France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King is an American former World No.1 professional tennis player. King won 39 Grand Slam titles, including 12 singles,16 womens doubles, King won the singles title at the inaugural WTA Tour Championships. King often represented the United States in the Federation Cup and the Wightman Cup and she was a member of the victorious United States team in seven Federation Cups and nine Wightman Cups. For three years, King was the United States captain in the Federation Cup, King is an advocate for gender equality and has long been a pioneer for equality and social justice. Regarded by many in the sport as one of the greatest female players of all time. The Fed Cup Award of Excellence was bestowed on King in 2010, in 1972, King was the joint winner, with John Wooden, of the Sports Illustrated Sportsman of the Year award and was one of the Time Persons of the Year in 1975. King has received the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Sunday Times Sportswoman of the Year lifetime achievement award.
King was inducted into the National Womens Hall of Fame in 1990, and in 2006, King was born in Long Beach, into a conservative Methodist family, the daughter of Betty, a housewife, and Bill Moffitt, a firefighter. Her younger brother, Randy Moffitt, would become a Major League Baseball pitcher, Billie Jean attended Long Beach Polytechnic High School. After graduating, she attended California State University, Los Angeles and she learned her tennis on the free public courts in Long Beach. Bob Martin of the Long Beach Press-Telegram wrote about Billie Jeans success in a weekly tennis column, Kings triumph at the French Open in 1972 made her only the fifth woman in tennis history to win the singles titles at all four Grand Slam events, a career Grand Slam. King won a career Grand Slam in mixed doubles, in womens doubles, only the Australian Open eluded her. King won a record 20 career titles at Wimbledon – six singles,10 womens doubles, King played 51 Grand Slam singles events from 1959 through 1983, reaching at least the semifinals in 27 and at least the quarterfinals in 40 of her attempts.
King was the runner-up in six Grand Slam singles events, an indicator of Kings mental toughness at crunch time in Grand Slam singles tournaments was her 11–2 career record in deuce third sets, i. e. third sets that were tied 5–5 before being resolved. King won 129 singles titles, and her prize money totaled US$1,966,487. In Federation Cup finals, King was on the winning United States team seven times, in 1963,1966,1967 and her career win–loss record was 52–4. She won the last 30 matches she played, including 15 straight wins in singles and doubles. In Wightman Cup competition, Kings career win–loss record was 22–4, the United States won the cup ten of the 11 years that King participated
Martina Navratilova is a Czech and American retired tennis player and coach. In 2005, Tennis magazine selected her as the greatest female player for the years 1965 through 2005. She won 18 Grand Slam singles titles,31 major womens doubles titles and she and Billie Jean King each won 20 Wimbledon titles, an all-time record. Navratilova is one of just three women ever to have accomplished a Career Grand Slam in singles, womens doubles, and mixed doubles, Navratilova holds the records for most singles titles and for most doubles titles in the open era. Her record as No.1 in singles is the most dominant in professional tennis, over five consecutive seasons, she won 428 of 442 singles matches, averaging fewer than 3 losses per year to 87 wins, for a sustained winning percentage of 96. 8%. She holds the best season record for the open era, 86-1 in 1983. She recorded the longest winning streak in the era and three of the six longest winning streaks. She and Serena Williams are the only Open Era players to have won six major singles crowns without the loss of a set, Margaret Court and Maureen Connolly share the record for the most consecutive major singles titles.
Navratilova reached 11 consecutive major finals, second all-time to Steffi Grafs 13. Navratilova won the season-ending WTA Tour Championships for top ranked players a record eight times and she is the only person of either sex to have won eight different tournaments at least seven times. Navratilova is regarded by some to be the greatest female player of all time. In womens doubles and Pam Shriver won 109 consecutive matches, the pair set an all-time record of 79 titles together and tied Louise Brough Clapps and Margaret Osborne duPonts record of 20 major womens doubles titles as a team. Navratilova won the WTA Tour Championships doubles title a record 11 times and she is one of only five tennis players all-time to win a multiple slam set in two disciplines, matching Margaret Court, Roy Emerson, Frank Sedgman and Serena Williams. Navratilova took her last major title in 2006, winning the doubles crown at the 2006 US Open. Originally from Czechoslovakia, she was stripped of her citizenship when, in 1975 at the age of 18, at the time, Navratilova was told by the Czechoslovak Sports Federation that she was becoming too Americanized and that she should go back to school and make tennis secondary.
Navratilova became a US citizen in 1981, and on January 9,2008 and she stated she has not renounced her U. S. citizenship nor does she plan to do so and that acquiring her Czech citizenship was not politically motivated. Navratilova was born Martina Šubertová in Prague and her parents divorced when she was three, and her mother, an accomplished gymnast, tennis player, and ski instructor, moved the family to Řevnice. In 1962, her mother Jana married Miroslav Navrátil, who became her first tennis coach, Martina took the name of her stepfather, thus becoming Martina Navrátilová
Susan Barker, OBE is an English television presenter and former professional tennis player. During her tennis career, she won eleven WTA Tour singles titles and she reached a career-high singles ranking of World No.3. She is now one of the main presenters at the BBC. She was born and raised in Paignton, Roberts continued her coaching beyond the selection prize commitment, charging only £1/session to allow her development to continue. Barkers forehand was her strongest and most admired weapon throughout her career, advised as a teenager by a visiting LTA coach to change her forehand, Roberts told her not to and he resigned from the LTA Coaches Association in protest at the advice. Roberts entered Barker into tournaments on the continent, providing her with a ticket there. Roberts remained Barkers mentor but not friend throughout her career, aged 16, and ranked 21st in the WTA rankings, Barker was advised by Roberts to relocate to the United States for her development. The following year Barker won her first top-level singles title, Barker reached her first Grand Slam semi-final in 1975 at the Australian Open.
She won the German Open in 1976, beating Renáta Tomanová of Czechoslovakia in the final 6–3, in 1976, Barker had the biggest victory of her career by winning the French Open at the age of 20, again defeating Tomanová in the final. Barkers toughest game en route to the final in Paris was her quarter-final match against Regina Maršíková, in 1977, Barker won two singles titles in San Francisco and Dallas. She beat Martina Navratilova to reach the Virginia Slims Tour Championships final, Barker reached the Australian Open semi-final for the second time in 1977 and reached the Wimbledon semi-final that year. After an injury-plagued 1978 during which her ranking dropped to World No,24, she won three singles titles and reached three other finals in 1979. She was named the tours Comeback Player of the Year by her fellow professionals, Barker reached one final in 1980 and won the last singles title of her career at the Brighton International in 1981, finishing the year ranked World No.16. She won her last doubles title in 1982 at Cincinnati, in 2004, recalling her French Open win of 1976, Barker said, Im still incredibly proud of what I achieved.
* – The player received a Bye in the first round, * – The player received a Bye in the first round. ^ – The player lost via walkover, match loss not counted in win-loss ratios. * – The player received a Bye in the first round, ^ – The player lost via walkover. Match loss not counted in win-loss ratios, upon retiring from tennis Barker became a commentator and sports reporter for Australias Channel 7 in 1985 before going on to anchor tennis coverage for British Sky Broadcasting in 1990
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different Bantu languages, the remaining population consists of Africas largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a variety of cultures, languages. Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the recognition of 11 official languages. The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup détat, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a role in the countrys recent history. The National Party imposed apartheid in 1948, institutionalising previous racial segregation, since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the countrys democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces.
South Africa is often referred to as the Rainbow Nation to describe the multicultural diversity. The World Bank classifies South Africa as an economy. Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, and the 34th-largest in the world, in terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa. However and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed, South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, and maintains significant regional influence. The name South Africa is derived from the geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, since 1961 the long form name in English has been the Republic of South Africa. In Dutch the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika, since 1994 the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning south, is a name for South Africa.
South Africa contains some of the oldest archaeological and human fossil sites in the world, extensive fossil remains have been recovered from a series of caves in Gauteng Province. The area is a UNESCO World Heritage site and has termed the Cradle of Humankind
Glossary of tennis terms
This page is a glossary of tennis terminology. Ace, Serve where the ball lands inside the service box and is not touched by the receiver, thus. Aces are usually powerful and generally land on or near one of the corners at the back of the service box, initially the term was used to indicate the scoring of a point. Action, Synonym of spin ad, Used by the umpire to announce the score when a player has the advantage. See scoring in tennis ad court, Left side of the court of each player, When one player wins the first point from a deuce and needs one more point to win the game, not applicable when using deciding points. Advantage set, Set won by a player or team having won at least six games with an advantage over the opponent. Final sets in the draws of the Australian Open, the French Open and the tennis Olympic event. The Davis Cup was until 2015, when it switched to tie breaks, Used by the chair umpire to announce scores when both players have the same number of points or the same number of games.
When both players are at 40, the term is deuce. All-Comers, Tournament in which all took part except the reigning champion. The winner of the All-Comers event would play the title holder in the Challenge Round, all-court, Style of play that is a composite of all the different playing styles, which includes baseline and serve and volley styles. Alley, Area of the court between the singles and the sidelines, which together are known as tramlines. Approach shot, A groundstroke shot used as a setup as the approaches the net. ATP, Acronym for Association of Tennis Professionals, the organizing body of mens professional tennis. ATP Champions Race, ATP point ranking system starts at the beginning of the year. The top eight players at the end of the qualify for the ATP World Tour Finals. ATP World Tour Finals, Formerly known as the Tennis Masters Cup, Australian formation, In doubles, a formation where the server and partner stand on the same side of the court before starting the point. Backhand, Stroke in which the ball is hit with the back of the hand facing the ball at the moment of contact
Christine Marie Chris Evert, known as Chris Evert-Lloyd from 1979 to 1987, is a former World No.1 professional tennis player from the United States. She won 18 Grand Slam singles championships and three doubles titles and she was the year-ending World No.1 singles player in 1974,1975,1976,1977,1978,1980, and 1981. Overall Evert won 157 singles championships and 32 doubles titles, Evert reached 34 Grand Slam singles finals, more than any other player in the history of professional tennis. Evert never lost in the first or second round of a Grand Slam singles tournament, in Grand Slam singles play, Evert won a record seven championships at the French Open. Everts career winning percentage in singles matches of 89. 96% is the highest in the history of Open Era tennis, on clay courts, her career winning percentage in singles matches of 94. 55% remains a WTA record. Evert is regarded by some to be the greatest female player of all time. Evert has served as president of the Womens Tennis Association during eleven years, 1975–76.
She was awarded the Philippe Chatrier award and inducted into the Hall of Fame, in life Evert was a coach and is now an analyst for ESPN and has a line of tennis and active apparel. Evert began taking tennis lessons when she was five years old from her father Jimmy Evert, by 1969 she had become the No.1 ranked under-14 girl in the United States. Evert played her first senior tournament in that also, reaching the semifinals in her home town of Fort Lauderdale, Florida. In 1970, Evert won the national championship and was invited to play in an eight-player clay court tournament in Charlotte. The 15-year-old Evert defeated Françoise Dürr in the first round in straight sets before defeating Margaret Court 7–6, 7–6 in a semifinal, Court was the World No.1 player and had just won the Grand Slam in singles. These results led to Everts selection for the U. S. Wightman Cup team, Evert made her Grand Slam tournament debut at the 1971 US Open, aged 16, receiving an invitation after winning the national sixteen-and-under championship.
After an easy win over Edda Buding in the first round. Evert saved six match points - with Eisel at one stage serving at 6–4, 6–5 in the second set - before going on to win 4–6, 7–6, 6–1. She made two comebacks from a set down, against Dürr and Lesley Hunt, both seasoned professionals, before losing to Billie Jean King in a semifinal in straight sets. This defeat ended a 46-match winning streak built up through a variety of professional and this winning streak included her first matches with and wins over King, Virginia Wade and Betty Stöve. In 1973 Evert was the runner-up at the French Open and the Wimbledon Championships, a year she won both those events during her then-record 55-consecutive-match winning streak, which included eight other tournament wins
Ilana Sheryl Kloss is a former professional tennis player, tennis coach, and the current commissioner of World TeamTennis, a position that she has held since 2001. Kloss was born in Johannesburg, South Africa, before turning professional, in 1972 she won the juniors singles title at Wimbledon. In 1974 she won US Open juniors singles title and she was the youngest No.1 player in South African history. In 1973, she won the title in Cincinnati with Pat Walkden, defeating Evonne Goolagong, Kloss was ranked No.1 in the world in doubles and No.19 in singles in 1976. Linky Boshoff was her most frequent doubles partner, in 1977 she won the Canadian and German championships and the British clay court championship. In 1999 Kloss won the US Open doubles and mixed doubles championship on the 35-and-over tour, in the 1970s she was 12–5 in Federation Cup matches. Kloss, who is Jewish, was inducted into the Jewish Sports Hall of Fame in 2006 and she played in the Maccabiah Games in Israel. Kloss joined the San Francisco Golden Gaters WTT team in 1974 and she left the Golden Gaters prior to the 1976 season to team in order to fully participate in clay-court tournaments in Europe which conflicted with the WTT schedule.
Kloss returned to the Golden Gaters for the 1978 season, in 1983, she coached the Chicago Fyre to a WTT Championship and was named Coach of the Year. In 1985, Kloss was a player and coach for the Miami Beach Breakers, and became vice-president of WTT in 1987, since 2001, she has been the chief executive officer and commissioner of World TeamTennis. Kloss is the daughter of Ruth and Shlaim Kloss and she has a sister, Yvette Merle Blackman, now married to Richard Blackman with two children. Kloss is the partner of Billie Jean King, the US tennis player and she currently resides near the Museum of Natural History in New York City. List of select Jewish tennis players Ilana Kloss at the International Tennis Federation Ilana Kloss at the Fed Cup Jewish Sports Hall of Fame profile
Kerry Melville Reid, MBE, is a former professional tennis player from Australia. During her 17-year career, Reid won one Grand Slam singles title and 26 other singles titles and was the runner-up in 40 singles tournaments, Reid was included in the year-end world top ten rankings for 12 consecutive years. She won at least one tournament annually from 1966 through 1979 and her career-high ranking was World No.5 in 1971, behind Margaret Court, Billie Jean King, Evonne Goolagong, and Rosie Casals. Reid began her Grand Slam tennis career in 1963 when she reached the round of the Australian Championships. In 1966, she reached the semifinals of both the Australian and US Championships, in 1967, Reid again reached the semifinals of the Australian Championships and reached the semifinals of the French Championships for the first and only time. Reid was the womens singles runner-up at the 1970 Australian Open, Reid was the womens singles runner-up at the US Open in 1972, losing to King after defeating Chris Evert in one semifinal 6–4, 6–2.
In 1972, Reid reached the final of the inaugural WTA Tour Championships, in January 1977, Reid won her only Grand Slam singles title when she defeated fellow Australian Dianne Fromholtz 7–5, 6–2 in the final of the Australian Open. Reid and Fromholtz were the only top 10 players who played the tournament, the previous week, Reid defeated Fromholtz in the final of the New South Wales Open, where Reid and Fromholtz again were the only top 10 players who entered. On both the Virginia Slims and the Colgate Grand Prix tours in 1977, Reid qualified for the season-ending tournaments, and in World Team Tennis, Reid was undefeated in singles against both Martina Navratilova and Virginia Wade, defeating each three times. Reid capped her last year on the tour in 1979 by beating Navratilova for the first time in tournament play. Reid defeated Navratilova in a Family Circle Cup semifinal 6–3, 7–6 before losing to Tracy Austin in the final 7–6, 7–6, Reid competed in the year-ending WTA Tour Championships.
Reid won the Australian Open womens doubles title twice, outright in 1968, Reid was a member of the Australian team that won the Federation Cup in 1968. She helped Australia reach four consecutive Federation Cup finals from 1976 through 1979 on a variety of court surfaces, during that run, she beat several top players, including Rosemary Casals, Wade and Hana Mandlíková. Reid defeated Austin the first three times they played, although Austin won their remaining five career matches, Reid defeated Mandlikova in both of their career matches. Reid was a member of the Houston 9, the group led by Gladys Heldman in 1971 that formed the nucleus of the womens professional tennis tour. Reid anchored a World Team Tennis team for each season of its inaugural incarnation, Reid married Grover Raz Reid, a Boston Lobsters teammate, on 27 April 1975 in Greenville, South Carolina. Raz retired as a player in 1977 and coached Kerry during the three years of her playing career. The Reids retired to Razs home state of South Carolina, Reid was made a Member of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II in 1979
The Championships, Wimbledon
The Championships, commonly known simply as Wimbledon, is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and is widely considered the most prestigious. It has been held at the All England Club in Wimbledon, Wimbledon is one of the four Grand Slam tennis tournaments, the others being the Australian Open, the French Open and the US Open. Since the Australian Open shifted to hardcourt in 1988, Wimbledon is the only major still played on grass. The tournament takes place two weeks in late June and early July, culminating with the Ladies and Gentlemens Singles Final. Five major and invitational events are each year. Wimbledon traditions include a dress code for competitors and Royal patronage. The tournament is notable for the absence of sponsor advertising around the courts. In 2009, Wimbledons Centre Court was fitted with a roof to lessen the loss of playing time due to rain. The All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club is a club founded on 23 July 1868. Its first ground was off Worple Road, Wimbledon, in 1876, lawn tennis, a game devised by Major Walter Clopton Wingfield a year or so earlier and originally given the name Sphairistikè, was added to the activities of the club.
In spring 1877, the club was renamed The All England Croquet and Lawn Tennis Club, a new code of laws, replacing the code administered by the Marylebone Cricket Club, was drawn up for the event. Todays rules are similar except for such as the height of the net and posts. The inaugural 1877 Wimbledon Championship started on 9 July 1877 and the Gentlemens Singles was the event held. It was won by Spencer Gore, an old Harrovian rackets player, about 200 spectators paid one shilling each to watch the final. The lawns at the ground were arranged so that the court was in the middle with the others arranged around it. The name was retained when the Club moved in 1922 to the present site in Church Road, however, in 1980 four new courts were brought into commission on the north side of the ground, which meant the Centre Court was once more correctly defined. The opening of the new No.1 Court in 1997 emphasised the description, by 1882, activity at the club was almost exclusively confined to lawn tennis and that year the word croquet was dropped from the title.
However, for reasons it was restored in 1899