Missoula /mᵻˈzuːlə/ is a city in the U. S. state of Montana and is the county seat of Missoula County. In 2015, the United States Census Bureau estimated the population at 71,022. In the 1990s, Missoula overtook Great Falls as Montana’s second‑largest city, Missoula is home to the University of Montana, a public research university. Missoula was founded in 1860 as Hellgate Trading Post while still part of Washington Territory, by 1866, the settlement had moved east,5 miles upstream, and renamed Missoula Mills, shortened to Missoula. The mills provided supplies to settlers traveling along the Mullan Road. The establishment of Fort Missoula in 1877 to protect settlers further stabilized the economy, the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railway in 1883 brought rapid growth and the maturation of the local lumber industry. In 1893, the Montana Legislature chose the city as the site for the states first university, along with the U. S. Forest Service headquarters founded in 1908, lumber and the university remained staples of the local economy for the next hundred years.
The city is governed by a government with twelve city council members. Notable residents include the first woman in the U. S. Congress, Jeannette Rankin, archaeological artifacts date the Missoula Valleys earliest inhabitants to the end of the last ice age 12,000 years ago with settlements as early as 3500 BCE. From the 1700s until European settlements began a years later, it was primarily the Salish, Pend dOreille, Blackfeet. Hell Gate would remain the name of the area until it was renamed Missoula in 1866, the Lewis and Clark Expedition brought the first U. S. citizens to the area. They twice stopped just south of Missoula at Travelers Rest and they camped there the first time on their westbound trip in September 1805. When they stayed there again on their return in June–July 1806, Clark left heading south along the Bitterroot River and Lewis traveled north, through Hellgate Canyon. The desire for a more convenient water supply to power a lumber, the Missoula Mills replaced Hell Gate Village as the economic power of the valley and replaced it as the county seat in 1866.
The name Missoula came from the Salish name for the Clark Fork River, Fort Missoula was established in 1877 to help protect further arriving settlers. Growth accelerated with the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railway in 1883, in 1893, Missoula was chosen as the location of the states first university, the University of Montana. The continued economic windfall from railroad construction and lumber mills led to a boom in Missoulas population. A. B. Hammond and Copper Kings Marcus Daly and William A. Clark competed fiercely in the region over lumber share, the United States Forest Service work in Missoula began in 1905
Butte /ˈbjuːt/ is a city in, and the county seat of Silver Bow County, United States. In 1977, the city and county governments consolidated to form the entity of Butte-Silver Bow. As of the 2010 census, Buttes population was approximately 34,200, Butte is Montanas fifth largest city. In the 19th and 20th centuries, Butte experienced every stage of development of a town, from camp to boomtown to mature city to center for historic preservation. Unlike most such towns, Buttes urban landscape includes mining operations set within residential areas, despite the dominance of the Anaconda Company, Butte was never a company town. It prided itself on architectural diversity and an ethos of rough-and-tumble individualism. In the 21st century, efforts at interpreting and preserving Buttes heritage are addressing both the historical significance and the continuing importance of mining to its economy and culture. Butte was one of the largest cities in the Rocky Mountains in the late 1800s, Silver Bow County had 24,000 people in 1890, and peaked at 100,000 in 1920.
The population steadily declined with falling copper prices after World War I, eventually dropping to 34,000 in 1990, in 2013, the population remains at 34,200. The documentary Butte, depicts its history as a producer and the issues of labor unionism, economic rise and decline. The city is served by Bert Mooney Airport with airport code BTM, Butte began as a mining town in the late 19th century in the Silver Bow Creek Valley, a natural bowl sitting high in the Rockies straddling the Continental Divide. At first only gold and silver were mined in the area, but the advent of electricity caused a demand for copper. The small town was called the Richest Hill on Earth. It was the largest city for hundreds of miles in all directions. Among the migrants, many Chinese workers moved in, and amongst them set up businesses that led to the creation of a Chinatown in Butte, the Chinese migrations stopped in 1882 with the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act. The business owners fought back by suing the unions and winning, the history of the Chinese migrants in Butte is documented in the Mai Wah Museum.
The influx of miners gave Butte a reputation as a town where any vice was obtainable. The citys famous saloon and red-light district, called the Line or The Copper Block, was centered on Mercury Street, behind the brothel was the equally famous Venus Alley, where women plied their trade in small cubicles called cribs
University of Montana Grizzly Marching Band
The University of Montana Grizzly Marching Band is the school band of the University of Montana. As of 2015, the band had about 140 members, the band was started in the late 1800s. It largely specializes in contemporary corps-style outdoor marching, playing at home game. The group travels to several games in the Northwest and has accompanied the football team to four Division I-AA National Championships. In addition to the entertainment, it makes several appearances in the community each season. University of Montana Grizzly Marching Band website Videos of Grizzly Marching Band in 2008 season
Idaho State Bengals football
The Idaho State Bengals football program represents Idaho State University in college football and plays its home games at Holt Arena, an indoor facility on campus in Pocatello, Idaho. Idaho State is a member of the Big Sky Conference in NCAA Division I Football Championship Subdivision. Through the 2011 season, the Bengals have a record of 451–472–20. After a winless 0–11 season in 1979, Bud Hake was fired three years and a 5–28 record. Dave Kragthorpe was hired as coach for the 1980 season. The following season, ISU won the Division I-AA Championship, following two playoff victories at home, the Bengals defeated Eastern Kentucky 34–23 in the Pioneer Bowl at Memorial Stadium in Wichita Falls, Texas. The quarterback during the 12–1 championship season was senior Mike Machurek, Machurek spent over three seasons with the Detroit Lions, and had treatment for skin cancer during the second. Idaho State returned to the I-AA playoffs in 1983, but lost 27–20 at home in the first round to conference champion Nevada-Reno, the Bengals have not made another playoff appearance, although they were tri-Big Sky champions in 2002, all at 5–2 in conference play.
ISU was passed over for the playoffs, for Montana and Montana State, following the 2010 season, head coach John Zamberlin was fired after four seasons and Mike Kramer was hired as ISUs 25th head football coach. During his first season in 2011 the Bengals won only two games, Kramer was formerly the head coach at Eastern Washington and Montana State. Among his assistants are former University of Alabama football players Todd Bates and Rudy Griffin, on March 30,2017, Kramer resigned as head coach of the Bengals. The Idaho State Athletic Department promoted offensive coordinator Rob Phenicie to head coach, Idaho State formerly had spirited intrastate rivalries with both the University of Idaho and Boise State University, when all three schools were members of the Big Sky Conference. The Bengals claim a rivalry with the Montana Grizzlies of Missoula and they were National Champions in 1981. The Bengals have had five two-time All-Americans, wide receiver Ed Bell, defensive end Josh Hays, placekicker Pete Garces, defensive end Jared Allen, Allen won the prestigious Buck Buchanan Award in 2003 as the top defensive player in the nation in Division 1-AA.
Wide receiver Rodrick Rumble was an All-American in 2011, a season in which he broke the Big Sky conference record for receptions with 112, return specialist Tavoy Moore was given first-team All-American honors by the American Football Coaches Association for the 2010 season. Punter Jon Vanderwielen earned several All-American honors in 2009, the Bengals play home games in Holt Arena, an indoor multi-purpose athletic stadium located on the north end of the ISU campus. Completed in September 1970, Holt Arena is the oldest enclosed stadium on a campus in the United States. Only the Houston Astrodome, completed in 1965, predates it, the indoor arena was conceived by ISU athletic director Milton W. Dubby Holt in 1966
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution. It is divided into 100 smaller cent units, the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. The U. S. dollar was originally commodity money of silver as enacted by the Coinage Act of 1792 which determined the dollar to be 371 4/16 grain pure or 416 grain standard silver, the currency most used in international transactions, it is the worlds primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their currency, and in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean, the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while the country mints its own coins, or accepts U. S. coins that can be used as payment in U. S. dollars. After Nixon shock of 1971, USD became fiat currency, Article I, Section 8 of the U. S.
Constitution provides that the Congress has the power To coin money, laws implementing this power are currently codified at 31 U. S. C. Section 5112 prescribes the forms in which the United States dollars should be issued and these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as legal tender in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar, the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins and these other coins are more fully described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the Statements are currently being expressed in U. S. dollars, the U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States. The word dollar is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution, dollars is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales.
In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act, Section 20 of the act provided, That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units. And that all accounts in the offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation. In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States, unlike the Spanish milled dollar the U. S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the form is significantly more common
Nevada Wolf Pack football
The Nevada Wolf Pack football program represents the University of Nevada, Reno in college football. The Wolf Pack competes in the Mountain West Conference at the Football Bowl Subdivision level of the NCAA Division I. The Wolf Packs home field is Mackay Stadium, located at the end of its campus in Reno. The new Mackay Stadium saw its first game 51 years ago on October 1,1966 with a capacity of 7,500 and has undergone several renovations. The stadium currently seats 30,000 and has played to crowds in excess, the elevation of its playing field is 4,610 feet above sea level. Nevada has had three individuals inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame and they are coach Chris Ault, running back Frank Hawkins and former coach Buck Shaw. Fullback Marion Motley is the only Nevada player to be inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame, three-time Super Bowl champion Charles Mann played for Nevada from 1979 to 1982 and was named Most Valuable Defensive Lineman in 1982. Mann was inducted into the Nevada Athletics Hall of Fame in 1995, another Nevada alumnus with a long career in the NFL was free safety Brock Marion.
He was selected in the round of the 1993 NFL Draft by the Dallas Cowboys where he played most of his career. Marion was selected to three Pro Bowls and one All-Pro team, Nevada has not fielded a Heisman Trophy winner, Stan Heath was fifth in Heisman voting in 1948 and Colin Kaepernick was eighth among 2010 candidates. Nevada footballs rich tradition has produced 40 All-Americans and 45 All-American selections, Nevadas only consensus All-American was Matt Clafton in 1991, which was Nevadas last year in the Division I-AA, the Wolf Pack is awaiting their first FBS consensus All-American. The Wolf Pack has produced two Academic All-Americans, David Heppe and Erick Streelman Nevadas football history began on October 24,1896, there was no football program from 1906–14, in 1918 and in 1951. The result was a debacle as Belmont relentlessly thrashed the hapless Sagebrushers by the tally of 70–0. But, the University of Nevada yearbook Artemesia would report five years later, two weeks and the Brushers met up with the Berkeley Second Eleven with much more favorable results (with NSU only giving up forty points.
Thus the initial chapter of the history of the University was one of defeat. From 1901 to 1903, Allen Steckle served as the football coach at the University of Nevada. In 1903, he was appointed to the position as the universitys Physical Director. In his three seasons as the coach, he compiled a 6–9–2 record
Big Sky Conference
The Big Sky Conference is a collegiate athletic conference affiliated with the NCAAs Division I, with football competing in the Football Championship Subdivision. Member institutions are located in the western United States in the nine states of Arizona, Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, four affiliate members each participate in one sport. Two schools from California are football-only participants, and two schools from the Northeast participate only in mens golf, the name Big Sky came from the popular 1947 western novel by A. B. Guthrie Jr. The 2012–13 season marked the completion of 50 years of competition and 25 years sponsoring women’s collegiate athletics. Before the season the league introduced a new logo to celebrate this, the 25th season of women’s athletics marked a first for the league, as Portland State won the league’s inaugural softball championship. Womens sports were conducted in the Mountain West Athletic Conference. The Big Sky sponsors championships in 16 sports, including men’s and women’s cross country, golf and outdoor track and field, there are championships in football, and in women’s volleyball and softball.
All 12 of the Big Skys full members will play football in the conference once Idaho drops from the FBS to FCS in 2018, North Dakota will leave the non-football side of the Big Sky in 2018 to join the Summit League. The football team remain in the Big Sky until 2020. Notes Gonzaga, which has not fielded a team since 1941, was a charter member in 1963. Each core member institution is required to participate in all of the 13 core sports, mens core sports are basketball, cross country, indoor track and field, outdoor track and field, and tennis. Womens core sports are basketball, cross country, indoor track and field, outdoor track and field, cal Poly San Luis Obispo and UC Davis participate as football-only affiliates, otherwise participating in the Big West Conference. Binghamton and Hartford are affiliates in mens golf only, otherwise participating in the America East Conference, before the 2014–15 school year, the latter two schools had participated in mens golf alongside five full Big Sky members in the single-sport America Sky Conference.
The return of Idaho brought the number of participating in mens golf to six. The Big Sky is unusual among Division I all-sports conferences in not sponsoring baseball, the conference originally sponsored baseball, with all members participating. When Boise State and Northern Arizona arrived for the 1971 season, competition was split into two divisions of four each, with the winners in a best-of-three championship series. Montana State and Montana soon dropped the sport and by the 1973 season, only six teams remained but the divisions were kept, in May 1974, the Big Sky announced its intention to discontinue five of its ten sponsored sports. It retained football, cross-county and wrestling, and dropped conference competition in baseball, tennis, swimming, of the eleven Big Sky baseball titles, four each went to Idaho and Gonzaga, and three to Weber State
University of Montana
The University of Montana is a public research university in Missoula, Montana, in the United States. Founded in 1893, the university is the second largest of the Montana University System, second to Montana State University, the main campus is at the foot of Mount Sentinel, the hill bearing Missoulas most recognizable landmark, a large hillside letter M. The University of Montana ranks 17th in the nation and fifth among universities in producing Rhodes Scholars. The University of Montana has 11 Truman Scholars,14 Goldwater Scholars and 40 Udall Scholars to its name, the University of Montanas Maureen and Mike Mansfield Library houses the earliest authorized edition of the Lewis and Clark journals. Rolling Stone labelled the university the most scenic campus in America and Outside magazine called it among the top 10 colleges nationally for combining academic quality, an act of Congress of February 18,1881 dedicated 72 sections in Montana Territory for the creation of the University. Montana was admitted to the Union on November 8,1889, the cities bids were supported by the rival Copper Kings, William A.
Clark and Marcus Daly, respectively. Missoula won the vote for the new university at the Third Montana Legislative Assembly in February 1893. The University was formally opened in 1895, while plans for a university campus were progressing, classes were temporarily held at nearby Willard School. The South Missoula Land Company, owned by A. B. Hammond, Richard Eddy and Marcus Daly, in June 1898 the cornerstone for A. J. Gibson designed University Hall was laid and Missoula became the University City, the University of Montana comprises eleven full colleges and schools, College of Humanities & Sciences, Phyllis J. The Phyllis J. Washington College of Education and Human Sciences is divided into five academic departments, in 1914, the University of Montana School of Law became a member of The Association of American Law Schools and in 1923, the School received accreditation from the American Bar Association. For the fall 2014 term, University of Montana offered admission to 4,956 freshmen out of 5,345 applicants, the first set of buildings were set up around the oval in 1895.
Since that time, various plans and architectural styles have been used. Today the campus consists of 220 acres and is bordered to the east by Mount Sentinel, landmarks include, The Oval A3 acres swath of grass running east to west, marking the traditional center of the university. Today it is divided into quadrants by two intersecting paths, though originally the oval was solid grass and forbidden to be crossed by students. A double row of trees was planted around the oval on Arbor Day 1896, the original gravel driveway that once surrounded the Oval has been replaced by sidewalk. The original master plan of the university called for all buildings to face the center of the oval, but this proved difficult. On the western extreme of the Oval is a grizzly bear statue created by ceramic artist