International Garden Festival
The International Garden Festival was a garden festival recognised by the International Association of Horticultural producers and the Bureau International des Expositions, held in Liverpool, England from 2 May to 14 October 1984. It was the first such event held in Britain, became the model for several others held during the 1980s and early 1990s; the aim was to revitalise tourism and the city of Liverpool which had suffered cutbacks, the idea came from Conservative Environment Minister Michael Heseltine. The festival was hugely popular; the international horticultural exposition was held on a 950,000-square-metre derelict industrial site south of Herculaneum Dock, near the Dingle and overlooking the River Mersey. On this site was built sixty individual gardens, including pagodas. A large exhibition space, the Festival Hall, formed the centrepiece of the site and housed numerous indoor exhibits. Other attractions included a walk of fame, featuring numerous stars connected with Liverpool, a light railway system.
Public artwork included the Yellow Submarine, a statue of John Lennon, a Blue Peter ship, the Wish You Were Here tourist sculpture, a red dragon slide, a large red bull sculpture and Kissing Gate. A 15 in gauge minimum gauge railway system provided transport around the site; the light railway system consisted of a mainline providing transport links between a series of stations at key locations around the festival site, a junction linking to a branch line. There were extensive shed and workshop facilities. A considerable investment was made in the purchase of passenger coaches, in the purchase and installation of permanent way. Additional passenger coaches were borrowed from the Romney and Dymchurch Railway in Kent; the prohibitive cost of purchasing locomotives was avoided through the use of engines which were deemed'spare' on other existing 15 in gauge minimum gauge railways the United Kingdom's two most extensive railways of this gauge, the Romney and Dymchurch Railway, the Ravenglass and Eskdale Railway.
The cost of building and hiring passenger coaches was offset through sponsorship by the National Westminster Bank, whose name and logo was painted on the side of every coach. The visiting locomotives, leased coaches, purpose-built passenger carriages provided the mainline service, whilst the branch line was operated on a shuttle basis by a 1970s-built diesel multiple unit railcar set on loan from the Ravenglass and Eskdale Railway; the gauge is now available for people to ride at Windmill Farm, Burscough as part of a collection owned by Austin Moss. Since the festival closed, the site has passed through the hands of a series of developers. From the late 1980s until its closure in 1996, the Festival Hall was used as the Pleasure Island amusement park. Half of the site has since been turned into residential housing; the Festival Hall dome was demolished in late 2006. In November 2006 local companies Langtree and McLean announced plans for the site that will see more than 1,000 new homes built around the cleared dome area, as well as the restoration of the original gardens created for the festival in 1984.
In September 2009 it was announced that work would begin on redeveloping the site in November 2009, after the city council gave permission for work to begin. The redevelopment would see the Chinese and Japanese gardens being restored, as well as the lakes and associated watercourses and the woodland sculpture trails. Funding came from a range of sources, including the Northwest Regional Development Agency, who provided a £3.7million grant. Redevelopment work began in February 2010 In 2012, Liverpool Festival Gardens reopened; the restored garden site had been due to re-open in September 2011, this was delayed until 2012 whilst a new landscape management contractor was found after the original contractor, Mayfield Construction, went into administration. The garden site is now managed by The Land Trust; the new restored site features: Two restored pagodas in the oriental gardens The restored Moon Wall New lakes and waterfalls New pedestrian access point linking to the promenade New secure parking area In March 2013, the developers Langtree began work on the 1300 planned homes on the site, despite the earlier collapse of partner David McLean Homes.
"The International Garden Festival railway, Liverpool". Northern Railways. Vol. 3 no. 10. Silver Link Publishing. September 1984. P. 35. ISSN 0266-3058. BBC Liverpool: 20 years since the festival showing the site in 1984 and 2004 Campaign to restore the festival site Official website of the Bureau International des Expositions Community website for the area Langtree Group's official page for the Festival Gardens site Liverpool Festival Gardens
Mersey Basin Campaign
The Mersey Basin Campaign worked within the catchments of the River Mersey and the River Ribble, in the counties of Lancashire, Greater Manchester and Cheshire and in the High Peak area of Derbyshire in the UK. Its primary goal was to repair the damage done by industrialisation and to foster a modern and prosperous future, with an improved environment; the campaign's mission was to: Improve water quality so that all rivers and waters in the Mersey and Ribble catchments are clean enough to support fish by 2010. Encourage waterside regeneration Actively engage the public, private and voluntary sectors in the process; the Mersey Basin Campaign was established in 1985 in the wake of the Toxteth riots in Liverpool. Michael Heseltine Environment Minister in Margaret Thatcher's Conservative government, was the driving force behind its creation, he spoke of the River Mersey at the time as "an affront to the standards a civilised society should demand from its environment". It closed its doors on schedule at the end of its planned 25-year lifespan in 2010, leaving behind a river system, cleaner now than at any time since the Industrial Revolution.
The Mersey Basin Campaign was a partnership backed by the UK Government through the sponsorship of the Department for Communities and Local Government. It was supported by businesses, local authorities and public agencies; the campaign worked through two bodies: the Mersey Basin Business Foundation and the Healthy Waterways Trust. The Foundation was responsible for business and administrative tasks, as well as much of the campaign's finances, whilst the Healthy Waterways Trust is a charitable body whose main role was to administer the campaign's charitable funds; the campaign was overseen by its council, which had around 30 members drawn from various public and private sector partners. The Healthy Waterways Trust remains in existence following the end of the Campaign, continues to advocate for improved water quality and waterside regeneration in the Northwest of England; the Campaign's last Chair was Peter Batey, Lever Professor of Town and Regional Planning at the University of Liverpool, who served from 2004-2010.
The Mersey Basin Campaign worked with communities on local projects around the North West of England through a network of action partnerships. Action Partnerships: Action Bollin Action Darwen Valley Action Douglas and Yarrow Action Etherow and Goyt Action Glaze Action Irk and Roch Action Irwell Action Manchester Waterways Action Medlock and Tame Action Mersey Estuary Action Ribble Estuary Action Rossendale Rivers Action Upper Weaver Action Weaver Valley Action Wirral Rivers Action Worsley Brooks From March 2010 until March 2015, an archive of information and documents relating to the Campaign's work will be available at: Mersey Basin Campaign website
The term "inner city" has been used as a euphemism for lower-income residential districts in the city center and nearby areas. Sociologists sometimes turn this euphemism into a formal designation, applying the term "inner city" to such residential areas, rather than to geographically more central commercial districts; some inner city areas of American cities have undergone gentrification since the 1990s. Bid rent theory Black flight and white flight Central business district Concentric zone model Downtown Ghetto Industrial deconcentration Inner City Press Skid row Suburban colonization Urban sprawl Urban structure Harrison, P. Inside the Inner City: Life Under the Cutting Edge. Penguin: Harmondsworth; this book takes Hackney in London as a case study of inner city urban deprivation
Coventry is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England. Part of Warwickshire, Coventry is the 9th largest city in England and the 12th largest in the United Kingdom, it is the second largest city in the West Midlands region, after Birmingham. Coventry is 19 miles east-southeast of Birmingham, 24 miles southwest of Leicester, 11 miles north of Warwick and 94 miles northwest of London. Coventry is the most central city in England, being only 11 miles south-southwest of the country's geographical centre in Leicestershire; the current Coventry Cathedral was built after the majority of the 14th century cathedral church of Saint Michael was destroyed by the Luftwaffe in the Coventry Blitz of 14 November 1940. Coventry motor companies have contributed to the British motor industry; the city has two universities, Coventry University in the city centre and the University of Warwick on the southern outskirts. On 7 December 2017, the city won the title of UK City of Culture 2021, after beating Paisley, Stoke-on-Trent and Sunderland to the title.
They will be the third title holder, of the quadrennial award which began in 2013. The Romans founded a settlement in Baginton, next to the River Sowe, another formed around a Saxon nunnery, founded c. AD 700 by St Osburga, left in ruins by King Canute's invading Danish army in 1016. Earl Leofric of Mercia and his wife Lady Godiva built on the remains of the nunnery and founded a Benedictine monastery in 1043 dedicated to St Mary. In time, a market was established at the settlement expanded. Coventry Castle was a bailey castle in the city, it was built in the early 12th century by 4th Earl of Chester. Its first known use was during The Anarchy when Robert Marmion, a supporter of King Stephen, expelled the monks from the adjacent priory of Saint Mary in 1144, converted it into a fortress from which he waged a battle against the Earl. Marmion perished in the battle, it was demolished in the late 12th century and St Mary's Guildhall was built on part of the site. It is assumed. By the 14th century, Coventry was an important centre of the cloth trade, throughout the Middle Ages was one of the largest and most important cities in England.
The bishops of Lichfield were referred to as bishops of Coventry and Lichfield, or Lichfield and Coventry. Coventry claimed the status of a city by ancient prescriptive usage, was granted a charter of incorporation in 1345, in 1451 became a county in its own right; the plays that William Shakespeare witnessed in Coventry during his boyhood or'teens' may have influenced how his plays, such as Hamlet, came about. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Coventry became one of the three main British centres of watch and clock manufacture and ranked alongside Prescot, in Lancashire and Clerkenwell in London; as the industry declined, due to competition from Swiss Made clock and watch manufacturers, the skilled pool of workers proved crucial to the setting up of bicycle manufacture and the motorbike, machine tool and aircraft industries. In the late 19th century, Coventry became a major centre of bicycle manufacture; the industry energised by the invention by James Starley and his nephew John Kemp Starley of the Rover safety bicycle, safer and more popular than the pioneering penny-farthing.
The company became Rover. By the early 20th century, bicycle manufacture had evolved into motor manufacture, Coventry became a major centre of the British motor industry; the research and design headquarters of Jaguar Cars is in the city at their Whitley plant and although vehicle assembly ceased at the Browns Lane plant in 2004, Jaguar's head office returned to the city in 2011, is sited in Whitley. Jaguar is owned by Tata Motors. With many of the city's older properties becoming unfit for habitation, the first council houses were let to their tenants in 1917. With Coventry's industrial base continuing to soar after the end of the Great War a year numerous private and council housing developments took place across the city in the 1920s and 1930s; the development of a southern by-pass around the city, starting in the 1930s and being completed in 1940, helped deliver more urban areas to the city on rural land. Coventry suffered severe bomb damage during the Second World War. There was a massive Luftwaffe air raid that the Germans called Operation Moonlight Sonata, part of the "Coventry Blitz", on 14 November 1940.
Firebombing on this date led to severe damage to large areas of the city centre and to Coventry's historic cathedral, leaving only a shell and the spire. More than 4,000 houses were damaged or destroyed, along with around three quarters of the city's industrial plants. More than 800 people were killed, with thousands injured and homeless. Aside from London and Plymouth, Coventry suffered more damage than any other British city during the Luftwaffe attacks, with huge firestorms devastating most of the city centre; the city was targeted due to its high concentration of armaments, munitions and aero-engine plants which contributed to the British war effort, although there have been claims that Hitler launched the attack as revenge for the bombing of Munich by the RAF six days before the Coventry Blitz and chose the Midlands city because its medieval heart was regarded as one of the finest in Britain. Following the raids, the majority of Coventry's historic buildings could not be saved as they were in ruinous states or were deemed unsafe for any future use.
Several structures were demolished to make way for
The Specials known as The Special AKA, are an English 2 Tone and ska revival band formed in 1977 in Coventry. After some early changes, the first stable lineup of the group consisted of Terry Hall and Neville Staple on vocals, Lynval Golding and Roddy Radiation on guitars, Horace Panter on bass, Jerry Dammers on keyboards, John Bradbury on drums, Dick Cuthell and Rico Rodriguez on horns, their music combines a "danceable ska and rocksteady beat with punk's energy and attitude". Lyrically, they present a "more focused and informed political and social stance"; the band wore mod-style "1960s period rude boy outfits". In 1980, the song "Too Much Too Young", the lead track on their The Special AKA Live! EP, reached No. 1 in the UK Singles Chart. In 1981, the recession-themed single "Ghost Town" hit No. 1 in the UK. After seven consecutive UK Top 10 singles between 1979 and 1981, main lead vocalists Hall and Staple, along with guitarist Golding, left to form Fun Boy Three. Continuing as "The Special AKA", a revised Specials line-up issued new material through 1984, including the top 10 UK hit single "Free Nelson Mandela".
After this and songwriter Jerry Dammers dissolved the band and pursued political activism. The group reformed in 1993, have continued to perform and record with varying line-ups, none of them involving Dammers; the group was formed in 1977 by songwriter/keyboardist Dammers, vocalist Tim Strickland, guitarist/vocalist Lynval Golding, drummer Silverton Hutchinson and bassist Horace Panter. Strickland was replaced by Terry Hall shortly after the band's formation; the band was first called the Automatics the Coventry Automatics. Vocalist Neville Staple and guitarist Roddy Byers joined the band the following year. Joe Strummer of the Clash had attended one of their concerts, invited the Special AKA to open for his band in their "On Parole" UK tour; this performance gave the Special AKA a new level of national exposure, they shared the Clash's management. The Specials began at the same time as Rock Against Racism, first organised in 1978. According to Dammers, anti-racism was intrinsic to the formation of the Specials, in that the band was formed with the goal of integrating black and white people.
Many years Dammers stated that "Music gets political when there are new ideas in music...punk was innovative, so was ska, and, why bands such as the Specials and the Clash could be political". In 1979, shortly after drummer Hutchinson left the band to be replaced by John Bradbury, Dammers formed the 2 Tone Records label and released the band's debut single "Gangsters", a reworking of Prince Buster's "Al Capone"; the record became a Top 10 hit that summer. The band had begun wearing mod/rude boy/skinhead-style two-tone tonic suits, along with other elements of late 1960s teen fashions. Changing their name to the Specials, they recorded their eponymous debut album in 1979, produced by Elvis Costello. Horn players Dick Cuthell and Rico Rodriguez were featured on the album, but would not be official members of the Specials until their second album; the Specials led off with Dandy Livingstone's "Rudy, A Message to You" and had covers of Prince Buster and Toots & the Maytals songs from the late 1960s.
In 1980, the EP Too Much Too Young was a No. 1 hit in the UK Singles Chart, despite controversy over the song's lyrics, which reference teen pregnancy and promote contraception. Reverting once again to the name of the Specials, the band's second album, More Specials, was not as commercially successful and was recorded at a time when, according to Hall, conflicts had developed in the band. Female backing vocalists on the Specials' first two studio albums included: Chrissie Hynde. In the first few months of 1981, the band took a break from recording and touring, released "Ghost Town", a non-album single, which hit No. 1 in 1981. At their Top of the Pops recording of the song, Staples and Golding announced they were leaving the band. Golding said: "We didn't talk to the rest of the guys. We couldn't stay in the same dressing room. We couldn't look at each other. We stopped communicating. You only realise. At the time, we were on a different planet." Shortly afterwards, the three left the band to form Fun Boy Three.
For the next few years, the group was in a constant state of flux. Adding Dakar to the permanent line-up, the group recorded "The Boiler" with Dakar on vocals, Dammers on keyboards, Bradbury on drums, John Shipley on guitar, Cuthell on brass and Nicky Summers on bass; the single was credited to "Rhoda with the Special AKA". The controversial track described an incident of date rape, its frank and harrowing depiction of the matter meant that airplay was limited, it managed to reach No. 35 on the UK charts, American writer Dave Marsh identified "The Boiler" as one of the 1,001 best "rock and soul" singles of all time in his book The Heart of Rock & Soul. After going on tour with Rodriguez, the band recorded the non-charting single "Jungle Music"; the line-up for the single was Rodriguez, Dammers, Shipley, returning bassist Panter, new
The Peterloo Massacre took place at St Peter's Field, England, on 16 August 1819, when cavalry charged into a crowd of 60,000–80,000 who had gathered to demand the reform of parliamentary representation. The end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 had resulted in periods of famine and chronic unemployment, exacerbated by the introduction of the first of the Corn Laws. By the beginning of 1819, the pressure generated by poor economic conditions, coupled with the relative lack of suffrage in Northern England, had enhanced the appeal of political radicalism. In response, the Manchester Patriotic Union, a group agitating for parliamentary reform, organised a demonstration to be addressed by the well-known radical orator Henry Hunt. Shortly after the meeting began, local magistrates called on the Manchester and Salford Yeomanry to arrest Hunt and several others on the hustings with him; the Yeomanry charged into the crowd, knocking down a woman and killing a child, apprehending Hunt. The 15th Hussars were summoned by the magistrate, Mr Hulton, to disperse the crowd.
They charged with sabres drawn, in the ensuing confusion, 15 people were killed and 400–700 were injured. The massacre was given the name Peterloo in an ironic comparison to the Battle of Waterloo, which had taken place four years earlier. Historian Robert Poole has called the Peterloo Massacre one of the defining moments of its age. In its own time, the London and national papers shared the horror felt in the Manchester region, but Peterloo's immediate effect was to cause the government to crack down on reform, with the passing of what became known as the Six Acts, it led directly to the foundation of the Manchester Guardian, but had little other effect on the pace of reform. In a survey conducted by The Guardian in 2006, Peterloo came second to the Putney Debates as the event from radical British history that most deserved a proper monument or a memorial. Peterloo is commemorated by a plaque close to the site, a replacement for an earlier one, criticised as being inadequate as it did not reflect the scale of the massacre.
In 1819, Lancashire was represented by two members of parliament. Voting was restricted to the adult male owners of freehold land with an annual rental value of 40 shillings or more – the equivalent of about £80 in 2008 – and votes could only be cast at the county town of Lancaster, by a public spoken declaration at the hustings. Constituency boundaries were out of date, the so-called rotten boroughs had a hugely disproportionate influence on the membership of the Parliament of the United Kingdom compared to the size of their populations: Old Sarum in Wiltshire, with one voter, elected two MPs, as did Dunwich in Suffolk, which by the early 19th century had completely disappeared into the sea; the major urban centres of Manchester, Bolton, Rochdale, Ashton-under-Lyne and Stockport, with a combined population of one million, were represented by either the two county MPs for Lancashire, or the two for Cheshire in the case of Stockport. By comparison, more than half of all MPs were returned by a total of just 154 owners of rotten or closed boroughs.
In 1816, Thomas Oldfield's The Representative History of Great Ireland. These inequalities in political representation led to calls for reform. After the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, a brief boom in textile manufacture was followed by periods of chronic economic depression among textile weavers and spinners. Weavers who could have expected to earn 15 shillings for a six-day week in 1803, saw their wages cut to 5 shillings or 4s 6d by 1818; the industrialists, who were cutting wages without offering relief, blamed market forces generated by the aftershocks of the Napoleonic Wars. Exacerbating matters were the Corn Laws, the first of, passed in 1815, imposing a tariff on foreign grain in an effort to protect English grain producers; the cost of food rose as people were forced to buy the more expensive and lower quality British grain, periods of famine and chronic unemployment ensued, increasing the desire for political reform both in Lancashire and in the country at large. Economic conditions in 1817 led to a group who became known as Blanketeers to organise a march from Manchester to London so they could petition the Prince Regent for parliamentary reform.
A crowd of 25,000 including 5,000 men who intended to march gathered in St Peter's Fields. After the magistrates read the Riot Act, the crowd was dispersed by the King's Dragoon Guards; the ringleaders were arrested and subsequently released when serious charges against them were not forthcoming. In April 1819 three leading Blanketeers were convicted of sedition and conspiracy when witnesses alleged they had advocated the principal towns of the kingdom should elect representatives to a National Convention to demand their rights and if refused enforce them'sword in hand' during a meeting in Stockport in September 1818. By the beginning of 1819 pressure generated by poor economic conditions was at its peak and had enhanced the appeal of political radicalism among the cotton loom weavers of south Lancashire. In January 1819, a crowd of about 10,000 gathered at St Peter's Fields to hear the radical orator Henry Hunt and called on the Prince Regent to choose ministers who would repeal the Corn Laws.
The meeting, conducted in the presence of the cavalry, passed off without incident. In July
A milk float is a vehicle designed for the delivery of fresh milk. Today, milk floats are battery electric vehicles, but they were horse-drawn, they were once common in many European countries the United Kingdom, were operated by local dairies. However, in recent years, as the number of supermarkets, small independent grocers and petrol stations, convenience stores stocking fresh milk has increased, many people have switched from regular home delivery to obtaining fresh milk from these other sources; because of the small power output from its electric motor, a milk float travels slowly around 10 to 16 miles per hour although some have been modified to do up to 80 mph. Operators exit their vehicle before they have stopped to speed up deliveries. Electric milk floats come in three wheel and four wheel versions, the latter larger, they are quiet, suiting operations in residential areas during the early hours of the morning or during the night. Most electric milk floats do not have seat belts, the law in the United Kingdom only requires wearing seat belts where these are fitted in the vehicle.
While there was an exemption in the law meaning those making local deliveries were not required to wear a seat belt, which would in theory have included drivers and passengers in milk floats with seat belts fitted, the law was changed in 2005 to deliveries less than 50 metres apart. In August 1967, the UK Electric Vehicle Association put out a press release stating that Britain had more battery-electric vehicles on its roads than the rest of the world put together, it is not clear what research the association had undertaken into the quantity of electric vehicles of other countries, but closer inspection disclosed that all of the battery driven vehicles licensed for UK road use were milk floats. Glasgow has one of the largest working milk float fleets in the UK. Most of the vehicles operate from the Grandtully Depot in Kelvindale; some dairies in the UK, including Dairy Crest, have had to modernise and have replaced their electric milk floats with petrol or diesel fuel-powered vehicles to speed up deliveries and thus increase profit.
There were many manufacturers of milk floats in Britain during the 20th century. Brush Electrical Engineering Company had been established in 1889, had manufactured electric cars between 1901 and 1905. In 1940, Brush required some small electric tractor units, but as none were commercially available, they asked AE Morrison and Sons to produce a design for one. Morrisons produced a 3-wheeled design, which Brush used to manufacture a number of units for internal use, they began selling them to customers, shipping a large order to Russia in 1941. They expanded to producing battery electric road vehicles in 1945, when they bought designs and manufacturing rights from Metrovick; the Metrovick designs were for 4-wheeled vehicles, but they produced 3-wheeled vehicles, which were marketed as the Brush Pony. In early 1949, they reduced the prices of their electric vehicles by around 25 per cent, in an attempt to make them more competitive with petrol vehicles. All of their road vehicles were sold through the motor trade, in order to achieve a good standard of after-sales service.
Production of 4-wheeled battery electrics ceased in 1950, although the company continued to manufacture the 3-wheeled Brush Pony, their range of industrial trucks. By 1969, Brush were owned by the Hawker Siddeley group, which owned half of Morrison-Electricars, manufacture of Brush electric vehicles moved to the newly established Morrison factory at Tredegar. Most were industrial trucks, but the transfer included the Brush Pony, a number were manufactured at Tredegar subsequently. Electricars began trading in Birmingham in 1919, although they made heavy duty electric vehicles, suitable for payloads up to 6 tons, they soon diversified into smaller vehicles suitable for doorstep delivery. In 1936, they became part of the business group Associated Electric Vehicle Manufacturers Limited, but during the Second World War, few electric vehicles were built, due to a shortage of materials, they ceased producing them in 1944. Graiseley Electric Vehicles were produced in Wolverhampton by Diamond Motors Ltd, a company which had made motorcycles, which bought the sidecar business from AJS when that company was liquidated in 1931.
Included in the sale was the Graiseley marque, this was used for a range of three-wheeled battery-electric pedestrian controlled milk trucks. They soon found. In 1937 they produced a ride-on four wheeled vehicle, suitable for a payload of 8-10 cwt, with a range of around 35 miles, it was for their pedestrian controlled vehicles that they were best known, their range included the Model 60, with a payload of 8-10 cwt, the Model 75, with a 12-15 cwt payload, the Model 90, which could carry 22 cwt. Because the primary focus was on the dairy industry, the model numbers represented the number of imperial gallons of milk that could be carried. Between 1948 and 1952, the company sold a large number of Graiseley PCVs to United Dairies, diversified into stillage trucks and pallet trucks for use in factories; the company was liquidated in 1960, but the Graiseley marque was used by Lister Graiseley in 1969 and by Gough Industrial Trucks Ltd of Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent in 1971. Harbilt electric vehicles were produced by the Market Harborough Construction Company, formed in 1935 as a manufacturer of aircraft components.
After the end of t