Sara Lidman was a Swedish writer. Born in the village Missenträsk in the parts of Skellefteå Municipality. She studied at the University of Uppsala where her studies were interrupted when she contracted tuberculosis and she achieved her first great success with the novel Tjärdalen. In this novel and in her second novel Hjortronlandet she depicts themes such as alienation, in her early novels, she focused on the difficult conditions for poor farmers in the northern Swedish province Västerbotten during the nineteenth century. Sara Lidman is arguably one of the most important writers of the Swedish language in the twentieth century, in connection with her first four novels, she wrote extensively on political subjects, always with a strongly socialist tendency. She engaged in protest against the Vietnam War and apartheid in South Africa and she supported the widely influential miners strikes of 1969–1970 and was active in the Communist the environmentalist movements. Between 1977 and 1985, she wrote a series of seven novels that dealing with the process of the North of Sweden.
She was awarded a number of prizes, including the Nordic Councils Literature Prize for her work Vredens barn, translated by Elspeth Harley Schubert, Hutchinson,1963 Bära mistel,1960. Translated by Joan Tate, Norvik Press,1989 Den underbare mannen,1983
History of Bulgaria
The history of Bulgaria can be traced from the first settlements on the lands of modern Bulgaria to its formation as a nation-state and includes the history of the Bulgarian people and their origin. The earliest evidence of human occupation discovered on what is today Bulgaria date from at least 1.4 million years ago, around 5000 BC, a sophisticated civilization already existed and produced some of the first pottery and jewelry in the world. After 3000 BC, the Thracians appeared on the Balkan peninsula, in the late 6th century BC, most of what is nowadays Bulgaria came under the Persian Empire. This mixture of ancient peoples was assimilated by the Slavs, who settled on the peninsula after 500 AD. Meanwhile, in 632 the Bulgars formed an independent state north of the Black sea that became known as Great Bulgaria under the leadership of Kubrat, pressure from the Khazars led to the disintegration of Great Bulgaria in the second half of the 7th century. A peace treaty with Byzantium in 681 and the establishment of a permanent Bulgarian capital at Pliska south of the Danube mark the beginning of the First Bulgarian Empire, the new state brought together Thracian remnants and Slavs under Bulgar rule, and a slow process of mutual assimilation began.
In the following centuries Bulgaria established itself as an empire, dominating the Balkans through its aggressive military traditions. In the 11th century, the First Bulgarian Empire collapsed under Rus and Byzantine attacks, then, a major uprising led by two brothers - Asen and Peter of the Asen dynasty, restored the Bulgarian state to form the Second Bulgarian Empire. A peasant rebellion, one of the few such in history. His short reign was essential in recovering - at least partially - the integrity of the Bulgarian state, a relatively thriving period followed after 1300, but ended in 1371, when factional divisions caused Bulgaria to split into three small Tsardoms. By 1396, they were subjugated by the Ottoman Empire, the Turks eliminated the Bulgarian system of nobility and ruling clergy, and Bulgaria remained an integral Turkish territory for the next 500 years. With the decline of the Ottoman Empire after 1700, signs of revival started to emerge, the Bulgarian nobility had vanished, leaving an egalitarian peasant society with a small but growing urban middle class.
The initial Treaty of San Stefano was rejected by the Western Great Powers, and the following Treaty of Berlin limited Bulgarias territories to Moesia and the region of Sofia. This left many ethnic Bulgarians out of the borders of the new state, after World War II, Bulgaria became a Communist state, dominated by Todor Zhivkov for a period of 35 years. Bulgarias economic advancement during the era came to an end in the 1980s, Bulgaria joined NATO in 2004 and the European Union in 2007. The earliest human remains found in Bulgaria have been excavated in the Kozarnika cave and this cave probably keeps the earliest evidence of human symbolic behaviour ever found. Human remains found in Bacho Kiro cave that are 44,000 years old consist of a pair of fragmented human jaws, the earliest dwellings in Bulgaria - the Stara Zagora Neolithic dwellings - date from 6,000 BC and are amongst the oldest man-made structures yet discovered. By the end of the neolithic, the Hamangia and Vinča culture developed on what is today Bulgaria, southern Romania, the earliest known town in Europe, was located in present-day Bulgaria
History of Finland
The land area that now makes up Finland was settled immediately after the last ice age, which ended in 9000 BC. Finnish nationalism emerged, focused on Finnish cultural traditions, including music and—especially—the highly distinctive language, the catastrophic Finnish famine of 1866–1868 was followed by eased economic regulations and extensive emigration. A civil war between the Finnish Red Guards and the White Guard ensued a few later, with the Whites gaining the upper hand during the springtime of 1918. After the internal affairs stabilized, the mainly agrarian economy grew relatively quickly. Relations with the West, especially Sweden and Britain, were strong, Finland remained an independent democracy in North Europe. In the latter half of its independent history, Finland has maintained a mixed economy, since its post-World War II economic boom in the 1970s, Finlands GDP per capita has been among the worlds highest. The expanded welfare state of Finland from 1970 and 1990 increased the public employees and spending.
In 1992, Finland simultaneously faced economic overheating and depressed Western, Finland joined the European Union in 1995, and replaced the Finnish markka with the euro in 2002. According to a 2005 poll, most Finns at that point were reluctant to join NATO, if confirmed, the oldest archeological site in Finland would be the Wolf Cave in Kristinestad, in Ostrobothnia. The last ice age in the area of the modern-day Finland ended c.9000 BC, starting about that time, people migrated to the area of Finland from the Kunda and—possibly—Swiderian cultures, and they are believed to be ancestors of todays Finnish and Sami people in Finland. The oldest confirmed evidence of the human settlements in Finland are from the area of Ristola in Lahti and from Orimattila. Finland has been inhabited at least since the end of the last ice age. The earliest post-glacial inhabitants of the area of Finland were probably mainly seasonal hunter-gatherers. Their artifacts discovered are known to represent the Suomusjärvi and the Kunda cultures, among finds is the net of Antrea, the oldest fishing net known ever to have been excavated.
By 5300 BC pottery was present in Finland, the earliest samples belong to the Comb Ceramic Cultures, known for their distinctive decorating patterns. This marks the beginning of the period for Finland, although subsistence was still based on hunting and fishing. Extensive networks of exchange existed across Finland and northeastern Europe during the 5th millennium BC, rock paintings — apparently related to shamanistic and totemistic belief systems — have been found, especially in Eastern Finland, e. g. Astuvansalmi. Between 3500 and 2000 BC, monumental stone enclosures colloquially known as Giants Churches were constructed in the Ostrobothnia region, the purpose of the enclosures is unknown
The 21st century is the current century of the Anno Domini era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. It began on January 1,2001 and will end on December 31,2100 and it is the first century of the 3rd millennium. It is distinct from the time known as the 2000s. The long term effects of increased globalization are not known, the Arab Spring of the early 2010s led to mixed outcomes in the Arab world. The Digital Revolution which began around the 1980s continues into the present and Generation Z come of age and rise to prominence in this century. The completion of the Human Genome Project in 2003 marks the rise of life sciences, making mankinds long-held dreams, such as curing cancer. By the 2010s, gene therapy, first performed somatically in late 1990 and heritably in 1996, showed promise but remains an experimental, by 2013, about 80% of the worlds population used mobile phones. An estimated 33% owned personal computers in 2010, and 46% used the Internet by 2016, the International Energy Agency estimates that 83% of the global population has access to electricity as of 2013 with the percentage projected to increase to 88% by 2030.
The world population was about 6.1 billion at the start of the 21st century and it had reached 7.3 billion in 2015, and is estimated to reach about 9.37 billion by the year 2050. There is a debate among experts and the public on how to pronounce specific years of the 21st century in English. A less common variation would have been twenty nought-five, the Vancouver Olympics, which took place in 2010, was being officially referred to by Vancouver 2010 as the twenty-ten Olympics. The latest timeframes for change are usually placed at 2020, kubrick said he did this in the hope that if the film became popular, it would influence the pronunciation of that year. See the timeline of the 21st century, genocide still remains a problem in this century with the concern of the war in Darfur and the growing concern in Sri Lanka. Also controversies from past genocides remain commonplace in the minds of victims, 1998–2002 – The Second Congo War continued into the early 21st century. A1999 ceasefire quickly broke down and a UN peacekeeping mission, Laurent Kabila, president of the DRC, was assassinated in January 2001 and his son, Joseph Kabila, took power.
Throughout 2002 steps were made towards peace and Rwanda and Uganda both removed their troops from the country, on December 17,2002, a massive treaty officially ended the war. However, the DRC only holds power in less than half of the country, with most of the eastern and northern portions still controlled by rebel groups, in addition, Rwanda still supports anti-DRC rebels and anti-Rwandan rebels continue to operate from the DRC. The war killed an estimated 3.9 million people, displaced nearly 5.5 million, Severe human rights violations continue to be reported
1977 in Sweden
Events from the year 1977 in Sweden Monarch – Carl XVI Gustaf Prime Minister – Thorbjörn Fälldin 15 January – Linjeflyg Flight 618 plane crash. The 1st IBF World Championships were held in Malmö,12 December – ABBA, The Album released. 7 May – Niklas Modig, researcher,14 July – Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden. 22 November – Jonas Öberg, open source software activist,5 March – Albert P. Andersson, gymnast. 10 October – Bengt Bengtsson, gymnast
Right Livelihood Award
The Right Livelihood Award is an international award to honour and support those offering practical and exemplary answers to the most urgent challenges facing us today. The prize was established in 1980 by German-Swedish philanthropist Jakob von Uexkull, the prize money is shared among the winners, usually numbering four, and is EUR200,000. Very often one of the four laureates receives an honorary award, although it is promoted as an Alternative Nobel Prize, it is not a Nobel prize. It does not have any ties to the awarding institutions of the Nobel Prize or the Nobel Foundation. The establishment of the award followed an attempt to have the Nobel Foundation create new prizes in the areas of environmental protection, sustainable development. Since 1985, the ceremony has taken place in Stockholms old Parliament building, a group of Swedish Parliamentarians from different parties host the ceremony, in 2009 European Commissioner Margot Wallström co-hosted the ceremony. Some media refer to the prize as the Alternative Nobel Prize, and the prize is frequently understood as a critique of the traditional Nobel prizes.
Currently it is 200,000 € compared to about 1,000,000 € for a Nobel Prize, the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences is financed by the Sveriges Riksbank. Jakob von Uexküll, the philatelist, sold his company to create a prize, before establishing the award in 1980, von Uexkull had tried to interest the Nobel Foundation in a new prize to be awarded together with the Nobel Prizes. He suggested the establishment of two new prizes, one for ecology and one for development, like the Nobel Economics Prize, this would have been possible with an amendment to the Nobel Foundation statutes and funding of the prize amount completely separate from Nobels fortune. The Nobel Prize amount was 880,000 Swedish kronor at that time, since 1980, the foundation has presented, as of 2013, awards to 153 Laureates from 64 countries. Its self-described purpose is to bestow prizes and thus publicize the work of local solutions to worldwide problems. Right livelihood List of prizes and awards Pathiravitana, sri Lanka Daily News,8 November 2007.
Official website Right Livelihood Laureates Discuss Their Battles for Social Justice – video report by Democracy Now
History of Czechoslovakia
However, the gap between cultures was never fully bridged, and this discrepancy played a disruptive role throughout the seventy-five years of the union. The Czechs had lived primarily in Bohemia since the 6th century, after 1526, Bohemia came under the control of the House of Habsburg as their scions first became the elected rulers of Bohemia, the hereditary rulers of the country. Subject peoples all over the Austro-Hungarian empire wanted to be free from the rule of the old aristocracy and the imperial family. Although the Czechs and Slovaks speak languages that are very similar, the reason was the differing attitude and position of their overlords – the Austrians in Bohemia and Moravia, and the Hungarians in Slovakia – within Austria-Hungary. Bohemia was the most industrialized part of Austria and Slovakia was the most industrialized part of Hungary – however at different levels of development. Furthermore, the Hungarians were far more determined to assimilate the Slovaks than the Austrians were to assimilate the Czechs, despite cultural differences, the Slovaks shared similar aspirations with the Czechs for independence from the Habsburg state.
In 1916, during World War I, Tomáš Masaryk created the Czechoslovak National Council together with Edvard Beneš, Masaryk in the United States, Štefánik in France, and Beneš in France and Britain worked tirelessly to secure Allied recognition. About 1.4 million Czech soldiers fought in World War I,150,000 of which died, at times they controlled much of the Trans-Siberian railway, and they were indirectly involved in the shooting of the Russian tsar and his family in 1918. Their goal was to win the support of the Allies for the independence of Czechoslovakia, the independence of Czechoslovakia was officially proclaimed in Prague on 28 October 1918 in Smetana Hall of the Municipal House, a physical setting strongly associated with nationalist feeling. The Slovaks officially joined the two days in the town of Martin. A temporary constitution was adopted, and Tomáš Masaryk was declared president on 14 November, the Treaty of St. Germain, signed in September 1919, formally recognized the new republic.
Ruthenia was added to the Czech lands and Slovakia by the Treaty of Trianon in June 1920, there were various border conflicts between Poland and Czechoslovakia due to the anexion of Zaolzie region. The new state was characterized by problems with its diversity, the separate histories of the Czech and Slovak peoples and their greatly differing religious, cultural. The Germans and Magyars of Czechoslovakia openly agitated against the territorial settlements, the new republic saw the passage of a number of progressive reforms in areas such as housing, social security, and workers’ rights. Still, the Czech lands were far more industrialized than Slovakia, most light and heavy industry was located in the German-dominated Sudetenland and most industrial concerns there were controlled by Germans and German-owned banks. Subcarpathian Ruthenia was essentially without industry, in 1929, the gross domestic product increased by 52% and industrial production by 41% as compared to 1913. In 1938, Czechoslovakia held 10th place in the world for industrial production, the Czechoslovak state was conceived as a parliamentary democracy.
The constitution identified the Czechoslovak nation as the creator and principal constituent of the Czechoslovak state and established Czech, the operation of the new Czechoslovak government was distinguished by its political stability
The 1970s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1,1970, and ended on December 31,1979. In the 21st century, historians have portrayed the 1970s as a pivot of change in world history focusing especially on the economic upheavals. In the Western world, social values that began in the 1960s, such as increasing political awareness and economic liberty of women. In the United Kingdom, the 1979 elections resulted in the victory of its Conservative leader Margaret Thatcher, industrialized countries, except Japan, experienced an economic recession due to an oil crisis caused by oil embargoes by the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries. Novelist Tom Wolfe coined the term Me decade in his essay The Me Decade, the term describes a general new attitude of Americans towards atomized individualism and away from communitarianism, in clear contrast with the 1960s. Despite facing an oil crisis due to the OPEC embargo, the economy of Japan witnessed a boom in this period.
The United States withdrew its forces from their previous involvement in the Vietnam War. In 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, which led to a war for ten years. Anwar El Sadat, President of Egypt, was instrumental in the event and consequently became extremely unpopular in the Arab world, Africa saw further decolonization in the decade, with Angola and Mozambique gaining their independence in 1975 from the Portuguese Empire after the restoration of democracy in Portugal. The continent was, plagued by military coups, with the long-reigning Emperor of Ethiopia Haile Selassie being removed, civil wars. The economies of much of the world continued to make steady progress in the early 1970s because of the Green Revolution. The following year, Vietnam was officially declared reunited, Soviet war in Afghanistan - Although taking place almost entirely throughout the 1980s, the war officially started on December 27,1979. The Israelis were taken by surprise and suffered losses before they rallied.
In the end, they managed to repel the Egyptians and crossed the Suez Canal into Egypt proper, in 1978, Egypt signed a peace treaty with Israel at Camp David in the United States, ending outstanding disputes between the two countries. Sadats actions would lead to his assassination in 1981, Indian emergency Lebanese Civil War - A civil war in the Middle East which at times involved the PLO and Israel during the early 1980s. Western Sahara War - A regional war pinning the rebel Polisario Front against Morocco, Ugandan–Tanzanian War - the war which was fought between Uganda and Tanzania was based on an expansionist agenda to annex territory from Tanzania. The war resulted in the overthrow of Idi Amins regime, the Ogaden War was another African conflict between Somalia and Ethiopia over control of the Ogaden region. In 1976 peaceful student protests in the Soweto township of South Africa lead to the Soweto Uprising when more than 700 black school children were killed by South Africas Security Police, Rise of separatism in the province of Quebec in Canada
History of Cyprus
Human habitation of Cyprus dates back to the Paleolithic era. Cypruss geographic position has caused Cyprus to be influenced by differing Eastern Mediterranean civilisations over the millennia, Cyprus was settled by humans in the Paleolithic period who coexisted with various dwarf animal species, such as dwarf elephants and pygmy hippos well into the Holocene. There are claims of an association of this fauna with artifacts of Epipalaeolithic foragers at Aetokremnos near Limassol on the southern coast of Cyprus, the first undisputed settlement occurred in the 9th millennium BC from the Levant. The first settlers were agriculturalists of the so-called PPNB era, the dog, sheep and possibly cattle and pigs were introduced, as well as numerous wild animals such as foxes and Persian fallow deer that were previously unknown on the island. The PPNB settlers built houses with floors made of terrazzo of burned lime and cultivated einkorn. Pigs, sheep and cattle were kept but remained, for the most part, evidence of cattle such as that attested at Shillourokambos is rare, and when they apparently died out in the course of the 8th millennium they were not re-introduced until the ceramic Neolithic.
In the 6th millennium BC, the aceramic Khirokitia culture was characterised by roundhouses, stone vessels, cattle were unknown, and Persian fallow deer were hunted. This was followed by the ceramic Sotira phase, the Eneolithic era is characterised by stone figurines with spread arms. Water wells discovered by archaeologists in western Cyprus are believed to be among the oldest in the world, dated at 9,000 to 10,500 years old and they are said to show the sophistication of early settlers, and their heightened appreciation for the environment. In 2004, the remains of an 8-month-old cat were discovered buried with its owner at a Neolithic archeological site in Cyprus. The grave is estimated to be 9,500 years old, predating Egyptian civilization, in the Bronze Age the first cities, such as Enkomi, were built. Systematic copper mining began, and this resource was widely traded, Mycenaean Greeks were undoubtedly inhabiting Cyprus from the late stage of the Bronze Age, while the islands Greek name is already attested from the 15th century BC in the Linear B script.
The Cypriot syllabic script was first used in early phases of the late Bronze Age and continued in use for ca.500 years into the LC IIIB, the LCIIC was a time of local prosperity. Cities such as Enkomi were rebuilt on a grid plan. Great official buildings constructed from ashlar masonry point to increased social hierarchisation, some of these buildings contain facilities for processing and storing olive oil, such as Maroni-Vournes and Building X at Kalavassos-Ayios Dhimitrios. A Sanctuary with an altar constructed from ashlar masonry has been found at Myrtou-Pigadhes, other temples have been located at Enkomi, Kition. Both the regular layout of the cities and the new masonry techniques find their closest parallels in Syria, rectangular corbelled tombs point to close contacts with Syria and Palestine as well. The practice of writing spread and tablets in the Cypriot syllabic script have been found at Ras Shamra which was the Phoenician city of Ugarit
History of Hungary
For the history of the area before this period, see Pannonian basin before Hungary. The oldest archaeological site in Hungary is Vértesszőlős, where palaeolithic Oldowan pebble tools, the Roman Empire conquered territory west of the Danube River between 35 and 9 BC. From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century AD, among the first to arrive were the Huns, who built up a powerful empire under Attila the Hun in 435 AD. Attila was regarded in past centuries as a ruler of the Hungarians. They entered what is now Hungary in the 7th century AD, the Avar Khaganate was weakened by constant wars and outside pressure, and the Franks under Charlemagne managed to defeat the Avars to end their 250-year rule. Árpád was the leader who unified the Magyar tribes via the Covenant of Blood and he led the new nation to the Carpathian Basin in the 9th century. Between 895 and 902 the whole area of the Carpathian Basin was conquered by the Hungarians, an early Hungarian state was formed in this territory in 895. The military power of the nation allowed the Hungarians to conduct successful fierce campaigns, Prince Géza of the Árpád dynasty, who ruled only part of the united territory, was the nominal overlord of all seven Magyar tribes.
He aimed to integrate Hungary into Christian Western Europe by rebuilding the state according to the Western political and social models, Géza established a dynasty by naming his son Vajk as his successor. This decision was contrary to the dominant tradition of the time to have the eldest surviving member of the ruling family succeed the incumbent. By ancestral right, Prince Koppány, the oldest member of the dynasty, should have claimed the throne, Koppány did not relinquish his ancestral rights without a fight. After Gézas death in 997, Koppány took up arms, the rebels claimed to represent the old political order, ancient human rights, tribal independence and pagan belief. Stephen won a victory over his uncle Koppány and had him executed. Hungary was recognized as a Catholic Apostolic Kingdom under Saint Stephen I, Stephen was the son of Géza and thus a descendant of Árpád. Stephen was crowned with the Holy Crown of Hungary in the first day of 1000 AD in the city of Esztergom. Pope Sylvester II conferred on him the right to have the cross carried before him, with full authority over bishoprics.
By 1006, Stephen had solidified his power by eliminating all rivals who either wanted to follow the old traditions or wanted an alliance with the Eastern Christian Byzantine Empire. Then he initiated sweeping reforms to convert Hungary into a feudal state, complete with forced Christianization
The 20th century was a century that began on January 1,1901 and ended on December 31,2000. It was the tenth and final century of the 2nd millennium and it is distinct from the century known as the 1900s, which began on January 1,1900 and ended on December 31,1999. It saw great advances in communication and medical technology that by the late 1980s allowed for near-instantaneous worldwide computer communication, the term short twentieth century was coined to represent the events from 1914 to 1991. It took all of history up to 1804 for the worlds population to reach 1 billion, world population reached 2 billion estimates in 1927, by late 1999. Globally approximately 45% of those who were married and able to have children used contraception, 40% of pregnancies were unplanned, the century had the first global-scale total wars between world powers across continents and oceans in World War I and World War II. The century saw a shift in the way that many people lived, with changes in politics, economics, culture, technology.
The 20th century may have seen more technological and scientific progress than all the other centuries combined since the dawn of civilization, terms like ideology, world war and nuclear war entered common usage. It was a century that started with horses, simple automobiles, and freighters but ended with high-speed rail, cruise ships, global commercial air travel and the space shuttle. Horses, Western societys basic form of transportation for thousands of years, were replaced by automobiles and buses within a few decades. Humans explored space for the first time, taking their first footsteps on the Moon, mass media, telecommunications, and information technology made the worlds knowledge more widely available. Advancements in medical technology improved the health of many people, rapid technological advancements, allowed warfare to reach unprecedented levels of destruction. World War II alone killed over 60 million people, while nuclear weapons gave humankind the means to annihilate itself in a short time, these same wars resulted in the destruction of the Imperial system.
For the first time in history and their wars of expansion and colonization ceased to be a factor in international affairs, resulting in a far more globalized. The last time major powers clashed openly was in 1945, and since then, technological advancements during World War I changed the way war was fought, as new inventions such as tanks, chemical weapons, and aircraft modified tactics and strategy. After more than four years of warfare in western Europe, and 20 million dead. The regime of Tsar Nicholas II was overthrown during the conflict, Russia became the first communist state, at the beginning of the period, Britain was the worlds most powerful nation, having acted as the worlds policeman for the past century. Meanwhile, Japan had rapidly transformed itself into an advanced industrial power. Its military expansion into eastern Asia and the Pacific Ocean culminated in an attack on the United States