though the storm was devastating, it spurred a revitalized economy. On November 6, 1962, a tropical disturbance was identified over the Pacific Ocean several hundred miles south-southeast of Truk, in the Federated States of Micronesia, by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Tracking northwestward, the disturbance intensified and was classified as a tropical depression early on November 7.
That day, the system passed to the east of Truk and turned due north before attaining gale-force winds. Around 18:00 UTC, the JTWC issued their first advisory on Tropical Storm Karen, the 27th named storm of the 1962 season. Several hours a reconnaissance mission into the storm revealed a closed 35 km wide eye. Over the following 30 hours, Karen underwent a period of explosive intensification as its eye became small and defined. Between 00:00 UTC on November 8 and 03:40 UTC on November 9, Karen's barometric pressure plummeted from 990 mbar to 899 mb, a drop of 91 mb. At the end of this phase, Karen featured an 8 to 10 km wide eye and had estimated surface winds of 295 km/h, ranking it as a modern-day Category 5-equivalent super typhoon on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale. After attaining this initial peak intensity on November 9, Karen weakened somewhat as it curved west-northwestward. By 15:14 UTC, the storm began to undergo an eyewall replacement cycle as a larger secondary eyewall 64 km in diameter, started developing.
Although the storm's winds failed to drop Karen's central pressure rose to 919 mb during this phase. Accelerating Karen tracked west-northwestward towards Guam. By November 11, the system deepened once more. Between 12:10 and 12:35 UTC on November 11, the 14 km wide eye of Karen passed directly over southern Guam. At this time, the storm was estimated to have had winds of 280 km/h, which would have made it the most intense typhoon to strike the island since 1900. However, years of post-storm analyses have indicated that it may have been somewhat weaker when it passed over Guam. At the Weather Bureau station at the north end of Guam, a pressure of 942.4 mb was measured. Farther south at 939.7 mb was recorded. The lowest verified pressure was 931.9 mb at the Agana Naval Air Station. Closest to the eye was Naval Magazine where a pressure of 907.6 mb was never verified. Continuing west-northwestward, Karen attained its peak intensity on November 13, with a central pressure of 894 mb. Between November 13 and 14, Karen turned towards the north as it underwent another eyewall replacement cycle.
During this time, Karen weakened below Category 5 status as its winds dropped below 251 km/h. This marked the end of its near-record 4.25-day span as a storm of such intensity, second only to Typhoon Nancy of 1961 which maintained Category 5 status for 5.5 days. Over the following days, the typhoon's structure became disorganized, with its eye no longer well-defined by November 15. By this time, Karen began accelerating northeastward and east-northeastward over the open ocean; the combination of its rapid movement and entrainment of cold air into the circulation caused the system to transition into an extratropical cyclone on November 17. The remnants of Karen continued tracking east-northeast and were last noted by the JTWC on November 18 halfway between the southern Aleutian Islands and northern Hawaiian Islands. Following the identification of a tropical disturbance on November 6, a level four Typhoon Condition of Readiness, the lowest level of alert, was raised for Guam. By November 8, three days prior to Karen's arrival, this was raised to level three, prompting resident
Luzon is the largest and most populous island in the Philippines. It is ranked 15th largest in the world by land area. Located in the northern region of the archipelago, it is the economic and political center of the nation, being home to the country's capital city, Manila, as well as Quezon City, the country's most populous city. With a population of 53 million as of 2015, it is the fourth most populous island in the world containing 52.5% of the country's total population. Luzon may refer to one of the three primary island groups in the country; as such, it includes the Luzon mainland, the Batanes and Babuyan groups of islands to the north, Polillo Islands to the east, the outlying islands of Catanduanes, Masbate, Romblon and Palawan, among others, to the south. The name Luzon is thought to derive from the Tagalog word lusong, a large wooden mortar used in dehusking rice. Luzon was inhabited by Negrito people before Austronesians from Taiwan displaced them; the Austronesian groups were divided further into two types of nations.
Highland civilizations were based in the mountains and had built up plutocracies based on agriculture, such as the Igorot Society, responsible for building the Banaue Rice Terraces. Meanwhile, maritime states were split among Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms, Muslim principalities, ethnoreligious tribes, who had trading connections with Borneo, Java, India, Korea and China before the Spanish established their rule. From just before the first millennium, the Tagalog and Kapampangan peoples of south and central Luzon had established several major coastal polities, most notable among them those of Maynila and Namayan; the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, the first Philippine document written in 900AD, names places in and around Manila Bay as well as Medan in Indonesia. These kingdoms were based on leases between village rulers and landlords or Rajahs, to whom tributes and taxes were levied; these kingdoms were coastal thalassocracies based on trade with neighboring Asian political entities at that time.
There was a Sino-Buddhist country in nearby Mindoro called the country of Ma-i. According to sources at the time, the trade in large native Ruson-tsukuri clay jars used for storing green tea and rice wine with Japan flourished in the 12th century, local Tagalog and Pangasinense potters had marked each jar with Baybayin letters denoting the particular urn used and the kiln the jars were manufactured in. Certain kilns were renowned over prices depended on the reputation of the kiln. Of this flourishing trade, the Burnay jars of Ilocos are the only large clay jar manufactured in Luzon today with origins from this time. During the 1300s, the Javanese-centered Hindu empire of Majapahit ruled over Luzon as recorded in the epic poem Nagarakretagama, which stated that they had colonies in the Philippines at Saludong and Solot; the kingdoms of Luzon regained independence from Majapahit after the Battle of Manila and Sulu reestablished independence and in vengeance, assaulted the Majapahit province of Poni before a fleet from the capital drove them out.
The Yongle Emperor instituted a Chinese Governor on Luzon during Zheng He's voyages and appointed Ko Ch'a-lao to that position in 1405. China had vassals among the leaders in the archipelago. China attained ascendancy in trade with the area in Yongle's reign. Afterwards, some parts of Luzon were Islamized when the former Majapahit province of Poni broke free, converted to Islam, imported an Arab prince from Saudi Arabia, in the person of Sharif Ali, became the Sultanate of Brunei, a nation that expanded its realms from Borneo to the Philippines and set up the Kingdom of Maynila as its puppet-state as well as incorporate the newly converted Sultanate of Sulu by a royal marriage. However, other kingdoms resisted Islam, like the Wangdom of Pangasinan which had remained a tributary state to China and was a Sinified kingdom which maintained trade with Japan. In the 1500s, people from Luzon were called Lucoes and they established many overseas communities within the Indo-Pacific and were employed in trading and military campaigns across Southeast Asia.
The Portuguese were the first European explorers who recorded it in their charts as Luçonia or Luçon and inhabitants were called Luçoes. Edmund Roberts, who visited Luzon in the early 19th century, wrote that Luzon was "discovered" in 1521. Many people from Luzon had active-employment in Portuguese Malacca. Lucoes such as the Luzon spice magnate Regimo de Raja, based in Malacca, was influential and the Portuguese appointed him as Temenggong or a governor and chief general responsible for overseeing of maritime trade, at Malacca; as Temenggung, he was the head of an armada which traded and protected commerce between the Indian Ocean, the Strait of Malacca, the South China Sea, the medieval maritime principalities of the Philippines. His father and wife carried on his maritime trading business after his death. Another important Malacca trader was Curia de Raja who hailed from Luzon; the "surname" of "de Raja" or "diraja" could indicate that Regimo and Curia, their families, were of noble or royal descent as the term is an abbreviation of Sanskrit adiraja.
Pinto noted that there were a number of Lucoes in the Islamic fleets that went to battle with the Portuguese in the Philippines during the 16th century. The Sultan of Aceh gave one of them the task of holding Aru in 1540. Pinto says one was named leader of the Malays remaining in the Moluccas Islands after the
The bar is a metric unit of pressure, but is not approved as part of the International System of Units. It is defined as equal to 100,000 Pa, less than the current average atmospheric pressure on Earth at sea level; the bar and the millibar were introduced by the Norwegian meteorologist Vilhelm Bjerknes, a founder of the modern practice of weather forecasting. The International Bureau of Weights and Measures lists the bar as one of the "non-SI units should have the freedom to use", but has declined to include it among the "Non-SI units accepted for use with the SI"; the bar has been recognised in countries of the European Union since 2004. The US National Institute of Standards and Technology deprecates its use except for "limited use in meteorology" and lists it as one of several units that "must not be introduced in fields where they are not presently used"; the International Astronomical Union lists it under "Non-SI units and symbols whose continued use is deprecated". Units derived from the bar include the megabar, decibar and millibar.
The notation bar, though deprecated by various bodies, represents gauge pressure, i.e. pressure in bars above ambient or atmospheric pressure. The bar is defined using the SI derived unit, pascal: 1 bar ≡ 100,000 Pa ≡ 100,000 N/m2. Thus, 1 bar is equal to: 1,000,000 Ba. Notes: 1 millibar = 1 one-thousandth bar, or 1×10−3 bar 1 millibar = 1 hectopascal; the word bar has its origin in the Greek word βάρος, meaning weight. The unit's official symbol is bar. Between 1793 and 1795, the word bar was used for a unit of weight in an early version of the metric system. Atmospheric air pressure is given in millibars, where standard atmospheric pressure at sea level is defined as 1013.25 mbar, 101.325 kPa, 1.01325 bar, about 14.7 pounds per square inch. Despite the millibar not being an SI unit and weather reporters worldwide have long measured air pressure in millibars as the values are convenient. After the advent of SI units, some meteorologists began using hectopascals which are numerically equivalent to millibars.
For example, the weather office of Environment Canada uses kilopascals and hectopascals on their weather maps. In contrast, Americans are familiar with the use of the millibar in US reports of hurricanes and other cyclonic storms. In fresh water, there is an approximate numerical equivalence between the change in pressure in decibars and the change in depth from the water surface in metres. An increase of 1 decibar occurs for every 1.019716 m increase in depth. In sea water with respect to the gravity variation, the latitude and the geopotential anomaly the pressure can be converted into metres' depth according to an empirical formula; as a result, decibars are used in oceanography. Many engineers worldwide use the bar as a unit of pressure because, in much of their work, using pascals would involve using large numbers. In measurement of vacuum and in vacuum engineering, residual pressures are given in millibar, although torr or millimeter of mercury were common. Engineers that specialize in technical safety for offshore petrochemical facilities would be expected to refer to explosion loads in units of bar or bars.
A bar is a convenient unit of measure for pressures generated by low frequency vapor cloud explosions that are considered as part of accidental loading risk studies. In the automotive field, turbocharger boost is described in bars outside the USA. Tire pressure is specified in bar. Unicode has characters for "mb" and "bar", but they exist only for compatibility with legacy Asian encodings and are not intended to be used in new documents; the kilobar, equivalent to 100 MPa, is used in geological systems in experimental petrology. "Bar" and "bara" are sometimes used to indicate absolute pressures and "bar" and "barg" for gauge pressures. This usage is deprecated and fuller descriptions such as "gauge pressure of 2 bar" or "2-bar gauge" are recommended. Atmospheric pressure Centimetre of water Conversion of units Meteorology Metric prefix Orders of magnitude Pressure measurement This article incorporates material from the Citizendium article "Bar", licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License but not under the GFDL.
Official SI website: Table 8. Non-SI units accepted for use with the SI US government atmospheric pressure map showing atmospheric pressure in mbar
Typhoon Pamela (1976)
Typhoon Pamela was a powerful typhoon that struck the U. S. territory of Guam in May 1976, causing about $500 million in damage. The sixth named storm and third typhoon of the 1976 Pacific typhoon season, Pamela developed on May 14 from a trough in the Federated States of Micronesia in the area of the Nomoi Islands, it executed a counterclockwise loop and intensified, bringing heavy rains to the islands in the region. Ten people died on Chuuk due to a landslide. After beginning a steady northwest motion toward Guam, Pamela attained its peak winds of 240 km/h. On May 21, the large eye of the typhoon crossed Guam, producing typhoon-force winds for a period of 18 hours. An estimated 80% of the buildings on the island were damaged to some degree, including 3,300 houses that were destroyed. Pamela's slow motion produced 856 mm of rainfall. Despite the high damage, well-executed warnings kept the death toll to only one. After affecting the island, the typhoon weakened and turned northeastward, passing near Iwo Jima before becoming an extratropical cyclone.
The origins of Typhoon Pamela were from a tropical disturbance that persisted in the eastern end of the equatorial trough on May 13. At the time, it was located about 425 km north of Chuuk in the Federated States of Micronesia; the disturbance was difficult to locate as it tracked to the south and southwest, a motion caused by a southward-moving tropical upper tropospheric trough. On May 14, the Japan Meteorological Agency indicated that the system developed into a tropical cyclone; that same day, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center followed suit and classified it as Tropical Depression 06W. The next day, data from the Typhoon Chasers indicated that the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Pamela, it was able to intensify. The storm turned to the south and east executing a counterclockwise loop through the FSM; this was due to a building ridge between Typhoon Olga to its west. On May 16, observations from Satawan in the Caroline Islands indicated that Pamela attained typhoon status, a tropical cyclone with maximum sustained winds of at least 118 km/h.
This was confirmed the next day by the Typhoon Chasers. Upon attaining typhoon status, Pamela was a small tropical cyclone with a central dense overcast spanning 280 km in diameter. After completing its counterclockwise loop, the typhoon began a slow motion to the northwest, once the ridge to its west diminished. On May 18, it passed within 95 km of Chuuk, around that time Pamela developed a circular eye about 18 km in diameter; the typhoon intensified as it began a more steady northwest movement due to a ridge to its east, on May 19 Pamela attained peak winds of 240 km/h about 485 km southeast of Guam. At that time, it had gusts to 295 km/h. Typhoon Pamela maintained peak intensity for about 18 hours, during which the Typhoon Chasers reported an atmospheric pressure of 921 millibars; the JMA estimated the minimum pressure was lower at 920 millibars. A trough passing to its north caused the typhoon to turn more to the north-northwest. Around 0400 UTC on May 21, the eyewall of Pamela struck southeastern Guam with winds of about 220 km/h.
Over a three-hour period, the 37 km wide eye crossed the island. After leaving the island, Pamela continued northwestward for two days while maintaining its intensity. On May 23, it turned to the northeast due to a break in the subtropical ridge; the typhoon passed 28 km east of Iwo Jima with winds of 140 km/h. As Pamela accelerated over cooler waters and into an area of higher wind shear, it weakened and was downgraded to a tropical storm on May 25; the next day, the storm became extratropical, which lasted until June 1 before dissipating over the Bering Sea. Pamela first presented a threat to Guam on May 16. All subsequent forecasts anticipated. In response to Pamela's approach, Guam was placed under Typhoon Condition of Readiness III on May 18; this was upgrade to TCCOR II on that day, TCCOR I the next day. The Navy and Air Force evacuated assets. Before the typhoon's arrival, officials advised residents to store water prior to the storm's arrival. About 2,100 people in vulnerable wooden homes were evacuated to storm shelters set up in schools and public offices.
While passing between the Losap and Namoluk atolls in the Mortlock Islands, Pamela produced winds of over 102 km/h. Different communities experienced differing levels of damage from the storm; the islands of Etal and Kutu received the most damage as storm waves submerged these islands for over 15 to 18 hours. Across these islands, the typhoon left reef damage. Islands such as Satawan and Lukunor received more moderate damage from the storm. No deaths were reported in the Morlock Islands. From May 17 to 18, at the Weather Service on Chuuk, Pamela dumped 14.59 in of rain. The rains resulted in mudslide that killed 10 people on Moen, many of whom lived in a single buried house. Winds reached 91 km/h; the typhoon produced 10 in of rain on Saipan. The impact there was minor. While crossing Guam, Pamela produced winds of over 185 km/h across the entire island over a six-hour period, causing widespread heavy damage. Typhoon-force winds were reported for 18 hours, tropical storm-force winds were reported for
1976 Pacific hurricane season
The 1976 Pacific hurricane season was a deadly and costly season. Hurricanes Kathleen and Madeline were the most notable storms this year. Hurricane Kathleen caused destruction in California and Arizona due to flooding. Hurricane Liza was the deadliest storm of the season. Hurricane Madeline is notable for being the most intense Pacific hurricane at landfall; the season started May 15, 1976, in the eastern Pacific, June 1, 1976, in the central Pacific, lasted until November 30, 1976. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. In practice, the season lasted from the formation of the first storm on June 2 to the dissipation of the last on October 30; this season had a below average number of tropical storms, with fourteen. The number of hurricanes was average, with eight; the season had an above-average number of major hurricanes, with five reaching Category 3 or higher on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. Four of tropical depressions dissipated.
There were five landfalls, including three by consecutive storms. In the Central Pacific, one tropical cyclone, a hurricane formed. Two storms entered the region from the east; these totals are close to average. Tropical Depression One formed June 2 at a location far out to sea. After moving west, it dissipated the day. On June 3, Tropical Depression Two formed from an area of disturbed weather. Three days it became a tropical storm and was given the name Annette, it intensified reaching Category 4 strength three days and its pressure plunged to 925 millibars. Its west-northwest path was well away from any land. Annette dissipated on June 14, without affecting land. A tropical depression formed on June 26, it headed westward. It began to weaken. Bonny dissipated June 29. Tropical Depression Four formed on June 28 from a large area of thunderstorms. Having moved north for its short life, it made landfall near Salina Cruz on June 30 and dissipated shortly after that. Impact was minimal. After a calm of two weeks, Tropical Depression Five formed on July 14.
The next day, it reached tropical storm strength. Celeste had no effect on any land area; the storm dissipated two days later. On July 16, the sixth depression of the season formed, it reached tropical storm strength that day. The storm continued intensifying reaching Category 2 strength before weakening as it headed out to sea. Diana dissipated on July 23 not long after entering the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's area of responsibility. Diana's remnants lost their identity shortly after that. Diana did not threaten land. Part of a large disturbance developed two centers of circulation. One center organized into Tropical Depression Seven on July 27, it strengthened into Tropical Storm Estelle. Due to its proximity to Tropical Storm Fernanda as well as cooler waters, Estelle dissipated on July 29, its remnants were promptly absorbed by the other system. An active second half of July continued when, on July 28, the other part of the disturbance became Tropical Depression Eight. Soon, the depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Fernanda.
After absorbing the remnants of Tropical Storm Estelle, Fernanda began to weaken. It was only a depression when it entered the CPHC's area of responsibility on July 30; the depression was tracked to a point south of the Hawaiian Islands, dissipated on August 2. On August 5, a tropical depression formed. Within a day, it was named Gwen. Gwen decelerated; the Eastern Pacific Hurricane Center downgraded Gwen to a depression, as it became nearly stationary on August 11. Hurricane Hyacinth's center approached within 800 kilometres of Gwen's center. Binary interaction between the two systems pulled Gwen to the north. Gwen re-intensified to a tropical storm on August 12, it slowly weakened over cooler waters as Hyacinth fell apart and was absorbed by Gwen. The combined tropical depression entered the north central Pacific, it was tracked to a point north of Kauai, where it dissipated as a tropical cyclone on August 17. The only effect Gwen had on any land was to disrupt the trade winds enough to cause rainfall on Kauai.
After passing north of Hawai'i, thunderstorm activity increased near its center on August 17 and 20. The system recurved to the east of the International Dateline during that time frame. Gwen's remaining low level spin recurved into the Westerlies on August 20. Tropical Depression Ten formed on August 6 from an area of disturbed weather. Twelve hours it became a tropical storm and was named Hyacinth. Three days it became a hurricane. Hyacinth intensified, reaching Category 3 intensity on August 10, it moved over cooler waters and began weakening. After interacting with Tropical Storm Gwen, Hyacinth weakened to a depression and merged with Tropical Depression Gwen on August 14. Tropical Depression Eleven formed on August 8, it dissipated the next day as a tropical cyclone after stalling out over the open ocean. Its remnants rotated northwestward around the east and northeast side of the merging Tropical Cyclones Gwen and Hyacinth on August 15. Tropical Depression Twelve formed on August 16. After drifting for two days in the open ocean, it moved over cooler waters.
It was reduced to a swirl of clouds on August 19. The day after forming on the August 24, a tropical depression reached tropic
Guam is an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States in Micronesia in the western Pacific Ocean. It is the easternmost point and territory of the United States, along with the Northern Mariana Islands; the capital city of Guam is Hagåtña and the most populous city is Dededo. The inhabitants of Guam are called Guamanians, they are American citizens by birth. Indigenous Guamanians are the Chamorros, who are related to other Austronesian natives of Eastern Indonesia, the Philippines, Taiwan. Guam has been a member of the Pacific Community since 1983. In 2016, 162,742 people resided on Guam. Guam has a population density of 775 per square mile. In Oceania, it is the largest and southernmost of the Mariana Islands and the largest island in Micronesia. Among its municipalities, Mongmong-Toto-Maite has the highest population density at 3,691 per square mile, whereas Inarajan and Umatac have the lowest density at 119 per square mile; the highest point is Mount Lamlam at 1,332 feet above sea level.
Since the 1960s, the economy has been supported by two industries: tourism and the United States Armed Forces. The indigenous Chamorros settled the island 4,000 years ago. Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, while in the service of Spain, was the first European to visit the island, on March 6, 1521. Guam was colonized by Spain in 1668 with settlers, including Diego Luis de San Vitores, a Catholic Jesuit missionary. Between the 16th century and the 18th century, Guam was an important stopover for the Spanish Manila Galleons. During the Spanish–American War, the United States captured Guam on June 21, 1898. Under the Treaty of Paris, Spain ceded Guam to the United States on December 10, 1898. Guam is among the 17 non-self-governing territories listed by the United Nations. Before World War II, there were five American jurisdictions in the Pacific Ocean: Guam and Wake Island in Micronesia, American Samoa and Hawaii in Polynesia, the Philippines. On December 7, 1941, hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Guam was captured by the Japanese, who occupied the island for two and a half years.
During the occupation, Guamanians were subjected to beheadings, forced labor and torture. American forces recaptured the island on July 21, 1944. An unofficial but used territorial motto is "Where America's Day Begins", which refers to the island's close proximity to the international date line; the original inhabitants of Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands were the Chamorro people, who are believed to be descendants of Austronesian people originating from Southeast Asia as early as 2000 BC. The ancient Chamorro society had four classes: chamorri, matua and mana'chang; the matua were located in the coastal villages, which meant they had the best access to fishing grounds, whereas the mana'chang were located in the interior of the island. Matua and mana'chang communicated with each other, matua used achaot as intermediaries. There were "makåhna" or "kakahna", shamans with magical powers and "Suruhånu" or "Suruhåna" healers who use different kinds of plants and natural materials to make medicine.
Belief in spirits of ancient Chamorros called "Taotao mo'na" still persists as a remnant of pre-European culture. It is believed that "Suruhånu" or "Suruhåna" are the only ones who can safely harvest plants and other natural materials from their homes or "hålomtåno" without incurring the wrath of the "Taotao mo'na", their society was organized along matrilineal clans. Latte stones are stone pillars; the latte-stone was used as a foundation. Latte stones consist of a base shaped from limestone called the haligi and with a capstone, or tåsa, made either from a large brain coral or limestone, placed on top. A possible source for these stones, the Rota Latte Stone Quarry, was discovered in 1925 on Rota; the first European to travel to Guam was Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan, sailing for the King of Spain, when he sighted the island on March 6, 1521, during his fleet's circumnavigation of the globe. When Magellan arrived on Guam, he was greeted by hundreds of small outrigger canoes that appeared to be flying over the water, due to their considerable speed.
These outrigger canoes were called Proas, resulted in Magellan naming Guam Islas de las Velas Latinas. Antonio Pigafetta said that the name was "Island of Sails", but he writes that the inhabitants "entered the ships and stole whatever they could lay their hands on", including "the small boat, fastened to the poop of the flagship." "Those people are poor, but ingenious and thievish, on account of which we called those three islands Islas de los Ladrones." Despite Magellan's visit, Guam was not claimed by Spain until January 26, 1565, by General Miguel López de Legazpi. From 1565 to 1815, Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands, the only Spanish outposts in the Pacific Ocean east of the Philippines, were an important resting stop for the Manila galleons, a fleet that covered the Pacific trade route between Acapulco and Manila. To protect these Pacific fleets, Spain built several defensive structures that still stand today, such as Fort Nuestra Señora de la Soledad in Umatac. Guam is the biggest single segment of Micronesia, the largest islands between the island of Kyushu, New Guinea, the Philippines, the Hawaiian Islands.
Spanish colonization commenced on June 15, 1