John Watson (racing driver)
John Marshall Watson, is a British former racing driver and current commentator from Northern Ireland. He was third in the 1982 championship, he competed in the World Sportscar Championship finishing second in the 1987 championship. After his retirement from motorsport, he became a commentator for Eurosport's coverage of Formula One from 1990 to 1996, he commentates on the Blancpain GT Series. John Watson was educated in Rockport School, Northern Ireland. Watson's Formula One career began in 1972, driving a customer March-Cosworth 721 for Goldie Hexagon Racing in a non-Championship event: the World Championship Victory Race at Brands Hatch. Watson's first World Championship events came in the 1973 season, in which he raced in the British Grand Prix in a customer Brabham-Ford BT37, the US Grand Prix, where he drove the third works Brabham BT42. Neither was successful, as in the British race he ran out of fuel on the 36th lap and his engine failed after only seven laps in the United States event.
Watson scored his first World Championship point in the 1974 Monaco Grand Prix, while driving for Goldie Hexagon Racing. He went on to score a total of six points that season, driving a customer Brabham BT42-Ford modified by the team, he failed to score Championship points the following year, driving for Team Surtees, Team Lotus and Penske Cars. At the 1975 Spanish Grand Prix he had the chance to score his first win, he was in second position, behind Mario Andretti, until he had to stop in the pits for checks after his car started to suffer vibrations. Andretti retired and after rejoining the race Watson finished in eighth, his best Championship result in 1975. In non-Championship races he fared somewhat better, taking second place in the Race of Champions at Brands Hatch, fourth at the International Trophy race at Silverstone, he secured his first World Championship podium with third place at the 1976 French Grand Prix. That season came his first victory, driving for Penske in the Austrian Grand Prix having qualified second on the grid.
After the race he shaved off the result of a bet with team owner Roger Penske. In the third race of the 1977 Formula One season, the South African Grand Prix, he managed to complete the race distance, scored a point, took his first fastest lap, his achievements were overshadowed, however, by the deaths of driver Tom Pryce and a track marshal, Jansen Van Vuuren. His Brabham-Alfa Romeo let him down throughout the season but, despite this, he gained his first pole position in the Monaco Grand Prix and qualified in the top ten no fewer than 14 times in the first two rows. Problems with the car, a disqualification meant that he raced the full distance in only five of the 17 races; the closest he came to victory was during the French Grand Prix, where he dominated the race from the start only to be let down by a fuel metering problem on the last lap which relegated him to second place behind eventual winner Mario Andretti. In 1978, Watson managed a more successful season in terms of race finishes out-qualifying and out-racing his illustrious teammate Niki Lauda on occasion.
He managed three podiums and a pole, notched up 25 points to earn the highest championship placing of his career to that point. For 1979, Watson moved to McLaren where he gave them their first victory in over three years by winning the 1981 British Grand Prix and securing the first victory for a carbon fibre composite monocoque F1 car, the McLaren MP4/1. In the 1981 season, the strength of the McLaren's carbon fibre monocoque was demonstrated when he had a fiery crash at Monza during the Italian Grand Prix. Watson lost the car coming out of the high speed Lesmo bends and crashed backwards into the barriers. Similar accidents had proven fatal, but Watson was uninjured in an accident he recalled as looking far worse than it was. After James Hunt's abrupt retirement after the Monaco Grand Prix in 1979, Watson was the only full-time competitive British F1 driver up until the end of his career, his most successful year was 1982, when he finished third in the Drivers' Championship, winning two Grands Prix.
In several races he achieved high placings despite qualifying towards the back of the grid. At the first Detroit Grand Prix in 1982, he overtook three cars in one lap deep into the race on a tight, twisty track, difficult to pass on. Watson went into the final race of the season at Caesars Palace in with an outside chance of the title, but he was to finish five points adrift of Keke Rosberg and level on points with Didier Pironi. A year in 1983, he repeated the feat of winning from the back of the grid at the final Formula One race in Long Beach. Watson's final victory included a fight for position with teammate Niki Lauda, who had started the race 23rd, though Watson finished 27 seconds ahead of his dual World Championship winning teammate. At the end of the 1983 season however, Watson was dropped by McLaren and subsequently retired from Formula One. Negotiations with team boss Ron Dennis broke down when Watson asked for more money than dual World Champion Lauda was earning, citing having won a GP in 1983 where Lauda did not.
Dennis instead signed Renault refugee Alain Prost for comparatively nothing. He did return for one further race two years driving for McLare
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
The Nürburgring is a 150,000 person capacity motorsports complex located in the town of Nürburg, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It features a Grand Prix race track built in 1984, a much longer Nordschleife "North loop" track, built in the 1920s around the village and medieval castle of Nürburg in the Eifel mountains; the north loop is 20.8 km long and has more than 300 metres of elevation change from its lowest to highest points. Jackie Stewart nicknamed the old track "The Green Hell"; the track featured four configurations: the 28.265 km -long Gesamtstrecke, which in turn consisted of the 22.810 km Nordschleife, the 7.747 km Südschleife. There was a 2.281 km warm-up loop called Zielschleife or Betonschleife, around the pit area. Between 1982 and 1983 the start/finish area was demolished to create a new GP-Strecke, this is used for all major and international racing events. However, the shortened Nordschleife is still in use for racing and public access. In the early 1920s, ADAC Eifelrennen races were held on public roads in the Eifel mountains.
This was soon recognised as dangerous. The construction of a dedicated race track was proposed, following the examples of Italy's Monza and Targa Florio courses, Berlin's AVUS, yet with a different character; the layout of the circuit in the mountains was similar to the Targa Florio event, one of the most important motor races at that time. The original Nürburgring was to be a showcase for racing talent. Construction of the track, designed by the Eichler Architekturbüro from Ravensburg, began in September 1925; the track was completed in spring of 1927, the ADAC Eifelrennen races were continued there. The first races to take place on 18 June 1927 showed sidecars; the first motorcycle race was won by Toni Ulmen on an English 350 cc Velocette. The cars followed a day and Rudolf Caracciola was the winner of the over 5000 cc class in a Mercedes-Benz Compressor. In addition, the track was opened to the public in the evenings and on weekends, as a one-way toll road; the whole track consisted of 174 bends, averaged 8 to 9 metres in width.
The fastest time around the full Gesamtstrecke was by Louis Chiron, at an average speed of 112.31 km/h in his Bugatti. In 1929 the full Nürburgring was used for the last time in major racing events, as future Grands Prix would be held only on the Nordschleife. Motorcycles and minor races used the shorter and safer Südschleife. Memorable pre-war races at the circuit featured the talents of early Ringmeister such as Rudolf Caracciola, Tazio Nuvolari and Bernd Rosemeyer. After World War II, racing resumed in 1947 and in 1951, the Nordschleife of the Nürburgring again became the main venue for the German Grand Prix as part of the Formula One World Championship. A new group of Ringmeister arose to dominate the race – Alberto Ascari, Juan Manuel Fangio, Stirling Moss, Jim Clark, John Surtees, Jackie Stewart and Jacky Ickx. On 5 August 1961, during practice for the 1961 German Grand Prix, Phil Hill became the first person to complete a lap of the Nordschleife in under 9 minutes, with a lap of 8 minutes 55.2 seconds in the Ferrari 156 "Sharknose" Formula One car.
Over half a century even the highest performing road cars still have difficulty breaking 8 minutes without a professional race driver or one familiar with the track. Several rounds of the German motorcycle Grand Prix were held on the 7.7 km Südschleife, but the Hockenheimring and the Solitudering were the main sites for Grand Prix motorcycle racing. In 1953, the ADAC 1000 km Nürburgring race was introduced, an Endurance race and Sports car racing event that counted towards the World Sportscar Championship for decades; the 24 Hours Nürburgring for touring car racing was added in 1970. By the late 1960s, the Nordschleife and many other tracks were becoming dangerous for the latest generation of F1 cars. In 1967, a chicane was added before the start/finish straight, called Hohenrain, in order to reduce speeds at the pit lane entry; this made the track 25 m longer. This change, was not enough to keep Stewart from nicknaming it "The Green Hell" following his victory in the 1968 German Grand Prix amid a driving rainstorm and thick fog.
In 1970, after the fatal crash of Piers Courage at Zandvoort, the F1 drivers decided at the French Grand Prix to boycott the Nürburgring unless major changes were made, as they did at Spa the year before. The changes were not possible on short notice, the German GP was moved to the Hockenheimring, modified. In accordance with the demands of the F1 drivers, the Nordschleife was reconstructed by taking out some bumps, smoothing out some sudden jumps, installing Armco safety barriers; the track was made straighter, following the race line. The German GP could be hosted at the Nürburgring again, was for another six years from 1971 to 1976. In 1973 the entrance into the dangerous and bumpy Kallenhard corner was made slower by adding another left-hand corner after the fast Metzgesfeld sweeping corner. Safety was improved again on, e.g. by removing the jumps on the long main straight and widening it, taking away the bushes right next to the track at the main straight, which had made that section of the Nürburgring dangerously narrow.
A second series of three more F1 races was held until 1976. Howe
Team Penske is an American professional motorsports organization which has teams involved in open wheel, stock car, sports car racing. These teams compete in the NTT IndyCar Series. Debuting at the 1966 24 Hours of Daytona, the organization has competed in various other types of professional racing such as Can Am, Trans Am and Formula One. Altogether, Team Penske has earned over 500 victories in all of auto racing. Team Penske is a division of Penske Corporation, is owned and chaired by Roger Penske; the team president is Tim Cindric. Roger Penske has been involved with IndyCar racing since 1968, when his team first fielded a stock block-powered Eagle with Mark Donohue; the organization first competed at Indianapolis in 1969, within three years had become the team to beat, winning the race with Donohue in 1972. In 1978, Penske along with Pat Patrick, Dan Gurney, several other team owners, participating in USAC events involving cars known as Champ Cars and IndyCars formed Championship Auto Racing Teams.
As of June 27, 2018, Penske Racing has won the Indianapolis 500 17 times, won the Indianapolis 500 pole position 17 times, as well as 200 open wheel IndyCar wins in USAC, CART and IRL, 29 of which are in 500-Mile Races and 13 open wheel championships. Penske Racing has 1,463 starts in IndyCar races, 231 pole positions, 71 wins from pole, 47 double wins of which 8 are 1–2–3 finishes from the Pocono race on June 26, 1977, to January 1, 2015. In 2001, team Penske marked its return to the Indy 500 after a five-year absence due to the open wheel split, after the 1995 PPG IndyCar World Series season. In 2001 Roger Penske announced he would leave CART for the IRL IndyCar Series. Team Penske fields four cars: the No. 2 Verizon Dallara/Chevrolet for Josef Newgarden, the No. 3 Shell Oil Company Dallara/Chevrolet driven by Hélio Castroneves, the No. 12 Verizon Wireless Dallara/Chevrolet driven by Will Power, the No. 22 Penske Truck Rental Dallara/Chevrolet driven by Simon Pagenaud. Castroneves has won the Indianapolis 500 three times, as well as other CART and IRL races with Team Penske.
Sam Hornish Jr. is the 2006 Indianapolis 500 winner and the IndyCar Series Champion, with 16 IndyCar Wins. His 2001 and 2002 championships were with Panther Racing, prior to joining Team Penske. Juan Pablo Montoya is the 2015 Indianapolis 500 winner and the provisional leader in the championship with 2 wins in the season; the open-wheel racing portion of Penske Racing had been based in Reading, Pennsylvania since 1973 with the cars, during the Formula One and CART era, being constructed in Poole, England as well as being the base for the F1 team. On October 31, 2005, Penske Racing announced after the 2006 IRL season, they would consolidate IRL and NASCAR operations at the team's Mooresville North Carolina facility. Cigarette brand Marlboro had been a sponsor with Team Penske since the 1989 Indianapolis 500, primary sponsor of all Team Penske IndyCars since 1991. Late in 2005, Team Penske announced that Marlboro would not appear on the cars any longer in accordance with the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement restricting cigarette advertising by name.
In 2007, the IndyCar Series cars began to carry "Team Penske" insignia and sponsorship from Mobil 1. For 2009, Verizon Wireless, joined Exxon Mobil as associate sponsors, the team was billed as Verizon Championship Racing; the third car was driven by Will Power a substitute for Castroneves, carried the No. 12 and featured primary sponsorship of both Verizon Wireless brand and Roger Penske's truck rental business. In 2010, Phillip Morris USA discontinued their relationship with Team Penske, ending a 19-year partnership; the team subsequently changed their livery to white, reflecting Verizon sponsorship. Team Penske became a three-car team for the first time since 1994, with the addition of a full-time team for Power. Roger Penske announced a switch to Chevrolet powerplants for the 2012 IndyCar Series season. Once again, Penske would dominate the early portion of the season, winning 4 consecutive races, with Castroneves taking the season opener at St. Petersburg, Power capturing wins at Barber, Long Beach, São Paulo.
Briscoe managed to find victory lane at Sonoma. However, Power would come up short in the championship after a crash at the season finale. Briscoe left the team after 2012 for other opportunities. In 2014, Will Power took the IndyCar Championship for Team Penske after 3 concurrent runner up finishes in 2010-2012; the 2015 season started well for Team Penske, Juan Pablo Montoya won the first race of the season, his second win for Penske since he arrived from NASCAR in 2014, with teammates Will Power, Helio Castroneves and Simon Pagenaud finishing 2nd, 4th and 5th. Power got a win at the Grand Prix of Indianapolis in the 5th race of the season and just 2 weeks the Colombian Montoya won Indy 500 leading again teammate Will Power. Juan Pablo Montoya would lose the championship in the final race on a tie-breaker to Scott Dixon. Team Penske would go on filling the top 3 positions in the final standings. Capping the season with a dominating race victory, Simon Pagen
Formula One is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile and owned by the Formula One Group. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been one of the premier forms of racing around the world since its inaugural season in 1950; the word "formula" in the name refers to the set of rules to which all participants' cars must conform. A Formula One season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, which take place worldwide on purpose-built circuits and on public roads; the results of each race are evaluated using a points system to determine two annual World Championships: one for drivers, the other for constructors. Drivers must hold valid Super Licences, the highest class of racing licence issued by the FIA; the races must run on tracks graded "1", the highest grade-rating issued by the FIA. Most events occur in rural locations on purpose-built tracks, but several events take place on city streets. Formula One cars are the fastest regulated road-course racing cars in the world, owing to high cornering speeds achieved through the generation of large amounts of aerodynamic downforce.
The cars underwent major changes in 2017, allowing wider front and rear wings, wider tyres, resulting in cornering forces closing in on 6.5g and top speeds of up to 375 km/h. As of 2019 the hybrid engines are limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 rpm and the cars are dependent on electronics—although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008—and on aerodynamics and tyres. While Europe is the sport's traditional base, the championship operates globally, with 11 of the 21 races in the 2018 season taking place outside Europe. With the annual cost of running a mid-tier team—designing and maintaining cars, transport—being US$120 million, Formula One has a significant economic and job-creation effect, its financial and political battles are reported, its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, which has resulted in large investments from sponsors and budgets. On 8 September 2016 Bloomberg reported that Liberty Media had agreed to buy Delta Topco, the company that controls Formula One, from private-equity firm CVC Capital Partners for $4.4 billion in cash and convertible debt.
On 23 January 2017 Liberty Media confirmed the completion of the acquisition for $8 billion. The Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1930s; the formula is a set of rules. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, with the first non-championship races being held that year. A number of Grand Prix racing organisations had laid out rules for a world championship before the war, but due to the suspension of racing during the conflict, the World Drivers' Championship was not formalised until 1947; the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958. National championships existed in the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for many years, but due to the increasing cost of competition, the last of these occurred in 1983. On 26 November 2017, Formula One unveiled its new logo, following the 2017 season finale in Abu Dhabi during the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix at Yas Marina Circuit.
The new logo replaced F1's iconic'flying one', the sport's trademark since 1993. After a hiatus in European motor racing brought about by the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the first World Championship for Drivers was won by Italian Giuseppe Farina in his Alfa Romeo in 1950, narrowly defeating his Argentine teammate Juan Manuel Fangio. However, Fangio won the title in 1951, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, his streak interrupted by two-time champion Alberto Ascari of Ferrari. Although the UK's Stirling Moss was able to compete he was never able to win the world championship, is now considered to be the greatest driver never to have won the title. Fangio, however, is remembered for dominating Formula One's first decade and has long been considered the "Grand Master" of Formula One; this period featured teams managed by road car manufacturers Alfa Romeo, Mercedes-Benz, Maserati. The first seasons were run using pre-war cars like Alfa's 158, they were front-engined, with narrow tyres and 1.5-litre supercharged or 4.5-litre aspirated engines.
The 1952 and 1953 World Championships were run to Formula Two regulations, for smaller, less powerful cars, due to concerns over the paucity of Formula One cars available. When a new Formula One, for engines limited to 2.5 litres, was reinstated to the world championship for 1954, Mercedes-Benz introduced the advanced W196, which featured innovations such as desmodromic valves and fuel injection as well as enclosed streamlined bodywork. Mercedes drivers won the championship for two years, before the team withdrew from all motorsport in the wake of the 1955 Le Mans disaster. An era of British dominance was ushered in by Mike Hawthorn and Vanwall's championship wins in 1958, although Stirling Moss had been at the forefront of the sport without securing the world title. Between Hawthorn, Jim Clark, Jackie Stewart, John Surtees and Graham Hill, British drivers won nine Drivers' Championships and British teams won fourteen Constructors' Championsh
Watkins Glen International
Watkins Glen International, nicknamed "The Glen", is an automobile race track located in Watkins Glen, New York, at the southern tip of Seneca Lake. It was long known around the world as the home of the Formula One United States Grand Prix, which it hosted for twenty consecutive years, but the site has been home to road racing of nearly every class, including the World Sportscar Championship, Trans-Am, Can-Am, Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series, the International Motor Sports Association and the IndyCar Series. Public roads in the village were used for the race course. In 1956 a permanent circuit for the race was built. In 1968 the race was extended to six hours; the circuit's current layout has more or less been the same since 1971. A chicane was installed at the uphill Esses in 1975 to slow cars through these corners, where a driver died during practice at the 1973 United States Grand Prix, removed in 1985. Another chicane called the "Inner Loop" was installed in 1992 after a fatal accident during the previous year's NASCAR Winston Cup event.
The circuit is known as the Mecca of North American road racing and is a popular venue among fans and drivers. The facility is owned by International Speedway Corporation; the circuit has been the site of music concerts: the 1973 Summer Jam, featuring The Allman Brothers Band, the Grateful Dead and The Band and attended by 600,000 fans, two Phish festivals: Super Ball IX in 2011 and Magnaball in 2015. The Watkins Glen International race course has undergone several changes over the years, with five general layouts recognized over its history. Two distinct layouts are used—the "Boot" layout and the "NASCAR" layout; the first races in Watkins Glen were organized by Cameron Argetsinger, whose family had a summer home in the area. With local Chamber of Commerce approval and SCCA sanction, the first Watkins Glen Grand Prix took place in 1948 on a 6.6-mile course over local public roads. For the first few years, the races passed through the heart of the town with spectators lining the sidewalks, but after a car driven by Fred Wacker left the road in the 1952 race, killing seven-year-old Frank Fazzari and injuring several others, the race was moved to a new location on a wooded hilltop southwest of town.
The original 6.6-mile course is listed in the New York State register and National Register of Historic Places as the Watkins Glen Grand Prix Course, 1948-1952. The second layout 4.6-mile began use in 1953 and used existing roads. The Watkins Glen Grand Prix Corporation was formed to manage spectators and concessions; this arrangement lasted three years. The first permanent course was constructed on 550 acres, overlapping part of the previous street course, it was designed by engineering professors from Cornell University. The layout measured 2.35-mile. This course was used from 1956–1970. In 1968 the race was extended to six hours; the circuit underwent a major overhaul for the 1971 season. The "Big Bend" and the turns leading up to it were eliminated, replaced with a new pit straight; the pits and start/finish line were moved to this new straightaway. "The 90" now became Turn 1 instead of Turn 8. When the 1971 Six Hours of Watkins Glen arrived in July 1971, the overall circuit renovations were still unfinished.
The short course had been finished, but the Boot segments were not complete, nor was the new pit area. The 1971 Six Hours race was run on the short course layout, that layout colloquially became known as the 1971 Six Hours Course. In addition, for 1971 only, the cars used the old pits; when NASCAR returned to the track in 1986, they chose to use the short course layout. IMSA used the "Boot", but that series began using the shorter 1971 layout; the short course was lengthened in 1992. The most significant change to the track, a new segment known as "The Boot", was finished in time for the Formula One race; the start-finish line was moved to the new pit straight as planned. At the end of the backstretch, after the Loop-Chute, cars swept left into a new four-turn complex that departed from the old layout, curling left-hand downhill through the woods; the track followed the edge of the hillside to two uphill right-hand turns, over an exciting blind crest into a right-hand turn, down and up into a left-hand turn rejoining the old track.
The new layout measured 3.377 miles. With its intrinsic link to the Formula One race, it became known colloquially as the Grand Prix Circuit. For 1972, the Six Hours sports car race began using the full "Boot" layout. By that time, nearly all facility improvements were completed, the pits and start/finish line were permanently moved to the new pit straight. In 1975, a fast right-left chicane was added in the turn 3-4 Esses section to slow speeds through the series of corners; this chicane was eliminated in the 1980s. In the early 1990s, the IMSA sports cars began bypassing the "Boot" in favor of the short course. To date, NASCAR events have never used the Boot layout; the "Long/Boot" course was lengthened in 1992. In the mid-2000s, the Boot segment, which had seen little use in many years, was repaved and upgraded; when the IndyCar Series returned to Watkins Glen starting in 2005, they elected to use the Boot segment. A full repaving of the course took place in 2015, in recent years, there has been a renewed interest and appreciation of the full Grand Prix Course layout.
Consideration had been made for NASCAR to start using the Boot. After a succession of serious crashes took place at the "Loop" at the end of the backs
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K