Rangers Football Club are a football club in Glasgow, Scotland, which plays in the Scottish Premiership, the first tier of the Scottish Professional Football League. Their home ground, Ibrox Stadium, is in the south-west of the city, Rangers were the first British club to reach a UEFA tournament final and won the European Cup Winners Cup in 1972 after being runner-up twice in 1961 and 1967. A third runners-up finish in Europe came in the UEFA Cup in 2008, Rangers have a long-standing rivalry with Celtic, the two Glasgow clubs being collectively known as the Old Firm. The four founders of Rangers – brothers Moses and Peter McNeil, Peter Campbell, Rangers first match, in May that year, was a goalless friendly draw with Callander on Glasgow Green. David Hill was also a founder member, in 1873, the club held its first annual meeting and staff were elected. By 1876 Rangers had its first international player, with Moses McNeil representing Scotland in a match against Wales. In 1877 Rangers reached a Scottish Cup final, after drawing the first game, Rangers refused to turn up for the replay, Rangers won the Glasgow Merchants Charity Cup the following year against Vale of Leven 2–1, their first major cup. The first-ever Old Firm match took place in 1888, the year of Celtics establishment, Rangers lost 5–2 in a friendly to a team composed largely of guest players from Hibernian. The 1890–91 season saw the inception of the Scottish Football League, the clubs first-ever league match, on 16 August 1890, resulted in a 5–2 victory over Heart of Midlothian. After finishing joint-top with Dumbarton, a play-off held at Cathkin Park finished 2–2, Rangers first-ever Scottish Cup win came in 1894 after a 3–1 final victory over rivals Celtic. By the start of the 20th century, Rangers had won two titles and three Scottish Cups. During William Wiltons time as secretary and then team manager. Taking over as manager from William Wilton in 1920, Bill Struth was Rangers most successful manager, on 2 January 1939 a British league attendance record was broken as 118,567 fans turned out to watch Rangers beat Celtic in the traditional New Years Day Old Firm match. During the wartime regional league setup, Rangers achieved their highest score against old firm rivals Celtic with an 8–1 win in the Southern Football League, Rangers also lost by their biggest Old Firm margin of 7–1. Rangers reached the semi-finals of the European Cup in 1960, losing to German club Eintracht Frankfurt by a record aggregate 12–4 for a Scottish team. In 1961 Rangers became the first British team to reach a European final when they contested the Cup Winners Cup final against Italian side Fiorentina, Rangers lost again in the final of the same competition in 1967, by a single goal after extra time to Bayern Munich. The Ibrox disaster occurred on 2 January 1971 when large-scale crushing on an exit at the culmination of the New Years Day Old Firm game claimed 66 lives. An enquiry concluded that the crush was likely to have happened ten minutes after the final whistle and to have been triggered by someone falling on the stairs
Heart of Midlothian F.C.
Heart of Midlothian Football Club, commonly known as Hearts, is a Scottish professional football club based in Gorgie in the west of Edinburgh. It is currently the only Scottish Premiership club in the city, with Edinburgh derby rivals Hibernian playing in the Scottish Championship and Edinburgh City playing in Scottish League Two. Hearts is the oldest football club in the Scottish capital, having formed in 1874 by a group of friends from the Heart of Midlothian Quadrille Assembly Club. The modern club crest is based on the Heart of Midlothian mosaic on the citys Royal Mile, Hearts play at Tynecastle Stadium, where home matches have been played since 1886. Their current training facilities are at the nearby Heriot Watt University in Edinburgh, the clubs most successful period was under Tommy Walker from the mid 1950s to mid 1960s. They won seven trophies in this period and were runners up for five others, Jimmy Wardhaugh, Willie Bauld and Alfie Conn, Sr. known affectionately as the Terrible Trio were famed forwards at the start of this period with wing half lynch pins Dave Mackay and John Cumming. Wardhaugh was part of another notable Hearts attacking trinity in the 1957–58 league winning side, along with Jimmy Murray and Alex Young they set the record for the number of goals scored in that league winning campaign. In doing so became the only side to finish a season with a goal difference exceeding 100. Hearts have won the Scottish Cup eight times, most recently in 2012 after a 5–1 win over city-rivals Hibernian, Hearts four Scottish League Cup triumphs were all under Walker, most recently a 1–01962 Scottish League Cup Final victory against Kilmarnock. The most recent Scottish League Cup Final appearance was in 2013 when they lost to St Mirren 3–2, in 1958, Heart of Midlothian became the third Scottish and fifth British team to compete in European competition at the time. The club reached the quarter-finals of the 1988–89 UEFA Cup, losing out to Bayern Munich 2–1 on aggregate, the club was formed by a group of friends from the Heart of Midlothian Quadrille Assembly Club. The group of friends bought a ball before playing local rules football at the Tron from where they were directed by a policeman to The Meadows to play. Local rules football was a mix of rugby and football as we know it, in December 1873 a match was held between XIs selected by Mr Thomson from Queens Park and Mr Gardner from Clydesdale at Raimes Park in Bonnington. This was the first time that Association rules had seen in Edinburgh. Members from the dance club viewed the match and in 1874 decided to adopt the association rules, the new side was Heart of Mid-Lothian Football Club. The earliest mention of Heart of Midlothian in a context is a report in The Scotsman newspaper from 20 July 1864 of The Scotsman vs Heart of Mid-Lothian at cricket. It is not known if this was the club who went on to form the football club. The club took its name from the Heart of Midlothian jail, by becoming members of the Scottish Association Hearts were able to play in the Scottish Cup for the first time
Hampden Park is a football stadium in the Mount Florida area of Glasgow, Scotland. The 51, 866-capacity venue serves as the stadium of football in Scotland. It is also used for concerts and other sporting events. There were two 19th century stadia called Hampden Park, built on different sites, a stadium on the present site was first opened on 31 October 1903. Hampden was the biggest stadium in the world when it was opened and this was increased further between 1927 and 1937, reaching a peak of 150,000. The record attendance of 149,415, for a Scotland v England match in 1937, is the European record for a football match. Tighter safety regulations meant that the capacity was reduced to 81,000 in 1977, the stadium has been fully renovated since then, with the most recent work being completed in 1999. The stadium houses the offices of the Scottish Football Association and Scottish Professional Football League, Hampden has hosted prestigious sporting events, including three Champions League finals, two Cup Winners Cup finals and a UEFA Cup final. Hampden is a UEFA category four stadium and it is served by the nearby Mount Florida, Queens Park, the oldest club in Scottish football, have played at a venue called Hampden Park since October 1873. The first Hampden Park was overlooked by a terrace named after Englishman John Hampden. Queens Park played at the first Hampden Park for 10 years beginning with a Scottish Cup tie on 25 October 1873, the ground hosted the first Scottish Cup Final, in 1874, and a Scotland v England match in 1878. The club moved to the second Hampden Park,150 yards from the original, a lawn bowling club at the junction of Queens Drive and Cathcart Road marks the site of the first Hampden. The second Hampden Park opened in October 1884 and it became a regular home to the Scottish Cup Final, but Celtic Park shared some of the big matches including the Scotland v England fixture in 1894. In the late 1890s, Queens Park requested more land for development of the second Hampden Park and this was refused by the landlords, which led to the club seeking a new site. Henry Erskine Gordon agreed to sell 12 acres of land off Somerville Drive to Queens Park in November 1899, james Miller designed twin grandstands along the south side of the ground with a pavilion wedged in between. The natural slopes were shaped to form banks of terracing, designed by Archibald Leitch, construction of the new ground took over three years to complete, during construction, a disaster occurred at Ibrox in which part of the wooden terraces collapsed. In response, the terraces at Hampden were firmly set in the earthwork, Third Lanark A. C. took over the second Hampden Park in 1903 and renamed it Cathkin Park. The club rebuilt the ground from scratch due to a failure to agree a fee for the whole stadium, Third Lanark went out of business in 1967 and Cathkin Park is now a public park with much of the original terracing still evident
Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland, and third largest in the United Kingdom. Historically part of Lanarkshire, it is now one of the 32 council areas of Scotland and it is situated on the River Clyde in the countrys West Central Lowlands. Inhabitants of the city are referred to as Glaswegians, Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become the largest seaport in Britain. From the 18th century the city grew as one of Great Britains main hubs of transatlantic trade with North America. Glasgow was the Second City of the British Empire for much of the Victorian era and Edwardian period, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries Glasgow grew in population, reaching a peak of 1,128,473 in 1939. The entire region surrounding the conurbation covers about 2.3 million people, at the 2011 census, Glasgow had a population density of 8, 790/sq mi, the highest of any Scottish city. Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and is well known in the sporting world for the football rivalry of the Old Firm between Celtic and Rangers. Glasgow is also known for Glasgow patter, a dialect that is noted for being difficult to understand by those from outside the city. Glasgow is the form of the ancient Cumbric name Glas Cau. Possibly referring to the area of Molendinar Burn where Glasgow Cathedral now stands, the later Gaelic name Baile Glas Chu, town of the grey dog, is purely a folk-etymology. The present site of Glasgow has been settled since prehistoric times, it is for settlement, being the furthest downstream fording point of the River Clyde, the origins of Glasgow as an established city derive ultimately from its medieval position as Scotlands second largest bishopric. Glasgow increased in importance during the 10th and 11th centuries as the site of this bishopric, reorganised by King David I of Scotland and John, there had been an earlier religious site established by Saint Mungo in the 6th century. The bishopric became one of the largest and wealthiest in the Kingdom of Scotland, bringing wealth, sometime between 1189 and 1195 this status was supplemented by an annual fair, which survives as the Glasgow Fair. Glasgow grew over the following centuries, the first bridge over the River Clyde at Glasgow was recorded from around 1285, giving its name to the Briggait area of the city, forming the main North-South route over the river via Glasgow Cross. The founding of the University of Glasgow in 1451 and elevation of the bishopric to become the Archdiocese of Glasgow in 1492 increased the towns religious and educational status and landed wealth. Its early trade was in agriculture, brewing and fishing, with cured salmon and herring being exported to Europe, Glasgow was subsequently raised to the status of Royal Burgh in 1611. The citys Tobacco Lords created a water port at Port Glasgow on the Firth of Clyde. By the late 18th century more than half of the British tobacco trade was concentrated on Glasgows River Clyde, at the time, Glasgow held a commercial importance as the city participated in the trade of sugar, tobacco and later cotton
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles, the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union also created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, titles, the legal system within Scotland has also remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law. Glasgow, Scotlands largest city, was one of the worlds leading industrial cities. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee, Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europes oil capital, following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs, Scotland is also a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels, the Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages. Repeated glaciations, which covered the land mass of modern Scotland. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, the groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period and it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was also discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves, in the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, when the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four houses
Referee (association football)
In association football, the referee is the person responsible for enforcing the Laws of the Game during the course of a match. At higher levels of play the referee may also be assisted by an official who supervises the teams technical areas. Referees remuneration for their services varies between leagues, Referees are licensed and trained by the same national organisations that are members of FIFA. Each national organisation recommends its top officials to FIFA to have the honour of being included on the FIFA International Referees List. International games between national teams require FIFA officials, otherwise, the local national organisation determines the manner of training, ranking and advancement of officials from the youngest youth games through professional matches. The referees powers and duties are described by Law 5 of the Laws of the Game, as per Law 9 of the game, if during the game the ball hits the referee there is no stoppage in play. However the officials would be expected to position themselves such that this would be unlikely to occur. Modern day referees and their assistants wear a uniform consisting of a jersey, badge, shorts and socks, since then, most referees have worn either yellow or black, but the colours and styles adopted by individual associations vary greatly. For international contests under the supervision of FIFA, Adidas uniforms are worn because Adidas is the current sponsor, FIFA allows referees to wear five colours, black, red, yellow, green and blue. Along with the jersey, referees are required to wear shorts, black socks. The badge, which displays the referees license level and year of validity, is affixed to the left chest pocket. All referees carry a whistle, a watch, penalty cards, a wallet with pen and paper. Most are encouraged to have more than one of each on them in case they drop a whistle or a pen runs out, often, referees utilize two watches so that they can use one to calculate time lost for stoppages for the purposes of added time. In matches with goal-line technology, the referee will have on their person a device to receive the systems alerts, Referees use a whistle to help in match control. The whistle is sometimes needed to stop, start or restart play but should not be used for all stoppages, fIFAs Laws of the Game document gives guidance as to when the whistle should and should not be used. Overuse of the whistle is discouraged since, as stated in the Laws, the whistle is an important tool for the referee along with verbal, body and eye communication. Before the introduction of the whistle, referees indicated their decisions by waving a white handkerchief, the whistles that were first adopted by referees were made by Joseph Hudson at Mills Munitions in Birmingham, England. The Acme Whistle Company first began to mass-produce pea whistles in the 1870s for the Metropolitan Police Force, Referees in football are first described by Richard Mulcaster in 1581
John Greig MBE is a Scottish former professional footballer who played as a defender, he spent his entire career with Rangers, as a player, manager and director. Greig was voted The Greatest Ever Ranger in 1999 by the supporters and has been elected to Rangers Hall of Fame. Greig played his football with United Crossroads in Edinburgh, under the supervision of Eric Gardner. It is unknown if Hearts showed any interest in signing him, bob McAuley signed Greig for Rangers and despite his initial reluctance Greig did as instructed by his father. However, after viewing a match between Rangers and Hibernian at Easter Road, where he witnessed them beating Hibs 6-1, he convinced the move was right, a determined, forceful player, recognised for his great leadership qualities, Greig made 755 official appearances for Rangers. He scored 120 goals for the club and won three domestic trebles, Greig actually started his career with Rangers as a forward, prior to being moved back to midfield – playing initially alongside another Rangers legend in Jim Baxter – and finally to left back. It was therefore in those years that he scored the majority of his goals for the club. Greig was captain when Rangers won the European Cup Winners Cup in 1972 beating Dynamo Moscow 3–2 in Barcelona. Although Greigs was a successful playing career, his captaincy coincided with a period of sustained success for Rangers city rivals, Celtic. Greigs fortitude during that period further cemented his reputation as one of Rangers most celebrated captains, Greig played for Scotland on 44 occasions,15 as captain, between 1964 and 1971. Greig also represented the Scottish League XI13 times, Greigs playing career ended in May 1978 when he was appointed manager of Rangers, replacing Jock Wallace. The club failed to win the championship during Greigs time as manager. Greigs team had come close to winning a treble and performed well in Europe in that first season. There was also the compensation of success in domestic cup competitions. Greig was also responsible for signing Rangers greatest ever goalscorer Ally McCoist from Sunderland, after leaving Rangers, Greig worked as a pundit for Radio Scotland and BBC television. He was re-employed by Rangers from 1990 as part of the public relations team. Dick Advocaat, manager of Rangers from 1998–2001, re-involved Greig in football coaching during which time he contributed to youth development, in 2003 he joined the Rangers board of directors. Greig resigned this position in October 2011, soon after the takeover of the club by Craig Whyte, Greig and John McClelland, who resigned at the same time as Greig, stated that they had been excluded from the corporate governance of the club since Whyte had taken control
Robert Holley Bobby Davidson was a Scottish football referee who also operated for FIFA. He was Scotlands representative at the 1962,1970 and 1974 World Cups, Davidson refereed four matches over his World Cup career, two games in 1962, and a single game in each of the other competitions. In the 1962 tournament in Chile, he took charge of the Group B match between Italy and West Germany on 31 May 1962, plus West Germany against Chile on 6 June 1962, in the same group. He was also one of the linesmen during the Final between Brazil and Czechoslovakia on 17 June 1962 at the Estadio Nacional, Santiago under referee Nikolay Latyshev, the match he handled in 1970 was the group stage tie between Uruguay and Israel on 2 June 1970. He was also a linesman for the match involving the Soviet Union versus Belgium on 6 June 1970, and again for the quarter-final on 14 June 1970. In Germany four years later, he refereed the Netherlands against Argentina in a second group game on 29 June 1974. He was linesman for Poland against Argentina in a game on 15 June 1974. In addition, Davidson was a linesman during the second group match between the Netherlands and Brazil on 3 July 1974. The final was refereed by Englands Jack Taylor. Davidsons son is goalkeeper Alan Davidson of Airdrieonians and Queen of the South F. C, Bobby Davidson later became a director and honorary chairman of Airdrieonians and served on the Scottish league management committee. He died on 23 December 1993, at the age of 65
Jock Wallace Jr.
John Martin Bokas Jock Wallace was a professional Scottish football player and manager. His father, Jock Wallace, Sr. was a goalkeeper for Raith Rovers, Blackpool, Wallace has the unique distinction of being the only player ever to play in the English, Welsh and Scottish Cups in the same season. This was set during the 1966–67 season where he played in the FA Cup and Welsh Cup for Hereford United, wallyford-born Wallace, as manager of Rangers over two spells in the 1970s and 1980s, was to become one of Scottish footballs best-known and most successful coaches. A goalkeeper, Wallace was freed by his first club, Blackpool, national Service with the Kings Own Scottish Borderers afforded Wallace the opportunity of signing for the local club, Berwick Rangers. Wallaces managerial career began in 1966 as player-manager of Berwick Rangers and that achievement in turn propelled Wallace into a coaching job at Hearts in 1968. It was in 1970 that Wallace arrived at his home, Ibrox Stadium. The partnership with Waddell was one that helped Rangers win the 1972 Cup Winners Cup, after the European triumph, Waddell left his post as manager to take a behind-the-scenes role and Wallace was appointed as manager. In his first season in charge – the clubs centenary – he won the Scottish Cup, in 1974–1975, it was Wallace who presided over the Rangers team that finally ended Celtics nine-year period of dominance and won the League championship for the first time in eleven years. In seasons 1975–1976 and 1977–1978, Wallace was to capture the treble of all three Scottish trophies on two occasions, Wallaces managership of Rangers in the mid-1970s saw the club regain the ascendancy it had enjoyed throughout much its history. But just as the prospect of further sustained success beckoned, Wallace unexpectedly resigned as manager in 1978, the precise cause was never fully established, as Wallace maintained silence until his death in 1996. Most of the speculation centred on alleged disputes with the Rangers board about transfer budgets or Wallaces own salary, Wallaces subsequent career spanned an eclectic mix of clubs. His first post was as manager of Leicester City in England, Wallace steered the club to Football League Second Division title glory in 1980, and took them to the FA Cup semi-finals. In January 1981, Wallace made an attempt to sign three-time European Footballer of the Year. Despite negotiations lasting three weeks, in which the player himself expressed his desire to play for City, a deal was never agreed and he returned to Scotland in 1982, taking charge of Motherwell. In November 1983 he returned to manage a Rangers side that, ironically, the success of the New Firm had seen Rangers turn to Alex Ferguson, the Aberdeen manager, who rejected the offer to take over at Ibrox. The club then approached Dundee United manager Jim McLean, who rejected the offer. Wallace was sacked by Rangers in April 1986 and he then had short spells in Spain, with Sevilla from 1986–87, and England with Colchester United from 1988–90. Jock Wallace died from Parkinsons Disease in 1996, aged 60 and we were 2–0 up and Id scored both goals
Jim Jefferies (footballer)
James Jefferies is a Scottish football manager and former player. Jefferies played for Heart of Midlothian for almost his whole playing career and enjoyed a successful first managerial spell with the club, Jefferies has also managed Gala Fairydean, Berwick Rangers, Falkirk, Bradford City, Kilmarnock and Dunfermline Athletic. Jefferies made more than 300 competitive appearances for Heart of Midlothian, the main highlight of his playing career was playing in the 1976 Scottish Cup Final, which Hearts lost 3–1 to Rangers. He also played in the famous 0-7 New Year Edinburgh Derby defeat against Hibernian, Jefferies eventually left Hearts in 1981, and spent the last two seasons of his career with Berwick Rangers. Jefferies left Berwick in 1983 to become a manager at East of Scotland Football League club Gala Fairydean, Jefferies returned to the Wee Gers to begin his senior managerial career in September 1988. Despite a great deal of turmoil during that time, he turned the struggling team around to the extent that they set a club record of 21 games unbeaten in the league during season 1988–89. In the 1990 close season Jefferies took over at Falkirk, guiding them to the Scottish First Division title in 1991 and 1994, Falkirk also won the Scottish Challenge Cup in 1993. In August 1995, Jefferies returned to Hearts and he was manager of the Hearts team that won the Scottish Cup in 1998, his greatest success in the game to date. Jefferies moved south of the border on 20 November 2000 to replace Chris Hutchings as manager of then Premier League side Bradford City and he was given the task of selling players by chairman Geoffrey Richmond and was unable to prevent them from going down. He resigned in December 2001 after a start to the season left them with no hope of a promotion challenge. Former England striker Stan Collymore later described Jefferies as One of the most useless managers he worked under on Talksport in January 2013 and he criticised Jefferies training regime as being from 1975. On 28 February 2002, he returned to management back in his native Scotland with Kilmarnock and he kept Kilmarnock in a respectable position despite the necessity of drastically reducing the clubs wage bill, reaching the 2007 Scottish League Cup Final. Following Alex McLeishs departure from Rangers at the end of the 2005–06 season and he left Kilmarnock by mutual consent on 11 January 2010. Jefferies was appointed manager of Hearts for a time on 29 January 2010. Hearts finished third in the SPL in the 2010–11 season, having threatened the dominance of the Old Firm until falling away after February, Jefferies and right-hand man Billy Brown were sacked by Hearts on 1 August 2011, after just two games of the 2011–12 Scottish Premier League season. Jefferies held talks with Dunfermline Athletic about succeeding Jim McIntyre as their manager and was appointed on 20 March and he was unable to keep the Pars in the top flight and were relegated at the end of the season. The following season in the Scottish First Division the club ran into difficulties and were placed in administration in March 2013. This led to a 15-point deduction penalty by the Scottish Football League as well as many players leaving