The Grey Cup is the name of both the championship game of the Canadian Football League and the trophy awarded to the victorious team playing in the namesake championship of professional Canadian football. It is contested between the winners of the CFL's East and West Divisional playoffs and is one of Canadian television's largest annual sporting events; the Toronto Argonauts have the most Grey Cup wins since its introduction in 1909, while the Edmonton Eskimos have the most Grey Cup wins since the creation of the professional CFL in 1958. The latest, the 106th Grey Cup, took place in Edmonton, Alberta, on November 25, 2018, when the Calgary Stampeders defeated the Ottawa Redblacks 27–16; the trophy was commissioned in 1909 by the Earl Grey Canada's governor general, who hoped to donate it for the country's senior amateur hockey championship. After the Allan Cup was donated for that purpose, Grey instead made his trophy available as the "Canadian Dominion Football Championship" of Canadian football.
The trophy has a silver chalice attached to a large base on which the names of all winning teams and executives are engraved. The Grey Cup has been stolen twice and held for ransom, it survived a 1947 fire. The Grey Cup was first won by the University of Toronto Varsity Blues. Play was suspended in 1919 due to a rules dispute; the game has been contested in an east versus west format since the 1920s. The game was always since 1969 has always been on a Sunday. Held in late November, in outdoor stadiums, the Grey Cup has been played in inclement weather at times, including the 1950 "Mud Bowl", in which a player came close to drowning in a puddle the 1962 "Fog Bowl", when the final minutes of the game had to be postponed to the following day due to a heavy fog, the 1977 "Ice Bowl", contested on the frozen-over artificial turf at Montreal's Olympic Stadium. Most in the 2017 game snow fell, at times throughout the game; the Edmonton Eskimos formed the Grey Cup's longest dynasty, winning five consecutive championships from 1978 to 1982.
Competition for the trophy has been between Canadian teams, except for a three-year period from 1993 to 1995, when an expansion of the CFL south into the United States resulted in the Baltimore Stallions winning the 1995 championship and taking the Grey Cup south of the border for the only time in its history. While the Stanley Cup was created in 1893 as the Canadian amateur hockey championship, professional teams were competing for the trophy by 1907. Albert Grey, 4th Earl Grey, the Governor General of Canada, planned to donate a new trophy to serve as the senior amateur championship. Grey instead offered an award for the Canadian amateur rugby football championship beginning in 1909, he failed to follow through on his offer. The first Grey Cup game was held on December 4, 1909, between two Toronto clubs: the University of Toronto Varsity Blues defeated the Parkdale Canoe Club 26–6 before 3,800 fans; the trophy was not ready for presentation following the game, the Varsity Blues did not receive it until March 1910.
They retained the trophy in the following two years, defeating the Hamilton Tigers in 1910 and the Toronto Argonauts in 1911. The University of Toronto failed to reach the 1912 Grey Cup, won by the Hamilton Alerts over the Argonauts; the Varsity Blues refused to hand over the trophy on the belief they could keep it until they were defeated in a title game. They kept the trophy until 1914 when they were defeated by the Argonauts, who made the trophy available to subsequent champions. Canada's participation in the First World War resulted in the cancellation of the championship from 1916 to 1918, during which time the Cup was forgotten. Montreal Gazette writer Bob Dunn claimed that the trophy was rediscovered as "one of the family heirlooms" of an employee of the Toronto trust company where it had been sent for storage; the Grey Cup game was cancelled in 1919 due to a lack of interest from the Interprovincial Rugby Football Union and the intercollegiate unions, along with rules conflicts between the Canadian Rugby Union and the western union.
Competition resumed in 1920 with the 8th Grey Cup game, won 16–3 by the Varsity Blues over the Argonauts. It was the University of Toronto's fourth, final, championship. Competition for the Grey Cup was limited to member unions of the CRU, the champions of which petitioned the league body for the right to challenge for the national championship; the Western Canada Rugby Football Union was formed in 1911, but the CRU did not come to a participation agreement with it until 1921, allowing the Edmonton Eskimos of the WCRFU to challenge. Facing the Argonauts in the 9th Grey Cup, the Eskimos became the first western team – and the first from outside Toronto or Hamilton – to compete for the trophy; the Argonauts entered the game with an undefeated record, having outscored their opposition 226 to 55 during the season. They dominated Edmonton. Multi-sport star Lionel Conacher was Toronto's top player, scoring 15 of his team's points before leaving the game after the third quarter to join his hockey team for their game.
The same Edmo
The Montreal Alouettes are a professional Canadian football team based in Montreal, Quebec. Founded in 1946, the team has been revived twice; the Alouettes compete in the East Division of the Canadian Football League and last won the Grey Cup championship in 2010. Their home field is Percival Molson Memorial Stadium for the regular season and as of 2014 home of their playoff games; the original Alouettes team won four Grey Cups and were dominant in the 1970s. After their collapse in 1982, they were reconstituted under new ownership as the Montreal Concordes. After playing for four years as the Concordes, they revived the Alouettes name for the 1986 season. A second folding in 1987 led to a nine-year hiatus of CFL football in the city; the current Alouettes franchise was established in 1996 by the owners of the Baltimore Stallions. The Stallions were disbanded at the same time as the Alouettes' re-establishment after having been the most successful of the CFL's American expansion franchises, culminating in a Grey Cup championship in 1995.
Many players from the Stallions' 1995 roster signed with the Alouettes and formed the core of the team's 1996 roster. The CFL considers all clubs that have played in Montreal as one franchise dating to 1946, considers the Alouettes to have suspended operations in 1987 before returning in 1996. Although the Alouettes' re-establishment in 1996 is considered a relocation of the Stallions, neither the league nor the Alouettes recognize the Baltimore franchise, or its records, as part of the Alouettes' official team history; the latest incarnation of the Alouettes were arguably the best CFL team of the 2000s. The Alouettes had from 1996 to 2014 the CFL's longest active playoff streak, only having missed the playoffs three times since returning to the league; the streak came to an end in 2015. They have hosted a playoff game every year except 2001, 2007, 2013, from 2015 to 2017, their five losing seasons came in 2007, 2013 and from 2015 to 2017. The years 2015 to 2017 marked the first time the team missed the playoffs in consecutive years since their re-activation.
Major stars of the recent era include Mike Pringle, the CFL career leader in rushing yards, quarterback Anthony Calvillo, who leads all of pro football in career passing yards. The Alouettes are owned by American investment banker Robert Wetenhall, it is the only CFL team to have non-Canadian ownership. Jim Popp served as the team's general manager. Canadian football has a long history in Montreal, dating to the 1850s; the Alouettes were first formed in 1946 by Canadian Football Hall of Famer Lew Hayman along with businessmen Eric Cradock and Léo Dandurand. They named themselves after "Alouette", a work song about plucking the feathers from a skylark, which had become a symbol of the Québécois; the origin of the team’s name comes from the 425 Tactical Fighter Squadron – the Royal Canadian Air Force’s first French Canadian squadron. They won their first Grey Cup championship in 1949, beating Calgary 28–15 led by quarterback Frank Filchock and running back Virgil Wagner; the 1950s were a productive decade for the Als, with quarterback Sam Etcheverry throwing passes to John "Red" O'Quinn, "Prince" Hal Patterson, with Pat Abbruzzi carrying the ball, Montreal fielded the most dangerous offence in all Canadian football.
From 1954 to 1956, they reached the Grey Cup in three straight years, but questionable defensive units led the Alouettes to defeat against the Edmonton Eskimos all three times. The team was purchased in 1954 by Ted Workman – and while the team continued to enjoy success, that all changed at the end of the 1960 season. To be more specific, the team was shaken by an announcement on November 10 – namely the trade of Hal Patterson and Sam Etcheverry to the Hamilton Tiger-Cats for Bernie Faloney and Don Paquette. Workman had concluded the deal without consulting with general manager Perry Moss; the deal fell apart because Etcheverry had just signed a new contract with a no-trade clause. The deal was reworked and Patterson was traded for Paquette. Sam Etcheverry went on to play in the NFL with the St. Louis Cardinals for 2 years followed by the San Francisco 49ers in 1963. Faloney remained in Hamilton, teamed with Patterson to form one of the most deadly quarterback-receiver combinations in CFL history.
This episode remains one of the most lopsided trades made in the Alouettes history, it ushered in a dark decade for the team. During that time, they failed to register a single winning season. From 1968 to 1976 the team played in the Autostade stadium—which had been built as a temporary stadium for Expo 67; the stadium's less-than-desirable location on Montreal's waterfront near the Victoria Bridge led to dismal attendance, putting more strain on the team's finances. The Als bottomed out in 1969, finishing 2–12. After that season, Workman sold the team to the capable Sam Berger, a former part-owner of the Ottawa Rough Riders. Berger made immediate changes to the team. On December 9, the team announced that Sam Etcheverry was returning to the organization—this time as the team's new head coach; the team unveiled new uniforms—their home jerseys were now predominantly green, with red and white trim. The white helmets with the red "wings" used during the 1960s disappeared, replaced by a white helmet with a stylized green and red bird's head that formed a lower-case "a".
As one might expect from a team that had won only two games in
Winnipeg Blue Bombers
The Winnipeg Blue Bombers are a professional Canadian football team based in Winnipeg, Manitoba. They are members of the West Division of the Canadian Football League, they play their home games at Investors Group Field after many years of playing at the since demolished Canad Inns Stadium. The Blue Bombers were founded in 1930 as the Winnipeg Football Club, which remains the organization's legal name today. Since that time, they have won the league's Grey Cup championship 10 times, most in 1990. With 10 wins, they have the third-highest win total in the Grey Cup although they are the team with the longest Grey Cup drought; the Blue Bombers were the first team not located in Ontario or Quebec to win a championship and hold the record for most Grey Cup appearances with 24. Founded: 1930 Formerly known as: Winnipegs 1930–1937 Helmet design: Gold background, with a white "W" and blue trim Uniform colours: Blue, gold with white accents Past uniform colours: Green and white 1930 to 1932 Nicknames: Bombers and Gold, Big Blue Mascots: Buzz and Boomer Fight Song: "Bombers Victory March" Credited to T.
H Guild & J. Guild Stadium: Osborne Stadium, Canad Inns Stadium, Investors Group Field Local radio: 680 CJOB Main rivals: Saskatchewan Roughriders, Hamilton Tiger-Cats, a team they have played on numerous occasions for the Grey Cup, Toronto Argonauts, BC Lions, other prairie city teams the Edmonton Eskimos and the Calgary Stampeders. Western Division 1st place: 16—1933, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1947, 1950, 1952, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1972 East Division 1st Place: 7—1987, 1990, 1992, 1993, 1994, 2001, 2011 Western Division championships: 13—1936, 1939, 1941, 1947, 1950, 1952, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1972, 1984 Eastern Division championships: 7 — 1988, 1990, 1992, 1993, 2001, 2007, 2011 Grey Cup Championships: 10—1935, 1939, 1941, 1958, 1959, 1961, 1962, 1984, 1988, 1990 Division history: Western Football Conference, West Division, East Division, North Division, West Division, East Division, West Division, East Division, West Division 2018 regular season record: 10 wins, 8 losses, 0 ties The first football team in Winnipeg was formed in 1879, was called the Winnipeg Rugby Football Club.
On June 10, 1930, they amalgamated with all the other teams in the Manitoba Rugby Football Union to create the Winnipeg Winnipegs Rugby Football Club, adopting the colours green and white. The Winnipegs played their first game against St. John's Rugby Club on June 13, 1930, when St. John's won by a score of 7–3. In 1932, the Winnipegs and St. John's adopted the colours blue and gold. Western teams had been to the Grey Cup game 10 times since 1909, but they had always gone home empty-handed, it was clear in those days that the East was much more powerful, outscoring their opponents 236–29 in these games. On December 7, 1935, the Bombers got their first shot at winning the 23rd Grey Cup; the game was being held with the home-town Tigers being their opponents. It was a rainy day at Hamilton Amateur Athletic Association Grounds, with 6,405 fans in attendance. Winnipeg was up 5–0 before many fans had reached their seats. Hamilton player Jack Craig let the opening kickoff bounce to the turf while a Winnipeg player promptly recovered the ball at the Hamilton 15-yard line.
Winnipeg scored on a Bob Fritz pass to Bud Marquardt to get the early lead. After scoring another touchdown on a Greg Kabat catch in the endzone, Winnipeg went into halftime up 12–4, their lead was soon cut to three points in the second half after Hamilton scored a touchdown of their own, helped by a blocked kick that placed the ball on the Winnipeg 15-yard line. After a Hamilton rouge, Winnipeg's RB/KR Fritz Hanson caught a punt, after a few moves and a few missed tackles, was on his way to a 78-yard touchdown return, making the score 18–10. Hamilton would force a safety to bring themselves within six points, but failed to crack the endzone, getting as far as the Winnipeg four-yard line; the final score was Winnipeg 18, Hamilton 12. With that, Winnipeg had become the first team from Western Canada to win a Grey Cup. In 1935, before an exhibition game against North Dakota State, Winnipeg Tribune sports writer Vince Leah decided to borrow from Grantland Rice, who labelled Joe Louis as "The Brown Bomber".
He called the team the "Blue Bombers of Western football". Up to that point, the team had been called the "Winnipegs". From that day forward, the team has been known as the "Winnipeg Blue Bombers". In that same year, the Blue Bombers, Calgary Bronks, Regina Roughriders formed the Western Interprovincial Football Union as the highest level of play in Western Canada. From 1936 to 1949, the Bombers won the right to compete for the Grey Cup in 1937, 1938, 1939, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1945. Of these appearances, Winnipeg won only twice, in 1939 over the Ottawa Rough Riders and again in their 1941 rematch. Jack Jacobs, known as Indian Jack, was a Creek quarterback from Oklahoma, he came to the Bombers in 1950 after a successful career in the United States. He led the Bombers to two Grey Cup appearances, his exciting style of play and extreme talent increased ticket sales and overall awareness and popularity of the club. The revenue the Bombers were getting from their newfound popularity was enough to convince them to move from the small, outdated Osborne Stadium to the new Winnipeg Stadium.
Jacobs was so well liked, the fans referred to the new stadium as "The House that Jack Built". Jacobs retired in 1954 to bec
Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city; the city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of, Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with cold, snowy winters. In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694, with a population of 1,942,044 in the urban agglomeration, including all of the other municipalities on the Island of Montreal; the broader metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927. French is the city's official language and is the language spoken at home by 49.8% of the population of the city, followed by English at 22.8% and 18.3% other languages. In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 15.3% who speak English.
The agglomeration Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French. Montreal is the second-largest French-speaking city in the world, after Paris, it is situated 258 kilometres south-west of Quebec City. The commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s, it remains an important centre of commerce, transport, pharmaceuticals, design, art, tourism, fashion, gaming and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America, serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings. Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics.
It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city; as of 2016 the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In the Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià:ke Tsi, it is a name referring to the Lachine Rapids to the island's Ka-wé-no-te. It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide". In the Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang which means "the first stopping place" and is part of the seven fires prophecy; the city was first named Ville Marie by European settlers from La Flèche, or "City of Mary", named for the Virgin Mary. Its current name comes from the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal,. A possibility by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, is that the name was adopted as it is written nowadays because an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, Monte Real.
Archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages; the Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee based in present-day New York, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century; the French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have been removed. Seventy years the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley.
This is believed to be due to epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Samuel de Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon, in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary, seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639 Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives. Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury; the colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec, arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal is
Canadian Football League
The Canadian Football League is a professional sports league in Canada. The CFL is the highest level of competition in Canadian football; the league consists of each located in a city in Canada. They are divided into two divisions: four teams in the East Division and five teams in the West Division; as of 2018, it features a 21-week regular season where each team plays 18 games with three bye weeks. This season traditionally runs from mid-June to early November. Following the regular season, six teams compete in the league's three-week divisional playoffs which culminate in the Grey Cup championship game in late November; the Grey Cup is television events. The CFL was founded on January 19, 1958; the league was formed through a merger between the Interprovincial Rugby Football Union and the Western Interprovincial Football Union. Rugby football began to be played in Canada in the 1860s, many of the first Canadian football teams played under the auspices of the Canadian Rugby Football Union, founded in 1884.
The CRFU was reorganized as the Canadian Rugby Union in 1891, served as an umbrella organization for several provincial and regional unions. The Grey Cup was donated by Governor General Earl Grey in 1909 to the team winning the Senior Amateur Football Championship of Canada. By that time, the sport as played in Canada had diverged markedly from its rugby origins, started to become more similar to the American game. From the 1930s to the 1950s, the two senior leagues of the CRU, the eastern Interprovincial Rugby Football Union and Western Interprovincial Football Union evolved from amateur to professional leagues, amateur teams such as those in the Ontario Rugby Football Union were no longer competitive for the Grey Cup. From 1945 onward, the WIFU's champion faced the Big Four's champion for the Grey Cup, though until 1954 it had to play in a semi-final against the champion of the ORFU–by the only amateur union still competing for the Grey Cup; the ORFU withdrew from Grey Cup competition after the 1954 season, the WIFU champion was automatically awarded a berth in the Grey Cup final.
For this reason, 1954 is reckoned as the start of the modern era of Canadian football, in which the Grey Cup has been contested by professional teams. Since 1965, Canada's top amateur teams, competing in what is now U Sports, have competed for the Vanier Cup. In 1956, the IRFU and WIFU formed the Canadian Football Council. In 1958, the CFC became the Canadian Football League; as part of an agreement between the CRU and CFL, the CFL took possession of the Grey Cup though amateurs had not competed for it since 1954. The CRU remained the governing body for amateur play in Canada adopting the name Football Canada; the two unions remained autonomous, there was no intersectional play between eastern and western teams except at the Grey Cup final. This situation was analogous to how the American baseball leagues operated for years; the IRFU was renamed the Eastern Football Conference in 1960, while the WIFU was renamed the Western Football Conference in 1961. In 1961, limited intersectional play was introduced.
Because the West played 16 games by this time while the East still only played 14, this arrangement oddly allowed both the four-team Eastern Conference and the five-team Western Conference to play three games per intraconference opponent and one game per interconference opponent. It wasn't until 1974. In 1981, the two conferences agreed to a full merger, becoming the East and West Divisions of the CFL. With the merger came a balanced and interlocking schedule of 16 games per season. Since 1986, the CFL's regular season schedule has been 18 games; the separate histories of the IRFU and the WIFU accounted for the fact that two teams had the same name: the IRFU's Ottawa Rough Riders were called the "Eastern Riders", while the WIFU's Saskatchewan Roughriders were called the "Western Riders" or "Green Riders". Other team names had traditional origins. With rowing a national craze in the late 19th century, the Argonaut Rowing Club of Toronto formed a rugby team for its members' off-season participation.
The football team name Toronto Argonauts still remains though it and the rowing club have long since gone their separate ways. After World War II, the two teams in Hamilton—the Tigers and the Flying Wildcats—merged both their organizations into the Hamilton Tiger-Cats; the league remained stable with nine franchises—the BC Lions, Calgary Stampeders, Edmonton Eskimos, Saskatchewan Roughriders, Winnipeg Blue Bombers, Hamilton Tiger-Cats, Toronto Argonauts, Ottawa Rough Riders and Montreal Alouettes—from its 1958 inception until 1981. After the 1981 season, the Alouettes folded and were replaced the next year by a new franchise named the Concordes. In 1986 the Concordes were renamed the Alouettes to attract more fan support, but the team folded the next year; the loss of the Montreal franchise forced the league to move its easternmost Western team, into the East Division from 1987 to 1994, again from 1997 to 2001 and 2006 to 2013 when Montreal resumed operations, but Ottawa was unable to field a team.
In 1993, the league admitted the Sacramento Gold Miners. After modest success, the league expanded further in the U. S. in 1994 with the Las Vegas Posse, Baltimore Stallions, Shreveport Pirates. For the 1995 campaign, the American
Canadian football is a sport played in Canada in which two teams of 12 players each compete for territorial control of a field of play 110 yards long and 65 yards wide attempting to advance a pointed oval-shaped ball into the opposing team's scoring area. In Canada, the term "football" may refer to Canadian football and American football collectively, or to either sport depending on context; the two sports have shared origins and are related but have some key differences. Rugby football in Canada originated in the early 1860s, over time, the game known as Canadian football developed. Both the Canadian Football League, the sport's top professional league, Football Canada, the governing body for amateur play, trace their roots to 1880 and the founding of the Canadian Rugby Football Union; the CFL is the most only major professional Canadian football league. Its championship game, the Grey Cup, is one of Canada's largest sporting events, attracting a broad television audience. In 2009, about 40% of Canada's population watched part of the game.
Canadian football is played at the bantam, high school, junior and semi-professional levels: the Canadian Junior Football League, formed May 8, 1974, Quebec Junior Football League are leagues for players aged 18–22, many post-secondary institutions compete in U Sports football for the Vanier Cup, senior leagues such as the Alberta Football League have grown in popularity in recent years. Great achievements in Canadian football are enshrined in the Canadian Football Hall of Fame located in Hamilton, Ontario. Other organizations across Canada perform senior league Canadian football during the summer; the first documented football match was a practice game played on November 9, 1861, at University College, University of Toronto. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was Sir William Mulock Chancellor of the school. A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear; the first written account of a game played was on October 1862, on the Montreal Cricket Grounds.
It was between the First Battalion Grenadier Guards and the Second Battalion Scots Fusilier Guards resulting in a win by the Grenadier Guards 3 goals, 2 rouges to nothing. In 1864, at Trinity College, Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland, Frederick A. Bethune, Christopher Gwynn, one of the founders of Milton, devised rules based on rugby football; the game gained a following, with the Hamilton Football Club formed on November 3, 1869, Montreal formed a team April 8, 1872, Toronto was formed on October 4, 1873, the Ottawa FBC on September 20, 1876. This rugby-football soon became popular at Montreal's McGill University. McGill challenged Harvard University to a game, in 1874 using a hybrid game of English rugby devised by the University of McGill; the first attempt to establish a proper governing body and adopted the current set of Rugby rules was the Foot Ball Association of Canada, organized on March 24, 1873 followed by the Canadian Rugby Football Union founded June 12, 1880, which included teams from Ontario and Quebec.
Both the Ontario and Quebec Rugby Football Union were formed, the Interprovincial and Western Interprovincial Football Union. The CRFU reorganized into an umbrella organization forming the Canadian Rugby Union in 1891; the original forerunners to the current Canadian Football League, was established in 1956 when the IRFU and WIFU formed an umbrella organization, The Canadian Football Council. In 1958 the CFC left the CRFU to become the CFL; the Burnside rules resembling American football that were incorporated in 1903 by the ORFU, was an effort to distinguish it from a more rugby-oriented game. The Burnside Rules had teams reduced to 12 men per side, introduced the Snap-Back system, required the offensive team to gain 10 yards on three downs, eliminated the Throw-In from the sidelines, allowed only six men on the line, stated that all goals by kicking were to be worth two points and the opposition was to line up 10 yards from the defenders on all kicks; the rules were an attempt to standardize the rules throughout the country.
The CIRFU, QRFU and CRU refused to adopt the new rules at first. Forward passes were not allowed in the Canadian game until 1929, touchdowns, five points, were increased to six points in 1956, in both cases several decades after the Americans had adopted the same changes; the primary differences between the Canadian and American games stem from rule changes that the American side of the border adopted but the Canadian side did not. The Canadian field width was one rule, not based on American rules, as the Canadian game was played in wider fields and stadiums that were not as narrow as the American stadiums; the Grey Cup was established in 1909 after being donated by Albert Grey, 4th Earl Grey, The Governor General of Canada as the championship of teams under the CRU for the Rugby Football Championship of Canada. An amateur competition, it became dominated by professional teams in the 1940s and early 1950s; the Ontario Rugby Football Union, the last amateur organization to compete for the trophy
Olympic Stadium (Montreal)
Olympic Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Canada, located at Olympic Park in the Hochelaga-Maisonneuve district of Montreal. Built in the mid-1970s as the main venue for the 1976 Summer Olympics, it is nicknamed "The Big O", a reference to both its name and to the doughnut-shape of the permanent component of the stadium's roof, it is called "The Big Owe" to reference the astronomical cost of the stadium and the 1976 Olympics as a whole. The stadium is the largest by seating capacity in Canada. After the Olympics, artificial turf was installed and it became the home of Montreal's professional baseball and football teams; the Montreal Alouettes of the CFL returned to their previous home of Molson Stadium in 1998 for regular season games, but continued to use Olympic Stadium for playoff and Grey Cup games until 2014 when they returned to Molson Stadium for all of their games. Following the 2004 baseball season, the Expos relocated to Washington, D. C. to become the Washington Nationals. The stadium serves as a multipurpose facility for special events with a permanent seating capacity of 56,040.
The capacity is expandable with temporary seating. The Montreal Impact of Major League Soccer use the venue on occasion, when demand for tickets justifies the large capacity or when the weather restricts outdoor play at nearby Saputo Stadium in the spring months; the stadium has not had a main tenant since the Expos left in 2004. Despite decades of use, the stadium's history of numerous structural and financial problems has branded it a white elephant. Incorporated into the north base of the stadium is the Montreal Tower, the world's tallest inclined tower at 175 metres; the stadium and Olympic Park grounds border Maisonneuve Park, which includes the Montreal Botanical Garden, adjacent to the west across Rue Sherbrooke. As early as 1963, Montreal Mayor Jean Drapeau sought to build a covered stadium in Montreal. A covered stadium was thought to be all but essential for Drapeau's other goal of bringing a Major League Baseball team to Montreal, given the cold weather that can affect the city in April and sometimes September.
In 1967, soon after the National League granted Montreal an expansion franchise for 1969, Drapeau wrote a letter promising that any prospective Montreal team would be playing in a covered stadium by 1971. However as powerful as he was, he did not have the power to make such a guarantee on his own authority. Just as Charles Bronfman, slated to become the franchise's first owner, was ready to walk away, Drapeau had his staffers draw up a proposal for a stadium, it was enough to persuade Bronfman to continue with the effort. The stadium was designed by French architect Roger Taillibert to be an elaborate facility featuring a retractable roof, to be opened and closed by cables suspended from a huge 175-metre tower – the tallest inclined structure in the world, the sixth tallest structure in Montreal; the design of the stadium resembles that of the Australian Pavilion at Expo'70 in Japan. Soon after Montreal was awarded the 1976 Games, Drapeau struck a secret deal with Taillibert to build the stadium.
It only came to light in 1972. The Olympic swimming pool is located under this tower. An Olympic velodrome was situated at the base of the tower in a building similar in design to the swimming pool; the building was built as the main stadium for the 1976 Summer Olympic Games. The stadium was host to various events including the opening and closing ceremonies, football finals, the team jumping equestrian events; the building's design is cited as a masterpiece of Organic Modern architecture. Taillibert based the building on plant and animal forms, aiming to include vertebral structures with sinews or tentacles, while still following the basic plans of Modern architecture; the stadium was slated to be finished in 1972, but the grand opening was cancelled due to a strike by construction workers. The Conseil des métiers de la construction union headed by André "Dédé" Desjardins kept the construction site in "anarchic disorder" until the Quebec Premier Robert Bourassa bought him off in a secret deal.
In his 2000 book Notre Cher Stade Olympique, Taillibert wrote "If the Olympic Games took place, it was thanks to Dédé Desjardins. What irony!" Further delays ensued due to the stadium's unusual design and Taillibert's unwillingess to back down from his original vision of the stadium in the face of escalating costs for raw materials. It did not help that the original project manager, Trudeau et Associés, seemed to be incapable of handling some of the most basic construction tasks; the Quebec provincial government lost patience with the delays and cost overruns in 1974, threw Taillibert off the project. Additionally, the project was plagued by circumstances beyond anyone's control. Work slowed to a snail's pace for a third of the year due to Montreal's brutal winters; as a result, the stadium and tower remained unfinished at the opening of the 1976 Olympic Games. The roof materials languished in a warehouse in Marseille until 1982, the tower and roof were not completed until 1987, it would be another year before the 66-tonne, 5,500 m2 Kevlar roof could retract.
It could not be used in winds above 40 km/h. It was only opened and closed 88 times; when construction on the stadium's tower resumed after the 1976 Olympics, a multi-storey observatory was added to the plan, accessible via a inclined elevator, opened in 1987, that travels 266 metres along the curved tower's spine. The elevator cabin ascends from base of the tower to up