University of Kentucky
The University of Kentucky is a public co-educational university in Lexington, Kentucky. Founded in 1865 by John Bryan Bowman as the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Kentucky, the university is one of the state's two land-grant universities, the largest college or university in the state, with 30,720 students as of Fall 2015, the highest ranked research university in the state according to U. S. News and World Report; the institution comprises 16 colleges, a graduate school, 93 undergraduate programs, 99 master programs, 66 doctoral programs, four professional programs. The University of Kentucky has fifteen libraries on campus; the largest is the William T. Young Library, a federal depository, hosting subjects related to social sciences and life sciences collections. In recent years, the university has focused expenditures on research, following a compact formed by the Kentucky General Assembly in 1997; the directive mandated that the university become a Top 20 public research institution, in terms of an overall ranking, to be determined by the university itself, by the year 2020.
In the early commonwealth of Kentucky, higher education was limited to a number of children from prominent families, disciplined apprentices, those young men seeking entry into clerical and medical professions. As the first university in the territory that would become Kentucky, Transylvania University was the primary center for education, became the father of what would become the University of Kentucky. John Bryan Bowman founded the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Kentucky, a publicly chartered department of Kentucky University, after receiving federal support through the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act in 1865. Courses were offered at The Henry Clay Estate. Three years James Kennedy Patterson became the first president of the land-grant university and the first degree was awarded. In 1876, the university began to offer master's degree programs. Two years A&M separated from Kentucky University, now Transylvania University. For the new school, Lexington donated a 52-acre park and fair ground, which became the core of UK's present campus.
A&M was a male-only institution, but began to admit women in 1880. In 1892, the official colors of the university, royal blue and white, were adopted. An earlier color set and light yellow, was adopted earlier at a Kentucky-Centre College football game on December 19, 1891; the particular hue of blue was determined from a necktie, used to demonstrate the color of royal blue. On February 15, 1882, Administration Building was the first building of three completed on the present campus. Three years the college formed the Agricultural Experiment Station, which researches issues relating to agribusiness, food processing, nutrition and soil resources and the environment; this was followed up by the creation of the university's Agricultural Extension Service in 1910, one of the first in the United States. The extension service became a model of the federally mandated programs that were required beginning in 1914. Patterson Hall, the school's first women's dormitory, was constructed in 1904. Residents had to cross a swampy depression, where the now demolished Student Center stood, to reach central campus.
Four years the school's name was changed to the "State University, Kentucky" upon reaching university status, to the "University of Kentucky" in 1916. The university led to the creation of the College of Home Economics in 1916, Mary E. Sweeney was promoted from chair of the Department of Home Economics to Dean of the College.. The College of Commerce was established in 1925, known today as the Gatton College of Business and Economics. In 1929, Memorial Hall was completed, dedicated to the 2,756 Kentuckians who died in World War I; this was followed up by the new King Library, which opened in 1931 and was named for a long-time library director, Margaret I. King; the university's graduate and professional programs became racially integrated in 1949 when Lyman T. Johnson, an African American, won a lawsuit to be admitted to the graduate program. African Americans would not be allowed to attend as undergraduates until 1954, following the US Supreme Court's Brown v. Board of Education decision. In 1939, Governor Happy Chandler appointed the first woman trustee on the University of Kentucky Board of Trustees, Georgia M. Blazer of Ashland.
She served from 1939 to 1960. In 1962, Blazer Hall was opened as the Georgia M Blazer Hall for Women in tribute to her twenty-one years of service as a University of Kentucky trustee. Ground was broken for the Albert B. Chandler Hospital in 1955, when Governor of Kentucky Happy Chandler recommended that the Kentucky General Assembly appropriate $5 million for the creation of the University of Kentucky College of Medicine and a medical center at the university; this was completed after a series of studies were conducted that highlighted the health needs of the citizens, as well as the need to train more physicians for the state. Five years the College of Medicine and College of Nursing opened, followed by the College of Dentistry in 1962. Nine years after the founding of The Northern Extension Center in Covington, representing the Ashland Independent School Board of Education, Ashland attorney Henderson Dysard and Ashland Oil & Refining Company founder and CEO Paul G. Blazer presented a proposal to President Dickey and the University of Kentucky Board of Trustees for the university to take over the day-to-day operations an
San Antonio the City of San Antonio, is the seventh-most populous city in the United States, the second-most populous city in both Texas and the Southern United States, with more than 1.5 million residents. Founded as a Spanish mission and colonial outpost in 1718, the city became the first chartered civil settlement in present-day Texas in 1731; the area was still part of the Spanish Empire, of the Mexican Republic. Today it is the state's oldest municipality; the city's deep history is contrasted with its rapid recent growth during the past few decades. It was the fastest-growing of the top ten largest cities in the United States from 2000 to 2010, the second from 1990 to 2000. Straddling the regional divide between South and Central Texas, San Antonio anchors the southwestern corner of an urban megaregion colloquially known as the "Texas Triangle". San Antonio serves as the seat of Bexar County. Since San Antonio was founded during the Spanish Colonial Era, it has a church in its center, on the main civic plaza in front, a characteristic of many Spanish-founded cities and villages in Spain and Latin America.
As with many other urban centers in the Southwestern United States, areas outside the city limits are sparsely populated. San Antonio is the center of the San Antonio–New Braunfels metropolitan statistical area. Called Greater San Antonio, the metro area has a population of 2,473,974 based on the 2017 U. S. census estimate, making it the 24th-largest metropolitan area in the United States and third-largest in Texas. Growth along the Interstate 35 and Interstate 10 corridors to the north and east make it that the metropolitan area will continue to expand. San Antonio was named by a 1691 Spanish expedition for Saint Anthony of Padua, whose feast day is June 13; the city contains five 18th-century Spanish frontier missions, including The Alamo and San Antonio Missions National Historical Park, which together were designated UNESCO World Heritage sites in 2015. Other notable attractions include the River Walk, the Tower of the Americas, SeaWorld, the Alamo Bowl, Marriage Island. Commercial entertainment includes Morgan's Wonderland amusement parks.
According to the San Antonio Convention and Visitors Bureau, the city is visited by about 32 million tourists a year. It is home to the five-time NBA champion San Antonio Spurs, hosts the annual San Antonio Stock Show & Rodeo, one of the largest such events in the U. S; the U. S. Armed Forces have numerous facilities around San Antonio. Lackland Air Force Base, Randolph Air Force Base, Lackland AFB/Kelly Field Annex, Camp Bullis, Camp Stanley are outside the city limits. Kelly Air Force Base operated out of San Antonio until 2001, when the airfield was transferred to Lackland AFB; the remaining parts of the base were developed as Port San Antonio, an industrial/business park and aerospace complex. San Antonio is home to six Fortune 500 companies and the South Texas Medical Center, the only medical research and care provider in the South Texas region. At the time of European encounter, Payaya Indians lived near the San Antonio River Valley in the San Pedro Springs area, they called the vicinity Yanaguana, meaning "refreshing waters".
In 1691, a group of Spanish explorers and missionaries came upon the river and Payaya settlement on June 13, the feast day of St. Anthony of Padua, they named the river "San Antonio" in his honor. It was years. Father Antonio de Olivares visited the site in 1709, he was determined to found a mission and civilian settlement there; the viceroy gave formal approval for a combined mission and presidio in late 1716, as he wanted to forestall any French expansion into the area from their colony of La Louisiane to the east, as well as prevent illegal trading with the Payaya. He directed the governor of Coahuila y Tejas, to establish the mission complex. Differences between Alarcón and Olivares resulted in delays, construction did not start until 1718. Olivares built, with the help of the Payaya Indians, the Misión de San Antonio de Valero, the Presidio San Antonio de Bexar, the bridge that connected both, the Acequia Madre de Valero; the families who clustered around the presidio and mission were the start of Villa de Béjar, destined to become the most important town in Spanish Texas.
On May 1, the governor transferred ownership of the Mission San Antonio de Valero to Fray Antonio de Olivares. On May 5, 1718 he commissioned the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar on the west side of the San Antonio River, one-fourth league from the mission. On February 14, 1719, the Marquis of San Miguel de Aguayo proposed to the king of Spain that 400 families be transported from the Canary Islands, Galicia, or Havana to populate the province of Texas, his plan was approved, notice was given the Canary Islanders to furnish 200 families. By June 1730, 25 families had reached Cuba, 10 families had been sent to Veracruz before orders from Spain came to stop the re-settlement. Under the leadership of Juan Leal Goraz, the group marched overland from Veracruz to the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar, where they arrived on March 9, 1731. Due to marriages along the way, the party now included a total of 56 persons, they joined the military community established in 1718. The immigrants f
Coby Joseph Dietrick is an American former professional basketball player. A 6'10" forward/center from San José State University, Dietrick played thirteen seasons of professional basketball in both the American Basketball Association and the National Basketball Association, he spent the majority of his career with the San Antonio Spurs, a team that began in the ABA but joined the NBA after the ABA–NBA merger in 1976. He played with the NBA's Chicago Bulls. In 1983 he retired with ABA/NBA career averages of 4.5 rebounds per game. He worked as a color commentator for the Spurs, he opened the first Relax The Back franchise store, in San Antonio in 1989. Coby Dietrick at Basketball-Reference.com Coby Dietrick at MySA.com
Eastern Michigan University
Eastern Michigan University is a public university in Ypsilanti, Michigan. Ypsilanti is 35 miles west of Detroit and eight miles east of Ann Arbor; the university was founded in 1849 as Michigan State Normal School. Today, the university is governed by an eight-member Board of Regents whose members are appointed by the governor of Michigan for eight-year terms; the school belongs to the Mid-American Conference and is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission. Since 1991 EMU athletes have been known as "Eagles" and the school mascot, was adopted by the university three years later. EMU comprises seven colleges and schools: College of Arts and Sciences, College of Business, College of Education, College of Health and Human Services, College of Technology, an Honors College, a Graduate School; the university's site is composed of an academic and athletic campus spread across 800 acres, with over 120 buildings. EMU has a total enrollment of more than 23,000 students; the university opened its doors in 1853 as Michigan State Normal School.
Michigan State Normal School was the first in Michigan and the first normal school created outside the original 13 colonies. One hundred and twenty-two students started classes March 29, 1853. Adonijah Welch served as Michigan State Normal School's first principal. Michigan created; the normal schools were to train teachers for common schools, which were being established in new towns in the state. In 1899, the school became the Michigan State Normal College when it developed the first four-year curriculum for a normal college in the nation. Normal began the 20th century as Michigan's premier teacher-preparatory school and had become the first teacher-training school in the United States to have a four-year degree program; the school continued through World War I, the Great Depression, World War II, expanded further. With the additions of departments and the large educational enrollment after WWII, the school became Eastern Michigan College in 1956. In 1959 the school became a university, gaining the title Eastern Michigan University after establishing the Graduate School.
Between 1959 through 1980 the College of Education, College of Arts and Sciences, Graduate School, College of Business, College of Health and Human Services, College of Technology were established. In the early 1970s, international student exchange schemes were organized, including one with Coventry College of Education in Britain. In 2005, the Honors Program became the Eastern Michigan University Honors College. More extended programs were added, such as Continuing Education, the Centers for Corporate Training, the World College, numerous community-focused institutes. Today the university's total student population averages about 23,000, of whom 5,000 are graduate students. Most programs are undergraduate or master's level, although the university has doctoral programs in Educational Leadership and Psychology. EMU former-President Susan W. Martin, Ph. D. took office as EMU's twenty-second president on July 7, 2008, just after the university was fined a then-record $350,000 for not reporting to students the sexual assault and murder of a student in her residence hall room.
Under Michigan's 1964 state constitution, Eastern Michigan University is governed by an eight-member Board of Regents. The Regents are appointed by the governor, "with the advice and consent of the Senate", serve eight-year terms; the Regents, in turn, elect the president of the university Eastern Michigan University offers degrees and programs at the bachelor's, master's, specialist's and doctoral levels. There are more than 200 majors and minors at the undergraduate level, more than 170 graduate programs. EMU has six Academic Divisions and eight University Sites which include satellite campuses. Just like many other large universities EMU does offer online degrees; the University has seven Schools. Areas of study are divided by College of Arts and Sciences, College of Business, College of Education, College of Health and Human Services and College of Technology. Beyond this there are two other colleges: an Honors College, which oversees honors courses, the Graduate School; the Honors College and Graduate school handles courses that are honors and graduate program within the various colleges.
Eastern has offered graduate courses since 1939. The graduate school has close to 5,000 students enrolled in masters and doctoral programs and is house in Boone Hall; the two oldest colleges at the university are the College of Arts and Sciences and the College of Education. The largest college is the College of Sciences with 125 programs of study. Beyond this CAS oversees the most facilities such as Ford Gallery, Sherzer Hall, Kresge Environmental Education Center, the Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology Research Facility, Pease Auditorium. Eastern Michigan has had a long history of developing educators since its founding. EMU prides itself as the largest producer of educational personnel in the country since 1991. Eastern Michigan University's Department of Special Education is among the oldest special education program in the United States, started In 1923; the College of Business was established in 1964. The COB is the only college not on the main campus, it is housed in the Gary M. Owen building in downtown Ypsilanti.
The COB is known for having the First Ethos Ethos Honor Society in the country. Eastern Michigan University established the College of Human Services in 1975; the university changed the name to the College of He
University of Southern California
The University of Southern California is a private research university in Los Angeles, California. Founded in 1880, it is the oldest private research university in California. For the 2018–19 academic year, there were 20,000 students enrolled in four-year undergraduate programs. USC has 27,500 graduate and professional students in a number of different programs, including business, engineering, social work, occupational therapy and medicine, it is the largest private employer in the city of Los Angeles, generates $8 billion in economic impact on Los Angeles and California. USC is the birthplace of the Domain Name System. Other technologies invented at USC include DNA computing, dynamic programming, image compression, VoIP, antivirus software. USC's alumni include a total of 11 Rhodes Scholars and 12 Marshall Scholars; as of October 2018, nine Nobel laureates, six MacArthur Fellows, one Turing Award winner have been affiliated with the university. USC sponsors a variety of intercollegiate sports and competes in the National Collegiate Athletic Association as a member of the Pac-12 Conference.
Members of USC's sports teams, the Trojans, have won 104 NCAA team championships, ranking them third in the United States, 399 NCAA individual championships, ranking them second in the United States. Trojan athletes have won 288 medals at the Olympic Games, more than any other university in the United States. In 1969, it joined the Association of American Universities. USC has had a total of 521 football players drafted to the National Football League, the second-highest number of drafted players in the country; the University of Southern California was founded following the efforts of Judge Robert M. Widney, who helped secure donations from several key figures in early Los Angeles history: a Protestant nurseryman, Ozro Childs, an Irish Catholic former-Governor, John Gately Downey, a German Jewish banker, Isaias W. Hellman; the three donated 308 lots of land to establish the campus and provided the necessary seed money for the construction of the first buildings. Operated in affiliation with the Methodist Church, the school mandated from the start that "no student would be denied admission because of race."
The university is no longer affiliated with any church, having severed formal ties in 1952. When USC opened in 1880, tuition was $15.00 per term and students were not allowed to leave town without the knowledge and consent of the university president. The school had an enrollment of 53 students and a faculty of 10; the city lacked paved streets, electric lights, a reliable fire alarm system. Its first graduating class in 1884 was a class of three—two males and female valedictorian Minnie C. Miltimore; the colors of USC are cardinal and gold, which were approved by USC's third president, the Reverend George W. White, in 1896. In 1958, the shade of gold, more of an orange color, was changed to a more yellow shade; the letterman's awards were the first to make the change. USC students and athletes are known as Trojans, epitomized by the Trojan Shrine, nicknamed "Tommy Trojan", near the center of campus; until 1912, USC students were known as Fighting Methodists or Wesleyans, though neither name was approved by the university.
During a fateful track and field meet with Stanford University, the USC team was beaten early and conclusively. After only the first few events, it seemed implausible USC would win. After this contest, Los Angeles Times sportswriter Owen Bird reported the USC athletes "fought on like the Trojans of antiquity", the president of the university at the time, George F. Bovard, approved the name officially. During World War II, USC was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. USC is responsible for $8 billion in economic output in Los Angeles County. On May 1, 2014, USC was named as one of many higher education institutions under investigation by the Office of Civil Rights for potential Title IX violations by Barack Obama's White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault. USC is under a concurrent Title IX investigation for potential anti-male bias in disciplinary proceedings, as well as denial of counseling resources to male students, as of 8 March 2016.
In 2017, the university came into the national spotlight when the Los Angeles Times published information about Carmen A. Puliafito, the dean of USC's medical school. After accusations of drug use, he resigned from his position as dean in 2016 and was fired from the school the following year after the news stories were published, his medical license was subsequently suspended pending a decision. The following year, the Los Angeles Times broke another story about USC focusing on George Tyndall, a gynecologist accused of abusing 52 patients at USC; the reports span from 1990 to 2016 and include using racist and sexual language, conducting exams without gloves and taking pictures of his patients' genitals. Inside Higher Ed noted that there have been "other incidents in which the university is perceived to have failed to act on misconduct by powerful officials" when it reported that the university's president, C. L. Max Nikias, is resigning. Tyndall was fired in 2017 after reaching a settlement with the university.
The school did not report him to state medical authorities or law enforcement at the time, though the LAPD is now investigatin
San Jose State University
San José State University is a public comprehensive university located in San Jose, California, in Silicon Valley. SJSU is the oldest public university on the West Coast, as well as the founding campus of the California State University system. Located in downtown San Jose, the SJSU main campus is situated on 64 acres, or 19 square blocks. SJSU offers 145 bachelor's and master's degrees with 108 concentrations and five credential programs with 19 concentrations; the university offers two joint doctoral degree programs and one independent doctoral program as of 2018. SJSU is accredited by the Western Association of Colleges. SJSU's total enrollment was 32,828 in fall 2018, including over 5,500 graduate and credential students; as of fall 2018, graduate student enrollment at SJSU was the highest of any campus in the CSU system. SJSU's student population is one of the most ethnically diverse in the nation, with large Asian and Hispanic enrollments, as well as the highest foreign student enrollment of all master's institutions in the United States.
SJSU is listed as one of the leading suppliers of undergraduate and graduate alumni to Silicon Valley technology firms, philanthropic support of SJSU is among the highest in the CSU system. SJSU sports teams are known as the Spartans, compete in the NCAA Division I FBS Mountain West Conference. What is now San José State University was established in 1857 as the Minns Evening Normal School in San Francisco, founded by George W. Minns. In 1862, by act of the California legislature, Minns Evening Normal School became the California State Normal School and graduated 54 women from a three-year program; the school moved to San Jose in 1871, was given Washington Square Park at Fourth and San Carlos Streets, where the campus remains to this day. In 1881, a large bell was forged to commemorate the school; the bell was inscribed with the words "California State Normal School, A. D. 1881," and would sound on special occasions until 1946. The original bell appears on the SJSU campus to this day, is still associated with various student traditions and rituals.
In August 1882, a southern branch campus of the California State Normal School opened in Los Angeles, which became the University of California, Los Angeles. The southern branch campus remained under administrative control of the San Jose campus until 1887. In 1921, the California State Normal School changed its name to the State Teachers College at San Jose. In 1935, the State Teachers Colleges became the California State Colleges, the school's name was changed again, this time to San Jose State College. In 1972, upon meeting criteria established by the board of trustees and the Coordinating Council for Higher Education, SJSC was granted university status, the name was changed to California State University, San Jose. In 1974, the California legislature voted to change the school's name to San José State University. In 1930, the Justice Studies Department was founded as a two-year police science degree program, it holds the distinction of offering the first policing degree in the United States.
A stone monument and plaque are displayed close to the site of the original police school near Tower Hall. In 1942, the old gym was used to register and collect Japanese Americans before sending them to internment camps. Coincidentally, Uchida's parents and siblings were among those processed in the building. In 1963, in an effort to save Tower Hall from demolition, SJSU students and alumni organized testimonials before the State College Board of Trustees, sent telegrams, provided signed petitions; as a result of those efforts, the tower, a prime campus landmark and SJSU icon, was refurbished and reopened in 1966. The tower was again renovated and restored in 2007. Tower Hall is registered with the California Office of Historic Preservation. During the 1960s and early 1970s, San Jose State College witnessed a rise in political activism and civic awareness among its student body, including major student protests against the Vietnam War. One of the largest campus protests took place in 1967 when Dow Chemical Company — a major manufacturer of napalm used in the war — came to campus to conduct job recruiting.
An estimated 3,000 students and bystanders surrounded the Seventh Street administration building, more than 200 students and teachers lay down on the ground in front of the recruiters. In 1972–73, the economics department experienced political turmoil as the administration conducted a purge of left-leaning professors. For several years thereafter, the economics department was under censor by the American Association of University Professors. In 1982 the English department began sponsoring the annual Bulwer-Lytton Fiction Contest. In 1999, San Jose State and the City of San Jose agreed to combine their main libraries to form a joint city-university library located on campus, the first known collaboration of this type in the United States; the combined library faced opposition, with critics stating the two libraries have different objectives and that the project would be too expensive. Despite opposition, the $177 million project proceeded, the new Martin Luther King Jr. Library opened on time and on budget in 2003.
The new library has won several national awards since its initial opening. During its 2006–07 fiscal year, SJSU received a record $50+ million in private gifts and $84 million in capital campaign contributions. In 2007, SJSU president Don Kassing launched SJSU's first-ever comprehensive capital fundraising campaign dubbed "Acceleration: the Campaign for San Jose State University." The original goal of the multi-year
National Basketball Association
The National Basketball Association is a men's professional basketball league in North America. It is considered to be the premier men's professional basketball league in the world; the NBA is an active member of USA Basketball, recognized by FIBA as the national governing body for basketball in the United States. The NBA is one of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. NBA players are the world's best paid athletes by average annual salary per player; the league was founded in New York City on June 1946, as the Basketball Association of America. The league adopted the name National Basketball Association on August 3, 1949, after merging with the competing National Basketball League; the league's several international as well as individual team offices are directed out of its head offices located in the Olympic Tower at 645 Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan. NBA Entertainment and NBA TV studios are directed out of offices located in New Jersey; the Basketball Association of America was founded in 1946 by owners of the major ice hockey arenas in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States and Canada.
On November 1, 1946, in Toronto, Canada, the Toronto Huskies hosted the New York Knickerbockers at Maple Leaf Gardens, in a game the NBA now refers to as the first game played in NBA history. The first basket was made by Ossie Schectman of the Knickerbockers. Although there had been earlier attempts at professional basketball leagues, including the American Basketball League and the NBL, the BAA was the first league to attempt to play in large arenas in major cities. During its early years, the quality of play in the BAA was not better than in competing leagues or among leading independent clubs such as the Harlem Globetrotters. For instance, the 1948 ABL finalist Baltimore Bullets moved to the BAA and won that league's 1948 title, the 1948 NBL champion Minneapolis Lakers won the 1949 BAA title. Prior to the 1948–49 season, however, NBL teams from Fort Wayne, Indianapolis and Rochester jumped to the BAA, which established the BAA as the league of choice for collegians looking to turn professional.
On August 3, 1949, the remaining NBL teams–Syracuse, Tri-Cities, Sheboygan and Waterloo–merged into the BAA. In deference to the merger and to avoid possible legal complications, the league name was changed to the present National Basketball Association though the merged league retained the BAA's governing body, including Podoloff. To this day, the NBA claims the BAA's history as its own, it now reckons the arrival of the NBL teams as an expansion, not a merger, does not recognize NBL records and statistics. The new league had seventeen franchises located in a mix of large and small cities, as well as large arenas and smaller gymnasiums and armories. In 1950, the NBA consolidated to eleven franchises, a process that continued until 1953–54, when the league reached its smallest size of eight franchises: the New York Knicks, Boston Celtics, Philadelphia Warriors, Minneapolis Lakers, Rochester Royals, Fort Wayne Pistons, Tri-Cities Blackhawks, Syracuse Nationals, all of which remain in the league today.
The process of contraction saw. The Hawks shifted from the Tri-Cities to Milwaukee in 1951, to St. Louis in 1955; the Rochester Royals moved from Rochester, New York, to Cincinnati in 1957 and the Pistons relocated from Fort Wayne, Indiana, to Detroit in 1957. Japanese-American Wataru Misaka broke the NBA color barrier in the 1947–48 season when he played for the New York Knicks, he remained the only non-white player in league history prior to the first African-American, Harold Hunter, signing with the Washington Capitols in 1950. Hunter was cut from the team during training camp, but several African-American players did play in the league that year, including Chuck Cooper with the Celtics, Nathaniel "Sweetwater" Clifton with the Knicks, Earl Lloyd with the Washington Capitols. During this period, the Minneapolis Lakers, led by center George Mikan, won five NBA Championships and established themselves as the league's first dynasty. To encourage shooting and discourage stalling, the league introduced the 24-second shot clock in 1954.
If a team does not attempt to score a field goal within 24 seconds of obtaining the ball, play is stopped and the ball given to its opponent. In 1957, rookie center Bill Russell joined the Boston Celtics, which featured guard Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, went on to lead the club to eleven NBA titles in thirteen seasons. Center Wilt Chamberlain entered the league with the Warriors in 1959 and became a dominant individual star of the 1960s, setting new single game records in scoring and rebounding. Russell's rivalry with Chamberlain became one of the greatest rivalries in the history of American team sports; the 1960s were dominated by the Celtics. Led by Russell, Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, Boston won eight straight championships in the NBA from 1959 to 1966; this championship streak is the longest in NBA history. They did not win the title in 1966–67, but regained it in the 1967–68 season and repeated in 1969; the domination totaled nine of the ten championship banners of the 1960s.
Through this period, the NBA continued to evolve with the shift of the Minneapolis Lakers to Los Angeles, the Philadelphia Warriors to San Francisco, the Syracuse Nationals to Philadelphia to become the Philadelphia 76ers, the St. Louis Hawks moving to Atlanta, as well as the addition of its first expansion franchises; the Chicago Packers (now Wa