Civil War (college football game)
The Civil War is the colloquial name given to the Oregon–Oregon State football rivalry. It is an American college football rivalry game played annually in the state of Oregon, between the Ducks of the University of Oregon in Eugene and the Beavers of Oregon State University in Corvallis. First played 125 years ago in 1894, it is the fifth-most played college football rivalry game in the Football Bowl Subdivision. Both universities are members of the North Division of the Pac-12 Conference and the campuses are less than fifty miles apart in the Willamette Valley; the series has now been played continuously since 1945. Oregon and Oregon State have the highest number of games played between two public universities, in the same state, that have a game named "University of _ vs. _ State University." The game was first played in 1894 and has been contested 122 times through 2018. The game was not held in 1900, 1901, 1911, 1943, 1944 and two games were played in 1896 and 1945; the first reference to the "Civil War" name was in 1929 and came into common use in 1937.
Prior to that, it was called the "Oregon Classic" or the "State Championship Game." The game is played in even-numbered years at the home field of Oregon State in Corvallis and in odd-numbered years at the home field of Oregon in Eugene. Seven games were played at Multnomah Field/Stadium in Portland: in 1908, 1917, 1933, 1934, 1938, 1950, 1952. In an effort to mitigate rioting, the 1912 and 1913 games were played at a neutral site in Albany following riots after the 1910 game that led to the 1911 game's cancellation. From 1997 through 2006, the home team won the game; the streak was snapped in 2007, when Oregon State beat Oregon at Autzen Stadium 38-31 in double overtime. In 2008, the Ducks returned the favor in Corvallis by beating OSU 65-38; the streak of visiting teams winning was snapped at two games in 2009 when the Ducks won 37-33 in Eugene. From 1959 to 1961, the Platypus Trophy was awarded to the winner. Beginning with the 2007 game, it is awarded to the winning school's alumni association.
Both share the longest winning streak in the series at eight games, but the Ducks had an undefeated run of thirteen games, with twelve wins and a scoreless tie in 1983. Other athletic contests between the schools are referred to as Civil War games. 1933: In a game played before 32,183 spectators at Multnomah Stadium in Portland, both teams came into the game undefeated: the Beavers were 5–0–2 and the Ducks were 7–0. The Beavers scored first, but the rest was all Oregon, with fullback "Iron Mike" Mikulak rushing for 89 yards on the way to a 13–3 victory; the Ducks won a share of the PCC championship, but Stanford got the bid to the Rose Bowl.1957: The Ducks had a 6–1 conference record and the Beavers were 5–2. A Beaver win at Hayward Field would give them a share of the conference title, but since the Beavers had been to the previous season's Rose Bowl, the Pacific Coast Conference's no-repeat rule meant that no matter what, the Ducks were headed for the Pasadena on New Year's Day, their first Rose Bowl appearance since January 1920.
Both teams scored on their first possession, but that ended the scoring until late in the third quarter, when Beaver kicker Ted Searle put Oregon State on top, 10–7. A late fumble by the Ducks' Jim Shanley secured the win—but not the Rose Bowl—for Oregon State.1959: The Ducks came into the game with just one loss. An Oregon win, coupled with a Washington loss, could have earned the Ducks a Rose Bowl invitation. Meanwhile, Oregon State was its first losing record in 5 years; the Beavers started shakily, fumbling on their first two possessions and falling behind 7–0 in the first quarter. The rest was all Beavers as they salvaged their season with two touchdowns and a field goal to upset the Ducks, 15–7.1969: With the score tied at 7 and less than a minute left, Oregon State placekicker Mike Nehl attempted a 29-yard field goal to put the Beavers ahead. Nehl had had one field goal blocked and missed one field goal on the day, this one was blocked by Oregon's Jim Franklin, hit an official, bounced off the foot of Oregon linebacker Don Graham, was recovered by Oregon State tight end Bill Plumeau at the Duck 4 yard line.
Nehl again came on to try his fourth field goal, this time, connected on a 21-yard kick to give the Beavers a 10–7 win—the sixth on the way to what would be eight straight OSU Civil War wins. This was the first Civil War game played on artificial turf. 1983: Played during a rainstorm and pitting two mediocre squads against each other, the game ended in a scoreless tie and is known as the "Toilet Bowl" because of the poor quality of play exhibited in the game. There were eleven fumbles, five interceptions, four missed field goals, it was the last Division I football game to end in a scoreless tie. This was the final tie in the series, six of which were scoreless. 1987: Oregon earned the most lopsided victory in the series, a 44–0 drubbing led by Ducks quarterback Bill Musgrave.1988: The Beavers last win was fourteen years earlier, Oregon head coach Rich Brooks had not lost a Civil War in 21 attempts as either a Ducks coach or Beavers coach or player. Both streaks ended on this day, as the Beavers scored two fourth quarter touchdowns for a 21–10 victory.
1994: Oregon needed a win at hostile Parker Stadium to secure a bid to the Rose Bowl, but trailed 13–10 in the fourth quarter. Quarterback Danny O'Neil took the Ducks on a 70-yard drive that culminated
Sanford Stadium is the on-campus playing venue for football at the University of Georgia in Athens, United States. The 92,746-seat stadium is the tenth-largest stadium in the NCAA. Architecturally, the stadium is known for its numerous expansions over the years that have been planned to fit with the existing "look" of the stadium; the view of Georgia's campus and rolling hills from the open west end-zone has led many to refer to Sanford Stadium as college football's "most beautiful on-campus stadium", while the surrounding pageantry has made it noteworthy as one of college football's "best and most intimidating atmospheres". Games played there are said to be played "Between the Hedges" due to the field being surrounded by privet hedges, which have been a part of the design of the stadium since it opened in 1929; the current hedges were planted in 1996 after the originals were taken out to accommodate soccer for the 1996 Summer Olympics. The stadium is the 11th largest stadium in the United States and the 18th-largest such stadium in the world.
The stadium is named for an early major force behind UGA athletics. Sanford arrived at the University of Georgia as an English instructor in 1903, he became the faculty representative to the athletics committee and would become president of the University and Chancellor of the entire University System of Georgia. In 1911, he moved the university's football venue from its first location, Herty Field, to a location at the center of campus, named Sanford Field in his honor. In those early years of football, Georgia played a series of controversial games against in-state rival Georgia Tech. Sanford Field was too small to accommodate the large crowds, forcing Georgia to travel to Tech's Grant Field in Atlanta every year. Sanford wanted Georgia to have a venue that would equal Tech's, the "final straw" came in 1927 when UGA's undefeated team traveled to Tech and lost 12–0, it was alleged. Afterwards, Sanford vowed to "build a stadium bigger than Tech", play the game at Athens every other year. To fund his vision, Sanford had an idea that members of the athletic association would sign notes guaranteeing a bank loan to fund the stadium construction.
Those guarantors would be granted lifetime seats. The response was overwhelming, in 1928 a loan of $150,000 supported by fans and alumni allowed construction to begin on a stadium whose total cost was $360,000. Near the existing Sanford Field was a low area between the Old Campus and the Ag Campus with a small creek running through it, creating a preferable choice for the location of the new stadium; this natural valley containing Tanyard Creek would result in reduced costs, as stands could be built on the rising sides of the hill, while the creek could be enclosed in a concrete culvert, on top of which the field would be constructed. The architect for the stadium was TC Atwood of Chapel Hill, North Carolina, where North Carolina's Kenan Memorial Stadium had just been completed with a similar design; the 30,000-seat stadium was built in large part with convict labor, as were many public works projects of that era. While the location was as now, preferable for construction, the result is an uphill walk in any direction leaving the stadium.
The stadium was completed on time, UGA convinced perennial powerhouse Yale, which has maintained close ties with UGA, to be their first opponent in the new stadium. On October 12, 1929, a capacity crowd of over 30,000 paid $3 per ticket to watch the Bulldogs, under coach Harry Mehre, beat Yale 15–0 in Sanford Stadium's dedication game; the crowd was at the time the largest to witness a college football game in the South, governors from all nine southern states were in attendance. Yale donated its half of the game receipts to UGA to help pay off the construction loans, which would subsequently be repaid in just five years. Dr. Sanford was at this game, attended many Georgia games at the stadium named in his honor until his death on September 15, 1945. Sanford Stadium's hedges have encircled the field since the stadium's first game against Yale in 1929; the idea to put hedges around the field came from the Business Manager of the UGA Athletic Department, Charlie Martin. Martin claimed to have received inspiration for the idea during a visit to the Rose Bowl, where he saw the hedge of roses in that stadium.
Roses were not a suitable choice for the climate in Athens, so privet hedges were used instead. Six other SEC stadiums have copied UGA and now have hedges, making this feature no longer unique to UGA, but Georgia has the only one that surrounds the playing field. There is a disagreement as to the exact type of hedge planted at Sanford Stadium; the UGA Media Guide claims that the hedge is an "English privet hedge". A county extension agent in Athens, claims online that the hedge is composed of Chinese privet, Ligustrum sinense. In addition to being a cosmetic touch, the hedges have proven to be an effective measure of crowd control. While not apparent in photos, the hedges are growing around a chain link fence which stops people who try to push through to the field. Though a major traffic path to exit the stadium from both stands runs directly alongside the hedges, fans have only stormed the field and torn down the goalposts once in the entire history of Sanford Stadium; this occurred after the Georgia vs. Tennessee game on Oct. 7, 2000.
The original stadium consisted of the lower half of the current facility's grandstand seats. In 1940, field-level lights were added, Georgia played i
Martin Stadium is an outdoor athletic stadium in the Pacific Northwest of the United States, on the campus of Washington State University in Pullman, Washington. It is the home field of the Washington State Cougars of the Pac-12 Conference. Martin Stadium has used artificial turf since its inception in 1972 and changed to infilled FieldTurf in 2000; the stadium is named after Clarence D. Martin, the governor of the state of Washington, a former mayor of Cheney and graduate of the University of Washington, his son, made a $250,000 donation to the project in January 1972 under the stipulation that the stadium be named after his father. Additional gifts were continued by Charlotte Martin. Martin Stadium opened 47 years ago in 1972 on September 30, with a 19-point loss to Utah a member of the WAC, with 20,600 in attendance. Two and a half years had passed since the south grandstand and press box of its predecessor, the wooden Rogers Field, was damaged by fire, a suspected case of arson; the WSU Cougars played all of their home games at Joe Albi Stadium in Spokane in 1970 and 1971.
In its first season in 1972, only the south grandstand, press box and artificial turf were new. The seating capacity in 1972 was 22,600; the east end zone seats from Rogers were replaced in 1999. The stadium has an unorthodox east-west alignment. After renovations in 2003, seating capacity was reduced to 35,117, was 32,952 in 2014. Since the expansion of Reser Stadium at Oregon State in 2005, Martin Stadium fell to last in football seating capacity in the Pac-10, is last in the Pac-12; the current attendance record was set during the championship year of 1997, when WSU beat Stanford on Senior Day in front of 40,306 on November 15. Despite its small size, Martin Stadium has one of the highest ratios of seating capacity to population base. Following a 10–3 season and an undefeated home campaign in 2003, it was ranked by Sports Illustrated as one of the toughest stadiums for visiting teams in college football. Martin Stadium was among the first college football stadiums to expand by removing its 440-yard running track and lowering the playing field, in this case by 16 feet.
This modification in 1979 added over 12,000 new seats. The first game following the renovation was played in mid-October, a 17–14 victory over UCLA under sunny skies; the Mooberry Track was constructed north of the stadium the site of the old Bailey baseball field, with home plate at the northwest corner. Baseball was relocated northeast, toward the golf course, to Bailey–Brayton Field; the original plan was for the track to occupy that space. Phases I and II commenced at the end of the 2006 football season; the project focused on improving the public areas around the stadium. A new concourse was built along the north stands and new concessions and restrooms were added throughout the stadium. Improvements were made around the stadium perimeter including the construction of a new public plaza and ticket office at the stadium's northeast corner along with a monumental sign at the east edge of the stadium along Stadium Way; the existing scoreboard behind the west stands was upgraded. Phases III and IV were branded as The Cougar Football Project and consisted of two major projects, additional improvements in a smaller projects that followed.
The first project, called the Southside Project, was an $80 million project that replaced the old press box on the south stands with a new structure that includes a new press box, club seats, loge boxes, luxury suites and a club room. 1,900 new seats were added in the premium seating area. The expansion added 21 luxury suites, 42 loge boxes and 1,300 club seats; the former press box did not have the amenities necessary for "first class" game productions with respect to national television and radio broadcasts as provided for in the new Pac-12 television and media contract. The Southside Project began demolition and construction in November 2011 and was completed by the first game of the 2012 season; the second project, called the West End-Zone Project, was a $61 million project that provided a new football operations center for the Cougar football program, including new weight/locker rooms and training areas for players. In addition to meeting rooms and coaches' offices, it will feature a WSU football heritage area and a game-day home for former letter winners.
The project was approved in November 2012, construction began that month on November 26. This project was completed for the opening of the 2014 season. Additional improvements included architectural upgrades to the stadium. In response to the West End-Zone Project occupying the space where the scoreboard had been, a new video display was installed on the stadium's east end, it features the latest light emitting diode video technology. The video board is 112% larger than the previous board while producing a wider, mo
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
A defensive tackle is the largest and strongest of the defensive players in American football. The defensive tackle lines up opposite one of the offensive guards. Depending on a team's individual defensive scheme, a defensive tackle may be called upon to fill several different roles; these roles may include holding the point of attack by refusing to be moved or penetrating a certain gap between offensive linemen to break up a play in the opponent's backfield. If a defensive tackle reads a pass play, his primary responsibility is to pursue the quarterback, or knock the pass down at the line if it's within arm's reach. Other responsibilities of the defensive tackle may be to pursue the screen pass or drop into coverage in a zone blitz scheme. In a traditional 4–3 defense, there is no nose tackle. Instead there is a left and right defensive tackle; some teams in the National Football League, do have a nose tackle in this scheme, but most of them do not. Nose tackle is a defensive alignment position for a defensive lineman.
In the 3–4 defensive scheme the sole defensive tackle is referred to as the nose tackle. The nose tackle aligns across the line of scrimmage from the offense's center before the play begins in the "0-technique" position. In this position taking on the center and at least one if not both of the guards, the nose tackle is considered to be the most physically demanding position in football. In five-linemen situations, such as a goal-line formation, the nose guard is the innermost lineman, flanked on either side by a defensive tackle or defensive end. According to Pat Kirwan, a traditional 3–4 defense demands "a massive man who can clog up the middle," while a 4–3 defense is looking for "a nose tackle who relies on quickness to penetrate and move along the front." Typical 3–4 nose tackles are "big wide bodies who can hold the point of attack and force double teams by the guard and center." They are the heaviest players on the roster, with weights ranging from 320 to 350 pounds. Height is critical, as they are supposed to get "under" the offensive line, which means ideal 3–4 nose tackles are no taller than 6 ft 3 in.
Recent examples of such nose tackles include Gilbert Brown, Casey Hampton, Jamal Williams, Vince Wilfork, Damon Harrison. Rather uncommon are taller nose tackles, such as Ted Washington and Ma'ake Kemoeatu, who each won a Super Bowl ring, are both 6 ft 5 in tall. In some 4 -- 3 defenses, the nose tackle; some teams in the NFL, do have a nose tackle in the 4–3 defense, which lines up against the opposing center and likely the weak-side or pulling guard. In a 4–3 defense, nose tackles are rather quick and supposed to "shoot the'A gap' and beat the center and likely the weak-side or pulling guard into the backfield." Height is not as important, their weight is closer to 300 pounds. The terms "nose guard" or "middle guard" were more used with the five-man defensive line of the older 5-2 defense. Effective against most plays of the day, but with a weakness to the inside short pass, the 5–2 was phased out of the pro game in the late 1950s. In the 4–3 defense, the upright middle linebacker replaced the middle guard.
The nose guard is used in a 50 read defense. In this defense there is a nose guard, two defensive tackles, two outside linebackers who can play on the line of scrimmage or off the line of scrimmage in a two-point stance; the nose guard lines up head up on the center about six to eighteen inches off the ball. In a reading 50 defense, the nose guard's key is to read the offensive center to the ball. In run away, the nose guard's job is to shed the blocker and pursue down the line of scrimmage, taking an angle of pursuit; the primary responsibility of the nose tackle in this scheme is to absorb multiple blockers so that other players in the defensive front can attack ball carriers and rush the quarterback
University of Oregon
The University of Oregon is a public flagship research university in Eugene, Oregon. Founded in 1876, the institution's 295-acre campus is along the Willamette River. Since July 2014, UO has been governed by the Board of Trustees of the University of Oregon; the university has a Carnegie Classification of "highest research activity" and has 19 research centers and institutes. UO was admitted to the Association of American Universities in 1969; the University of Oregon is organized into five colleges and seven professional schools and a graduate school. Furthermore, UO offers 316 graduate degree programs. Most academic programs follow the 10 week Quarter System. UO student-athletes compete as the Ducks and are part of the Pac-12 Conference in the National Collegiate Athletic Association. With eighteen varsity teams, the Oregon Ducks are best known for their football team and track and field program; the university's motto, Mens agitat molem, is shared by the Military Academy of the German Armed Forces founded in 1957, the University of Warwick founded in 1965, Eindhoven University of Technology founded in 1956.
Book VI, line 727 of the Aeneid by Virgil has been identified as the first written record of this thought. The Oregon State Legislature established the university on October 12, 1872, despite the new state's funding woes; the residents of Eugene struggled to help finance the institution, holding numerous fundraising events such as strawberry festivals, church socials, produce sales. They raised $27,500, enough to buy eighteen acres of land at a cost of $2,500; the doors opened in 1876 with the name of Oregon State University and Deady Hall as its sole building. The first year of enrollment contained 155 students taught by five faculty members; the first graduating class was in 1878. In 1881, the university was nearly closed. In 1913 and 1932, there were proposals to merge the university with what is now Oregon State University. Both proposals were defeated. During Prince Lucien Campbell's tenure as president from 1902 to 1925, the university experienced tremendous growth; the budget, enrollment and faculty members all grew several times its amount prior to his presidency.
Numerous schools were established during his tenure, including the School of Music in 1902, the School of Education in 1910, the School of Architecture, the College of Business in 1914, the School of Law in 1915, the School of Journalism in 1916, the School of Health and Physical Education in 1920. However, the University of Oregon lost its School of Engineering to Oregon Agricultural College, now known as Oregon State University. In 1917, a "three term" calendar was adopted by the university faculty as a war-time measure; this academic calendar has remained since then. However, it is now referred to as the Quarter System; the Zorn-MacPherson Bill in 1932 proposed the University of Oregon State College merge. The bill lost in a landslide vote of over 6 to 1; the University of Oregon Medical School was founded in 1887 in Portland and merged with Willamette University's program in 1913. However, in 1974 it became an independent institution known as Oregon Health Sciences University. In 1969, the UO was admitted into the Association of American Universities.
With financial support from the state dwindling from 40% to 13% of the university budget, in January 2001, University President Dave Frohnmayer began Campaign Oregon with the goal of raising $600 million by December 2008, the most ambitious philanthropic fundraising campaign in the state's history at the time. With contributions exceeding $100 million from benefactors such as Phil Knight and Lorry I. Lokey, the campaign goal was exceeded by over $253 million; the university occupies over 80 buildings. There are several ongoing campus construction projects such as a $95 million expansion and renovation of the Erb Memorial Union scheduled to open in September 2016 as well as a $16.75 million successor to the Science Library complex. These projects, among others, were commissioned in part to support current student enrollment as well as possible future increases. In reaction to a growing movement to establish an independent university board, the Oregon Legislature in 2013 passed SB 270, requiring local governing boards for the state's three largest institutions.
Effective July 1, 2014, the University of Oregon became an independent public body governed by the Board of Trustees of the University of Oregon. Proponents of local governing boards believe an independent board will give the university more autonomy, free it from relying on inadequate state funding. On August 6, 2014, Michael R. Gottfredson resigned as president. In the summer of 2014, former UO president Robert Berdahl told the president of the university's board of trustees he believes UO risks losing its membership in the Association of American Universities. To address this growing concern, UO began preparing several initiatives which include a cluster-hire and a capital campaign. In the fall of 2014 the institution announced; this number was revised to $3 billion in the fall of 2018. Michael H. Schill became the university's president in the summer of 2015. In June 2015, UO's endowment surpassed the $700 million mark. Eugene will host the 2021 World Championships in Athletics. University facilities, such
A running back is an American and Canadian football position, a member of the offensive backfield. The primary roles of a running back are to receive handoffs from the quarterback for a rushing play, to catch passes from out of the backfield, to block. There are one or two running backs on the field for a given play, depending on the offensive formation. A running back may be a wingback or a fullback. A running back will sometimes be called a "feature back"; the halfback or tailback position is responsible for carrying the ball on the majority of running plays, may be used as a receiver on short passing plays. In the modern game, an effective halfback must have a blend of both quickness and agility as a runner, as well as sure hands and good vision up-field as a receiver. Quarterbacks depend on halfbacks as a safety valve receiver when primary targets downfield are covered or when they are under pressure. Halfbacks line up as additional wide receivers; when not serving either of these functions, the primary responsibility of a halfback is to aid the offensive linemen in blocking, either to protect the quarterback or another player carrying the football.
If a team uses a Wildcat formation the halfback is the one who receives the snap directly instead of the quarterback. As a trick play, running backs are used to pass the ball on a halfback option play or halfback pass; the difference between halfback and tailback is the position of the player in the team's offensive formation. In historical formations, the halfback lined up halfway between the line of scrimmage and the fullback; because the halfback is the team's main ball carrier, modern offensive formations have positioned the halfback behind the fullback, to take advantage of the fullback's blocking abilities. As a result, some systems or playbooks will call for a tailback as opposed to a halfback. In Canadian football, the term tailback is used interchangeably with running back, while the use of the term halfback is exclusively reserved for the defensive halfback, which refers to the defensive back halfway between the linebackers and the cornerbacks. In most modern college and professional football schemes, fullbacks carry the ball infrequently, instead using their stronger physiques as primary "lead blockers."
On most running plays, the fullback leads the halfback, attempting to block potential tacklers before they reach the ball carrier. When fullbacks are called upon to carry the ball, the situation calls for gaining a short amount of yardage, as the fullback can use his bulkiness to avoid being tackled early. Fullbacks are sometimes receivers for passing plays, although most plays call for the fullback to block any defensive players that make it past the offensive line, a skill referred to as "blitz pickup". Fullbacks are technically running backs, but today the term "running back" is used in referring to the halfback or tailback. Although modern fullbacks are used as ball carriers, in previous offensive schemes fullbacks would be the designated ball carriers. In high school football, where player sizes vary fullbacks are still used as ball carriers. In high school and college offenses, the triple option scheme uses the fullback as a primary ball carrier; the fullback plays a unique role by establishing an inside running threat on every play.
College teams such as Georgia Tech and Air Force have employed the triple option scheme. While in years past the fullback lined up on the field for every offensive play, teams opt to replace the fullback with an additional wide receiver or a tight end in modern football. Fullbacks in the National Football League today carry or catch the ball since they are used exclusively as blockers. Fullbacks are still used as rushers on plays when a short gain is needed for a first-down or touchdown or to surprise the defense since they are not expecting a full back to run or catch the ball. Pro Football Hall of Fame members Jim Brown, Marion Motley, Franco Harris, John Riggins, Larry Csonka were fullbacks. There is a diversity in those. At one extreme are smaller, shiftier players; these quick and elusive running backs are called "scat backs" because their low center of gravity and maneuverability allow them to dodge tacklers. Running backs known for their elusiveness include Red Grange, Hugh McElhenny, Gale Sayers, Barry Sanders.
At the other extreme are "power backs:" bigger, stronger players who can break through tackles using brute strength and raw power. They are slower runners compared to other backs, run straight ahead rather than dodging to the outside edges of the playing field. Hall of Famers Earl Campbell, Bronko Nagurski, John Riggins, Larry Csonka, as well as NFL all-time leading rusher Emmitt Smith, were considered power running backs. Over the years, NFL running backs have been used as receivers out of the backfield. On passing plays, a running back will run a "safe route," such as a hook or a flat route, that gives a quarterback a target when all other receivers are covered or when the quarterback feels pressured. Hall of Famer Lenny Moore was a halfback who played as a pass receiver; some teams have a specialist "third down back,", skilled at catching passes or better at pass blocking and "picking up the blitz," and thus is