Austria the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2, a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion, it is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps; the majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, Slovene. Austria played a central role in European History from the late 18th to the early 20th century, it emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal houses in history.
As archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Holy Roman Empire's dissolution, Austria founded its own empire in the 19th century, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation. Subsequent to the Austro-Prussian War and the establishment of a union with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was created. Austria was involved in both world wars. Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms; the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. The republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995.
It is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, adopted the euro currency in 1999; the German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. This word is a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is "Ostravica" - because it is steep on both sides. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976; the word "Austria" was first recorded in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube basin of Austria was the easternmost extent of Bavaria; the Central European land, now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.
Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians and Avars. Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, introduced Christianity; as part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976; the first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished; as a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia assumed control of the duchies of Austria and Carinthia. His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception; the Habsburgs began to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. In 1496, his son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606.
The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, of which some are c
Scuderia Ferrari S.p. A. is the racing division of luxury Italian auto manufacturer Ferrari and the racing team that competes in Formula One racing. The team is nicknamed "The Prancing Horse", with reference to their logo, it is the oldest surviving and most successful Formula One team, having competed in every world championship since the 1950 Formula One season. The team was founded by Enzo Ferrari to race cars produced by Alfa Romeo, though by 1947 Ferrari had begun building its own cars. Among its important achievements outside Formula One are winning the World Sportscar Championship, 24 Hours of Le Mans, 24 Hours of Spa, 24 Hours of Daytona, 12 Hours of Sebring, Bathurst 12 Hour, races for Grand tourer cars and racing on road courses of the Targa Florio, the Mille Miglia and the Carrera Panamericana; as a constructor, Ferrari has a record 16 Constructors' Championships, the last of, won in 2008. Alberto Ascari, Juan Manuel Fangio, Mike Hawthorn, Phil Hill, John Surtees, Niki Lauda, Jody Scheckter, Michael Schumacher and Kimi Räikkönen have won a record 15 Drivers' Championships for the team.
Since Räikkönen's title in 2007 the team narrowly lost out on the 2008 drivers' title with Felipe Massa and the 2010 and 2012 drivers' titles with Fernando Alonso. Michael Schumacher is the team's most successful driver. Joining the team in 1996 and departing in 2006 he won five drivers' titles and 72 Grands Prix for the team, his titles came consecutively between 2000 and 2004, the team won consecutive constructors' title from 1999 until the end of 2004. Sebastian Vettel and Charles Leclerc are the two main race drivers; the team is known for its passionate support base known as the tifosi. The Italian Grand Prix at Monza is regarded as the team's home race; the Scuderia Ferrari team was founded by Enzo Ferrari on 16 November 1929 and became the racing team of Alfa Romeo and racing Alfa Romeo cars. In 1938, Alfa Romeo management made the decision to re-enter racing under its own name, establishing the Alfa Corse organisation, which absorbed what had been Scuderia Ferrari. Enzo Ferrari disagreed with this change in policy and was dismissed by Alfa in 1939.
The terms of his leaving forbade him from motorsport for a period of four years. In 1939, Ferrari started work on a racecar of his own, the Tipo 815; the 815s, designed by Alberto Massimino, were thus the first Ferrari cars. World War II put a temporary end to racing, Ferrari concentrated on an alternative use for his factory during the war years, doing machine tool work. After the war, Ferrari recruited several of his former Alfa colleagues and established a new Scuderia Ferrari, which would design and build its own cars; the team was based in Modena from its pre-war founding until 1943, when Enzo Ferrari moved the team to a new factory in Maranello in 1943, both Scuderia Ferrari and Ferrari's roadcar factory remain at Maranello to this day. The team owns and operates a test track on the same site, the Fiorano Circuit built in 1972, used for testing road and race cars; the team is named after Enzo Ferrari. Scuderia is Italian for a stable reserved for racing horses and is commonly applied to Italian motor racing teams.
The prancing horse was the symbol on Italian World War I ace Francesco Baracca's fighter plane, became the logo of Ferrari after the fallen ace's parents, close acquaintances of Enzo Ferrari, suggested that Ferrari use the symbol as the logo of the Scuderia, telling him it would'bring him good luck'. In May 1947, Ferrari constructed the 12-cylinder, 1.5 L Tipo 125, the first racing car to bear the Ferrari name. A Formula One version of the Tipo 125, the Ferrari 125 F1 was developed in 1948 and entered in several Grands Prix, at the time a World Championship had not yet been established. In 1950, the Formula One World Championship was established, Scuderia Ferrari entered in this first season, it is the only team to have competed in every season of the World Championship, from its inception to the current day. In fact the Ferrari team missed the first race of the championship, the 1950 British Grand Prix, due to a dispute about the'start money' paid to entrants, the team debuted in the 1950 Monaco Grand Prix with the 125 F1, sporting a supercharged version of the 125 V12, three experienced and successful drivers, Alberto Ascari, Raymond Sommer and Gigi Villoresi.
The company switched to the large-displacement aspirated formula for the 275, 340, 375 F1 cars. The Alfa Romeo team dominated the 1950 Formula One season, winning all eleven events it entered, but Ferrari broke their streak in 1951 when rotund driver José Froilán González took first place at the 1951 British Grand Prix. After the 1951 Formula One season the Alfa team withdrew from F1, causing the authorities to adopt the Formula Two regulations due to the lack of suitable F1 cars. Ferrari entered the 2.0 L 4-cyl Ferrari Tipo 500, which went on to win every race in which it competed in the 1952 Formula One season with drivers Ascari, Giuseppe Farina, Piero Taruffi. In the 1953 Formula One season, Ascari won only five races but another world title; the 1954 Formula One season brought new rules for 2.5 L engines. Ferrari had only two wins, González at the 1954 British Grand Prix and Mike Hawthorn a
John Watson (racing driver)
John Marshall Watson, is a British former racing driver and current commentator from Northern Ireland. He was third in the 1982 championship, he competed in the World Sportscar Championship finishing second in the 1987 championship. After his retirement from motorsport, he became a commentator for Eurosport's coverage of Formula One from 1990 to 1996, he commentates on the Blancpain GT Series. John Watson was educated in Rockport School, Northern Ireland. Watson's Formula One career began in 1972, driving a customer March-Cosworth 721 for Goldie Hexagon Racing in a non-Championship event: the World Championship Victory Race at Brands Hatch. Watson's first World Championship events came in the 1973 season, in which he raced in the British Grand Prix in a customer Brabham-Ford BT37, the US Grand Prix, where he drove the third works Brabham BT42. Neither was successful, as in the British race he ran out of fuel on the 36th lap and his engine failed after only seven laps in the United States event.
Watson scored his first World Championship point in the 1974 Monaco Grand Prix, while driving for Goldie Hexagon Racing. He went on to score a total of six points that season, driving a customer Brabham BT42-Ford modified by the team, he failed to score Championship points the following year, driving for Team Surtees, Team Lotus and Penske Cars. At the 1975 Spanish Grand Prix he had the chance to score his first win, he was in second position, behind Mario Andretti, until he had to stop in the pits for checks after his car started to suffer vibrations. Andretti retired and after rejoining the race Watson finished in eighth, his best Championship result in 1975. In non-Championship races he fared somewhat better, taking second place in the Race of Champions at Brands Hatch, fourth at the International Trophy race at Silverstone, he secured his first World Championship podium with third place at the 1976 French Grand Prix. That season came his first victory, driving for Penske in the Austrian Grand Prix having qualified second on the grid.
After the race he shaved off the result of a bet with team owner Roger Penske. In the third race of the 1977 Formula One season, the South African Grand Prix, he managed to complete the race distance, scored a point, took his first fastest lap, his achievements were overshadowed, however, by the deaths of driver Tom Pryce and a track marshal, Jansen Van Vuuren. His Brabham-Alfa Romeo let him down throughout the season but, despite this, he gained his first pole position in the Monaco Grand Prix and qualified in the top ten no fewer than 14 times in the first two rows. Problems with the car, a disqualification meant that he raced the full distance in only five of the 17 races; the closest he came to victory was during the French Grand Prix, where he dominated the race from the start only to be let down by a fuel metering problem on the last lap which relegated him to second place behind eventual winner Mario Andretti. In 1978, Watson managed a more successful season in terms of race finishes out-qualifying and out-racing his illustrious teammate Niki Lauda on occasion.
He managed three podiums and a pole, notched up 25 points to earn the highest championship placing of his career to that point. For 1979, Watson moved to McLaren where he gave them their first victory in over three years by winning the 1981 British Grand Prix and securing the first victory for a carbon fibre composite monocoque F1 car, the McLaren MP4/1. In the 1981 season, the strength of the McLaren's carbon fibre monocoque was demonstrated when he had a fiery crash at Monza during the Italian Grand Prix. Watson lost the car coming out of the high speed Lesmo bends and crashed backwards into the barriers. Similar accidents had proven fatal, but Watson was uninjured in an accident he recalled as looking far worse than it was. After James Hunt's abrupt retirement after the Monaco Grand Prix in 1979, Watson was the only full-time competitive British F1 driver up until the end of his career, his most successful year was 1982, when he finished third in the Drivers' Championship, winning two Grands Prix.
In several races he achieved high placings despite qualifying towards the back of the grid. At the first Detroit Grand Prix in 1982, he overtook three cars in one lap deep into the race on a tight, twisty track, difficult to pass on. Watson went into the final race of the season at Caesars Palace in with an outside chance of the title, but he was to finish five points adrift of Keke Rosberg and level on points with Didier Pironi. A year in 1983, he repeated the feat of winning from the back of the grid at the final Formula One race in Long Beach. Watson's final victory included a fight for position with teammate Niki Lauda, who had started the race 23rd, though Watson finished 27 seconds ahead of his dual World Championship winning teammate. At the end of the 1983 season however, Watson was dropped by McLaren and subsequently retired from Formula One. Negotiations with team boss Ron Dennis broke down when Watson asked for more money than dual World Champion Lauda was earning, citing having won a GP in 1983 where Lauda did not.
Dennis instead signed Renault refugee Alain Prost for comparatively nothing. He did return for one further race two years driving for McLare
1993 Formula One World Championship
The 1993 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 47th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1993 Formula One World Championship for Drivers and the 1993 Formula One World Championship for Constructors, which were contested concurrently over a sixteen-race series that commenced on 14 March and ended on 7 November. Alain Prost won his fourth and final Drivers' Championship, Williams-Renault won their second consecutive Constructors' Championship, the sixth in all for Williams; the 1993 season saw the return of the European Grand Prix to the calendar after eight years. The Mexican Grand Prix left the calendar for the second time after seven years, due to safety concerns surrounding the bumpy surface of the Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez. 1993 marked the height of the use of electronics technology in Formula One, with the most advanced and sophisticated F1 cars built. The championship-winning Williams car, the FW15C, featured hydraulically- and electronically-controlled active suspension, plus power steering, anti-lock brakes, fly-by-wire controls, traction control, a semi-automatic gearbox that could be switched over to automatic sophisticated on-board telemetry, pneumatic valve springs in the engine, a "push to pass" system that, at least in theory, made overtaking easier.
Williams tested a continuously variable transmission, while Benetton-Ford tested a four-wheel steering system late in the season. Nearly all cars in 1993 had an active suspension system, which kept the car's ride height consistent throughout a lap. All these systems would be banned for 1994, except for the on-board telemetry and pneumatic valve springs. In addition to winning his fourth Drivers' Championship, Prost achieved his 50th F1 victory at the British Grand Prix, becoming the first driver to reach this milestone, his fierce rival, Ayrton Senna, finished runner-up in the championship after winning five races for McLaren-Ford. Prost's Williams teammate, Damon Hill, took his first F1 victory in Hungary. At the end of the season, Prost retired from Grand Prix racing, bringing to an end an era in which he and Senna had dominated the sport, winning a combined 76 races between 1985 and 1993 and seven of the nine championships in that time. Senna would take Prost's place at Williams; the following teams and drivers competed in the 1993 FIA Formula One World Championship.
^1 With the departure of reigning champion Nigel Mansell, car number 1 was not assigned. ^2 Despite being on the entry list, the March team did not contest any races. 1993 saw a major shake-up of drivers among the top teams. Across the grid a number of experienced drivers retired or moved to other series and new faces emerged. Williams completed the signing of Alain Prost, returning to the sport after a "sabbatical" year in 1992. Team owner Frank Williams would not guarantee Nigel Mansell the number 1 driver status in the team next to the triple World Champion Prost, despite Mansell being the reigning World Champion, so Mansell opted not to remain with the team to defend his title and moved to IndyCar racing in the US. Prost's teammate would be Damon Hill, son of Graham Hill and Williams's test driver in 1992; the absence of the defending champion meant that Williams could not use the number 1 on their cars, so the number 0 was used instead, by Hill, while Prost used the number 2. Uncertainty surrounded the McLaren team, whose iconic driver Ayrton Senna was reluctant to re-sign for 1993 as Honda had withdrawn from the sport and the team were not expected to be competitive with customer Ford engines.
McLaren signed Michael Andretti, a successful IndyCar driver and son of 1978 World Champion Mario Andretti, Mika Häkkinen, who had impressed for Lotus in 1991 and 1992. Senna signed on a race-by-race basis and was partnered by Andretti until the Italian Grand Prix. Häkkinen became the team's test driver and stepped up to take Andretti's place after the American left the team. Benetton retained Michael Schumacher, but lost Martin Brundle, replaced after numerous run-ins and disagreements with team manager Flavio Briatore. Taking the second seat at Benetton was the most experienced driver in Formula One, Italian veteran Riccardo Patrese, released by Williams after just over five seasons with the team since 1988, despite having finished runner up to Mansell in the Drivers' Championship in 1992. Ferrari retained Jean Alesi, but Ivan Capelli and Nicola Larini had both disappointed in 1992 and so Gerhard Berger returned to the team after three years at McLaren since 1990. Larini returned to his previous role as test driver for the team.
Lotus took on Alessandro Zanardi, who replaced Häkkinen. When Zanardi had a huge crash in the Belgian Grand Prix, he was replaced by Portuguese newcomer Pedro Lamy. Tyrrell took on Japan's Ukyo Katayama, who moved from Larrousse. Ligier reunited British drivers Martin Brundle and Mark Blundell: the two had driven for Brabham in 1991, but to the relief of commentators everywhere had troubled the TV coverage; this was the first, only, time in Ligier's history that they did not have a French driver in their line-up. Footwork Arrows
1982 Formula One World Championship
The 1982 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 36th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1982 Formula One World Championship for Drivers and the 1982 Formula One World Championship for Constructors, which were contested concurrently over a sixteen-race series that began on 23 January and ended on 25 September; the Drivers' Championship was won by the Constructors' Championship by Ferrari. Motorsport journalist Nigel Roebuck wrote that the 1982 season was "an ugly year, pock-marked by tragedy, by dissension, by greed, yet, paradoxically, it produced some of the most memorable racing seen", it started with a drivers' strike at the season opener in South Africa and saw a partial race boycott as part of the ongoing FISA–FOCA war at the San Marino Grand Prix. Two drivers lost their lives during the season: Gilles Villeneuve during qualifying for the Belgian Grand Prix and Riccardo Paletti at the start of the Canadian Grand Prix. Championship favourite Didier Pironi suffered a career-ending accident while qualifying for the German Grand Prix.
These incidents and several other major accidents led to regulation changes to increase driver security for 1983. Rosberg won only one race all season – the Swiss Grand Prix – but consistency gave him the Drivers' Championship, five points clear of Pironi and John Watson. Rosberg was the second driver to win the championship having won only one race in the season, after Mike Hawthorn in 1958. Eleven different drivers from seven different teams won a race during the season, with no driver winning more than twice. Ferrari, who replaced Villeneuve with Patrick Tambay and Pironi with 1978 World Champion Mario Andretti, managed to score enough points to secure the Constructors' Championship, finishing five clear of McLaren with Renault third. All teams and constructors who had competed in 1981 returned for the new season. Brabham had entered a deal for engine supply with German car manufacturer BMW for the use of their L4 turbo engines; the team announced in January that they would only be using the new BMW engine, but after experiencing reliability problems with the BMW engine, they reverted to using the Cosworth DFV engine several times during the season.
And the end of the 1981 season, both Williams drivers, 1980 world champion Alan Jones and Carlos Reutemann, had announced their retirement from racing. Reutemann did in fact return for 1982, competing in the first two races, before retiring unexpectedly at the end of March. Jones was replaced by Keke Rosberg, who had entered 36 Grands Prix, but won none with only one podium finish to his name; the off season saw rumours of several former champions returning to the sport, but in the end only double world champion Niki Lauda returned to Formula One after an absence of two years to partner John Watson at McLaren. Ferrari and Renault retained their race-winning line ups of Gilles Villeneuve and Didier Pironi and Alain Prost and René Arnoux, respectively. At Brabham, defending world champion Nelson Piquet remained with the team, now partnered by Riccardo Patrese, who moved from Arrows to replace Héctor Rebaque; the Osella team gave Riccardo Paletti his Grand Prix début, while Toleman replaced Brian Henton with Teo Fabi a newcomer to Formula One.
Marc Surer broke both his feet in pre-season testing at Kyalami. He was set to be replaced by Patrick Tambay, removed from the squad after taking part in the drivers' strike at that race and the car went to Henton. Eliseo Salazar transferred from Ensign Racing to the ATS team. Mid-season changesFollowing Reutemann's retirement, Williams hired 1978 world champion Mario Andretti as a one-off replacement for the United States Grand Prix West. Derek Daly became the permanent second driver at the team, as Andretti had racing obligations in the United States to fulfill. Andretti returned with Ferrari for the last two races of the season, replacing Pironi, who had suffered career-ending injuries at the German Grand Prix. Villeneuve, who died following a crash in practice for the Belgian Grand Prix, was replaced by Tambay starting from the Dutch Grand Prix. At Team Lotus, Nigel Mansell missed two races due to injuries from a crash in Canada, his substitute at the Dutch Grand Prix was Roberto Moreno. Mansell attempted a comeback at Brands Hatch, but was again replaced at the French Grand Prix, this time by Geoff Lees.
An accident at the race in France led Jochen Mass deeply shaken by the fatal crash of Villeneuve, in which he was involved, to walk away from Grand Prix racing. He was replaced at March by Rupert Keegan. Swedish driver Slim Borgudd had moved from ATS to Tyrrell, but was forced to leave the team when his sponsorship money ran out. Henton took his place from the Belgian Grand Prix onwards, as Surer returned to Arrows after his injuries had healed; the Argentine Grand Prix was scheduled to take place on 7 March, but was cancelled due to lack of sponsors, with several of them pulling out of financing the race due to uncertainty following the drivers' strike at the previous round at Kyalami. The Spanish Grand Prix was omitted from the calendar for several reasons; the Circuito del Jarama, where the race had been held the previous year was unloved by drivers and the organisers had failed to pay their fees for 1981. The race was re-instated for 27 June after the organisers had paid their debts to the Formula One Constructors' Association.
However, protests from the teams over the dangerous nature of the Jarama venue led to the race to be cancelled. Two races were added to the calendar compared to 1981, the Detroit Grand Prix and the Swiss Grand Prix, held at Dijon-Prenoi
Walter Wolf Racing
Walter Wolf Racing was a Formula One constructor active from 1977 to 1979, which won the first race the team entered. It was run by Canadian Walter Wolf; the team was based in UK but raced with the Canadian licence. In 1975, the Austrian naturalized Canadian businessman Walter Wolf had started to appear at many of the F1 races during the season. A year he bought 60% of Frank Williams Racing Cars while agreeing to keep Frank Williams as manager of the team. Wolf bought the assets of Hesketh Racing and bought some equipment from Embassy Hill, both teams having withdrawn from F1; the team was based in the Williams facility at Reading but used most of the cars and equipment once owned by Hesketh Racing. The Hesketh 308C became known as the Wolf–Williams FW05 and soon afterwards Harvey Postlethwaite arrived as chief engineer. Jacky Ickx and Frenchman Michel Leclère were hired to drive; the team, was not competitive and failed to qualify at a number of races during the year. Leclère left after the French Grand Prix and was replaced by Arturo Merzario while Ickx failed to perform and was dropped after the British Grand Prix, to be followed by a string of pay-drivers.
At the end of 1976, Wolf decided. He replaced him with Peter Warr from Team Lotus. Disillusioned, Williams soon left the team, taking Patrick Head and several others to set up Williams Grand Prix Engineering. Postlethwaite's WR1 was a conventional Cosworth package but with Jody Scheckter hired from Tyrrell, the team won its first race in Argentina. Scheckter started tenth, took advantage of six of the cars ahead of him retiring. During the 1977 season, Scheckter went on to win the Monaco Grand Prix and the Canadian Grand Prix and six other podium finishes, which enabled him to finish second to Niki Lauda in the World Championship and gave Wolf fourth place in the Constructors' Championship. Around this time the team developed the WD1 sports car for Can-Am racing; the car was developed with Italian firm Dallara. The team remained the same for the 1978 season. Postlethwaite produced the WR5, a new car for the ground-effects era; this did not appear until the Belgian GP. Scheckter finished fourth in Spain and second in Germany but the WR5 soon made way for the WR6 with which he ended the year with a third in the US Grand Prix and second in Canada.
He finished seventh in the World Championship. In 1979, Scheckter was signed up by Wolf signed James Hunt to replace him. Postlethwaite designed the WR7; the car was not successful and retired more than 7 times during the first half of the season. The WR8 soon followed. In mid-season Hunt decided to retire and Wolf hired Keke Rosberg to replace him; the appearance of the WR9 did little to change the team's fortunes and at the end of the year Wolf grew tired of his F1 adventure and sold the team to Emerson Fittipaldi, who merged its assets into Fittipaldi Automotive. A Wolf Racing WR1 is on display at the Canadian Motorsport Hall of Fame; as of 2015, a Wolf Racing WR4 is being shown and raced at vintage F1 car events in the United States, campaigned by MotoGP world champion Eddie Lawson. James Hunt's WR7 is on display at Brooklands Museum, Surrey, UK. Walter Wolf was involved in production cars, providing assistance to Lamborghini to develop the Countach as the Italian constructor teetered on the brink of bankruptcy.
"Wolf WR/1-4 1977–1978". Automobile Historique. May 2005. Llorens, Frederick. Wolf Racing, un loup en Formule 1. TheBookEdition. ISBN 978-2-9519955-3-6
Team Lotus was the motorsport sister company of English sports car manufacturer Lotus Cars. The team ran cars in many motorsport series, including Formula One, Formula Two, Formula Ford, Formula Junior, IndyCar, sports car racing. More than ten years after its last race, Team Lotus remained one of the most successful racing teams of all time, winning seven Formula One Constructors' titles, six Drivers' Championships, the Indianapolis 500 in the United States between 1962 and 1978. Under the direction of founder and chief designer Colin Chapman, Lotus was responsible for many innovative and experimental developments in critical motorsport, in both technical and commercial arenas; the Lotus name returned to Formula One in 2010 as Tony Fernandes's Lotus Racing team. In 2011, Team Lotus's iconic black-and-gold livery returned to F1 as the livery of the Lotus Renault GP team, sponsored by Lotus Cars, in 2012 the team was re-branded as Lotus F1 Team. Colin Chapman established Lotus Engineering Ltd in 1952 at Hornsey, UK.
Lotus achieved rapid success with the the 1954 Mk 8 sports cars. Team Lotus was split off from Lotus Engineering in 1954. A new Formula Two regulation was announced for 1957, in Britain, several organizers ran races for the new regulations during the course of 1956. Most of the cars entered that year were sports cars, they included a large number of Lotus 11s, the definitive Coventry Climax-powered sports racer, led by the Team Lotus entries for Chapman, driven by Cliff Allison and Reg Bicknell; the following year, the Lotus 12 appeared. Driving one in 1958, Allison won the F2 class in the International Trophy at Silverstone, beating Stuart Lewis-Evans's Cooper; the remarkable Coventry Climax-powered Type 14, the Lotus Cars production version of, the original Lotus Elite, won six class victories, plus the "Index of Performance" several times at the 24 Hours of Le Mans race. As the Coventry Climax engines were enlarged in 1952 to 2.2-litres, Chapman decided to enter Grand Prix racing, running a pair of Lotus 12s at Monaco in 1958 for Graham Hill and Cliff Allison.
These were replaced that year by Lotus 16s. In 1959 – by which time the Coventry Climax engines had been stretched to 2.5-litres – Chapman continued with front-engined F1 cars, but achieved little, so in 1960 Chapman switched to the milestone mid-engined Lotus 18. By the company's success had caused it to expand to such an extent that it had to move to new premises at Cheshunt; the first Formula One victory for Team Lotus came when Innes Ireland won the 1961 United States Grand Prix. A year earlier, Stirling Moss had recorded the first victory for a Lotus car at Monaco in his Lotus 18 entered by the independent Rob Walker Racing Team. There were successes in Formula Junior; the road car business was doing well with the Lotus Seven and the Lotus Elite and this was followed by the Lotus Elan in 1962. More racing success followed with the 26R, the racing version of the Elan, in 1963 with the Lotus Cortina, which Jack Sears drove to the British Saloon Car Championship title, a feat repeated by Jim Clark in 1964 and Alan Mann in the 1965 European Touring car Championship.
In 1963, Clark drove the Lotus 25 to a remarkable seven wins in a season and won the World Championship. The 1964 title was still for the taking by the time of the last race in Mexico but problems with Clark's Lotus and Hill's BRM gave it to Surtees in his Ferrari. However, in 1965, Clark dominated again, six wins in his Lotus 33 gave him the championship. While innovative, Chapman came under criticism for the structural fragility of his designs; the number of top drivers injured or killed in Lotus machinery was considerable – notably Stirling Moss, Alan Stacey, Mike Taylor, Jim Clark, Mike Spence, Bobby Marshman, Graham Hill, Jochen Rindt and Ronnie Peterson. In Dave Friedman's book "Indianapolis Memories 1961–1969", Dan Gurney is quoted as saying, "Did I think the Lotus way of doing things was good? No. We had several structural failures in those cars, but at the time, I felt it was the price you paid for getting something better." When the Formula One engine size increased to three litres in 1966, Lotus was caught unprepared because of the surprising failure of the Coventry Climax 1.5-Litre FWMW Flat-16 project, which prevented Climax from developing a 3-Litre successor.
They started the season fielding the hastily prepared and uncompetitive two-litre Coventry-Climax FWMV V8 engine, only switching to the BRM H16 in time for the Italian Grand Prix, with the new engine proving to be overweight and unreliable. A switch to the new Ford Cosworth DFV, designed by former Lotus employee Keith Duckworth, in 1967 returned the team to winning form. Although they failed to win the title in 1967, by the end of the season, the Lotus 49 and the DFV engine were mature enough to make the Lotus team dominant again. However, for 1968 Lotus had lost its exclusive right to use the DFV; the season-opening 1968 South African Grand Prix confirmed Lotus's superiority, with Jim Clark and Graham Hill finishing 1–2. It would be Clark's last win. On 7 April 1968, one of the most successful and popular drivers of all time, was killed driving a Lotus 48 at Hockenheim in a non-championship Formula Two event; the season saw the introduction of wings as seen on various cars, including the Chaparral sports car.
Colin Chapman introduced a spoiler on Hill's Lotus 49B at Monaco. Graham Hill won the F1 World Championship in 1968 driving the Lotus 49. Around the same time, Chapman moved Lotus to new premises at Hethel in Norfolk. A new factory was built on the site, the former RAF Hethel bomber base, the old runways were converted into a testing facility; the offices and design studios wer