Governor-General of the Bahamas
The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas is the viceregal representative of the Bahamian monarch. As the Queen cannot reside in all of her realms, she appoints representatives to carry out her duties as Queen of the Bahamas, governors-General serve their term as such at Her Majestys pleasure, but usually end their term within five years. They are responsible for appointing the Prime Minister as well as other government Ministers after consultations with the Prime Minister, government House in Nassau is the official residence of governors-general. The current Governor-General is Dame Marguerite Pindling, List of governors of the Bahamas List of Prime Ministers of the Bahamas Georgetown University
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Elizabeth II has been Queen of the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand since 6 February 1952. Elizabeth was born in London as the eldest child of the Duke and Duchess of York, King George VI and Queen Elizabeth and her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake duties during the Second World War. Elizabeths many historic visits and meetings include a visit to the Republic of Ireland. She has seen major changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation. She has reigned through various wars and conflicts involving many of her realms and she is the worlds oldest reigning monarch as well as Britains longest-lived. In October 2016, she became the longest currently reigning monarch, in 2017 she became the first British monarch to commemorate a Sapphire Jubilee. Elizabeth has occasionally faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the family, support for the monarchy remains high.
Elizabeth was born at 02,40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather and her father, Prince Albert, Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfathers London house,17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. Elizabeths only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930, the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford, who was casually known as Crawfie. Lessons concentrated on history, language and music, Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margarets childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family. The book describes Elizabeths love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, others echoed such observations, Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as a character. She has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant and her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved.
During her grandfathers reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward, Prince of Wales, and her father, the Duke of York. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, many people believed that he would marry and have children of his own. When her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, that year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Consequently, Elizabeths father became king, and she became heir presumptive, if her parents had had a son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council
The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest judicial bodies in the United Kingdom. The Judicial Committee consists of judges appointed as Privy Councillors, predominantly Justices of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. It is often referred to as the Privy Council, as in most cases appeals are made to Her Majesty in Council. The panel of judges hearing a case is known as the Board. The report of the Board is always accepted by the Queen in Council as judgment, in Commonwealth republics retaining the JCPC as their final court of appeal, appeals are made directly to the Judicial Committee itself. In the case of Brunei, appeals are made to the Sultan of Brunei, formerly the Judicial Committee gave a unanimous report, but since the Judicial Committee Order 1966 dissenting opinions have been allowed. The Judicial Committees permanent home is in London, in the United Kingdom, in this renovated building, Court 3 is used for Privy Council sittings. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council has jurisdiction in the domestic matters.
Appeals from the courts in non-doctrinal faculty cases. Appeals from the High Court of Chivalry, Appeals from the Court of Admiralty of the Cinque Ports. Appeals from the Disciplinary Committee of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, disputes under the House of Commons Disqualification Act 1975. Additionally, the government may refer any issue to the committee for consideration, in other courts in the United Kingdom, judgments of the Judicial Committee are only of persuasive authority and are not binding as a matter of law. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is the Court of Final Appeal for the Church of England. It hears appeals from the Arches Court of Canterbury and the Chancery Court of York, except on matters of doctrine, ritual or ceremony, which go to the Court for Ecclesiastical Causes Reserved. By the Church Discipline Act 1840 and the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876 all archbishops and bishops of the Church of England became eligible to be members of the Judicial Committee.
Prior to the coming into force of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, on 1 October 2009 this jurisdiction was transferred to the new Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. The New Zealand associated states of Cook Islands and Niue, the Crown Dependencies of Jersey, including Guernseys own dependencies of Alderney and Sark, and appeals from the Staff of Government Division on the Isle of Man. The United Kingdoms Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, in Cyprus, Appeal is directly to the Judicial Committee from three independent Commonwealth republics and Trinidad and Tobago, and also, if the case involves constitutional rights, Kiribati
Free National Movement
The Free National Movement is a liberal political party in The Bahamas formed in the 1970s, led by Cecil Wallace Whitfield. The current leader of the party is Dr. Hubert Minnis and his deputy is Peter Turnquest and it is the largest opposition party in the Bahamas by number of seats in the Legislature. The FNM, led at the time by Prime Minister Hubert Ingraham, the Progressives won 29 of the seats in the legislature and thus the government, compared to the FNMs 9. Ingraham subsequently resigned, both as party leader as well as the Member of Parliament for North Abaco, the FNM was established at Jimmy Shepherd’s house on Spring Hills Farms in Fox Hill in 1971. The Free-PLP were a group of eight MPs from the governing Progressive Liberal Party. Following meetings held at Spring Hill Farms, the FNM officially became a party in October 1971. The UBP partys leadership was predominantly white while blacks made up most of the citizenry, once out of power, its leaders decided that the partys time was at an end and they looked to the Free-PLP to form a new party that would follow a conservative party line.
The fusion was called the Free National Movement, the party grew in part by uniting independent black voters and the old UBP voter base. However, these were heady days for the governing PLP, who led the country to independence in 1973, in 1990, Hubert Ingraham took over the leadership of the party after the death of Sir Cecil Wallace Whitfield. The FNM attacked the governing PLP on corruption charges and published a Manifesto, in the General Election of 1992, the FNM defeated its rival, the PLP, by wide margins, winning 32 of the 49 seats. The FNM Government privatized the government-owned hotels, which had fallen into decline since nationalization, private radio stations were allowed to operate, ending the governments broadcast monopoly. The FNM introduced local government and encouraged inward investment to grow the economy, the elections of 1997 saw the FNM re-elected in a landslide, with 35 of the 40 seats in a reduced House. After Ingraham vowed not to seek a third term in office, The party lost the 2002 elections, many voters, including FNM supporters felt that Turnquest was much weaker than Perry Christie, leader of the Progressive Liberal Party.
At the FNMs party convention the following the elections of 2002. The FNM went on to control of the House of Assembly in the elections of 2007. The FNM lost government to the Progressive Liberal Party once again in the 2012 general elections, outgoing Prime Minister Hubert Ingraham announced his retirement from politics following the defeat. He had served in Parliament for 35 years, winning seven times. Ingraham told supporters, I gave it the best I could and we had no indication from the general public they would go that way
Local government in the Bahamas
Local government in the Bahamas exists in two forms, namely second-schedule and third-schedule district councils. There are a total of 32 local government districts,13 second-schedule districts, which are further sub-divided into town areas, and 19 third-schedule districts, the second and third schedules together make up the first schedule. Local government policy is formulated and administered by the Department of Lands, the day-to-day policy handling of the portfolio falls to the Minister of Local Government who is empowered to create new local government areas from time to time based on demographics. The administrative and financial management is overseen by the permanent secretary. Local government previously existed in the Bahamas in the form of appointed Board of Works, here towns and villages held their influence over these Board of Works, but almost all final decisions were made by the central government through that islands Commissioner. The modern system of government that is in use today was implemented on 8 March 1996.
The act that implemented local government had described all districts as either being Second-Schedule or Third-Schedule districts, the Districts of the Bahamas provide a system of Local Government everywhere in The Bahamas except New Providence. The current system dates from 1996 when 23 districts were created by The Bahamas Local Government Act of 1996– a further 9 have been added since 1999. Local Government in The Bahamas has seen success since its introduction. New Providence Every district in the Bahamas has a districts council, district Councillors are elected by the population of that district in accordance with Local Government Act. As stated in The Bahamas Local Government Act 1996, Districts councillors shall within two weeks of their election, elect from themselves a Chief Councillor. The Chief Councillor shall be the representative of a Districts Council for all affairs and he or she is to preside over all meetings and themselves co-ordinate these meetings. All districts councils are classed as first-schedule councils and they share responsibility with second-schedule district councils for a number of the schedule local government functions.
They have responsibility for local regulation and licensing within their jurisdiction. Third-schedule districts councils are unique within the Bahamas because they combine the responsibilities of the second-schedule districts and it should be noted that both second- and third-schedule district councils carry out a building control function. Local government elections take place every three years in the Bahamas with the most recent elections taking place in June 2011 in which 391 positions were contested. The voting system used in government elections is the first-past-the-post system. Both councillors of third-schedule district councils and members of committees are directly elected
Parliament of the Bahamas
The Parliament of The Bahamas is the bicameral national parliament of Commonwealth of The Bahamas. The parliament is made up by the Queen, an appointed Senate. It currently sits at Nassau, the national capital, the structure and procedures of the parliament are based on the Westminster system. Originally inhabited by the Lucayans, a branch of the Arawakan-speaking Taino people, although the Spanish never colonized the Bahamas, they shipped the native Lucayans to slavery in Hispaniola. The islands were mostly deserted from 1513 until 1648, when English colonists from Bermuda settled on the island of Eleuthera, the Bahamas became a British crown colony in 1718, when the British clamped down on piracy. Bahamians achieved self-government in 1964 and full independence within the Commonwealth of Nations on July 10,1973, the Parliament as presently constituted was established by Chapter 5 of the Constitution of The Bahamas, which came into effect upon the countrys independence from the United Kingdom.
The House of Assembly is the lower chamber and it consists of 38 members, elected from individual constituencies for five-year terms. As under the Westminster system, the government may dissolve the parliament, the House of Assembly performs all major legislative functions. The Prime Minister is the leader of the party controlling the majority of the House of Assembly seats, the speaker of the House of Assembly is currently Dr. Kendal Major. The Senate consists of 16 members appointed by the Governor-General, the Senate is authorised by the Constitution to pass Bills in the same manner as passed by the House or it can make such amendments to the Bill should it consider it necessary. Those amendments will have to be approved by the House of Assembly, the Senate may even reject a Bill outrightly that had been passed by the House. She previously served as President of the Senate from 2002 to 2007, and succeeded Lynn Holowesko, Parliament is empowered by Article 52 of the Constitution to make laws for the peace and good government of The Bahamas.
Parliament maintains oversight of the Governments finances through the Public Accounts Committee, Parliament is the forum where public policy and matters of national importance are debated. Most of the laws passed by Parliament are for the modification or amendment of existing laws, Article 52 of the Constitution empowers Parliament to make laws by the passing of a bill. Most bills are introduced into Parliament by a Government minister, a bill must be passed by both the House of Assembly and Senate, and must be formally assented to by the Governor-General, before it becomes law. There are currently four main classifications of Bills, money, private member, a bill must pass through a series of stages in order to be passed by each chamber, with a vote taken at each stage. After the first reading, the Speaker orders the bill to be printed, it is numbered, circulated to members of Parliament. At the second reading, the principle of the bill is debated, at the committal stage, the entire House of Assembly sits as a Committee of the Whole House, with the Speaker leaving the chair and the Deputy Speaker presiding as Chairperson