East Lansing, Michigan
East Lansing is a city in the U. S. state of Michigan directly east of Lansing, the state capital. Most of the city is within Ingham County, with the rest in Clinton County, the population was 48,579 at the 2010 census, an increase from 46,420 in 2000. It is best known as the home of Michigan State University, East Lansing was an important junction of two major Native American groups, the Potawatomi and Fox. The toll road was finished in 1853, and included seven tollhouses between Lansing and Howell, Michigan State University was founded in 1855 and established in what is now East Lansing in 1857. For the first four decades, the students and faculty lived almost entirely on the college campus. A few commuted from Lansing, and that increased when a streetcar line was built in the 1890s. That started to change in 1887, when professors William J. Beal and Rolla C. Carpenter created Collegeville, along what is now Harrison Road and Center and Beal Streets, few faculty were attracted to the location, and the first residents were teamsters and laborers.
In 1898, the College Delta subdivision had the support of the college itself, which provided utilities, at that time, the post office address was Agricultural College, Michigan. A school district encompassing the nascent community was created in 1900, in 1907, incorporation as a city was proposed under the name College Park, the legislature approved the charter but changed the name to East Lansing. The first seven mayors, starting with Clinton D. Smith in 1907, the city charter in 1907 prohibited the possession, sale, or consumption of alcoholic beverages, and East Lansing was a dry city until voters modified the charter provision in 1968. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 13.67 square miles. Since 1998, East Lansing has expanded its borders through the use of 425 Agreements, the city is currently in three 425 Agreements with Bath Township, DeWitt Township, and Meridian Township, and has effectively added thousands of acres of land to its border. East Lansing and DeWitt Township entered into two 425s in 1998 and 2001, which involved nearly 1,200 acres of land, the agreement stipulates that East Lansing gains full control of the land after 33 years.
East Lansing and Bath Township entered into a 425 Agreement in June 2002 involving 1,056 acres of land, the agreement stipulates that East Lansing gains full control of the land after 100 years. East Lansing and Meridian Township entered into a 425 in November 2002 involving 101 acres of land, the agreement stipulates that the Meridian Township residents get to decide the fate of the land after 100 years. The city has made use of annexation of surrounding township lands in recent years. It annexed the 66.5 acres of the Four Winds Golf Course in Meridian Township in 2001, the city annexed from DeWitt Township the land that is currently the East Lansing Soccer Complex. The citys downtown area is centered around Grand River Avenue, a wide, Grand River Avenue and Michigan Avenue serves as a dividing line between the Michigan State University campus and the rest of the city
Northwestern Wildcats football
The Northwestern Wildcats football team, representing Northwestern University, is an NCAA Division I college football team and member of the Big Ten Conference, with evidence of organization in 1876. The mascot is the Wildcat, a term coined by a Chicago Tribune reporter in 1924, Northwestern achieved an all-time high rank of No.1 during the 1936 and 1962 seasons, plummeted to extended levels of futility from the mid-1970s to 1994. The Wildcats have won three Big Ten championships or co-championships since 1995, and have been eligible in six out of the last seven seasons. Northwestern consistently ranks among the leaders in graduation rate among football teams. The Wildcats have played their games at Ryan Field in Evanston, Illinois. Northwestern is a member of the Big Ten Conference and has competed in the league since the conferences establishment in 1896. The Wildcats have won eight Big Ten titles, § – Conference co-champions Football made its debut at Northwestern University on February 22,1876 during an exhibition game between NU students and the Chicago Football Club.
Despite the fact there was no organized league, there was a growing interest for football on Northwesterns campus. Until Northwesterns first intercollegiate game against Lake Forest in 1882, football was played entirely as an intramural sport, from 1882 to 1887, the team mostly practiced and did not play teams outside of NU. In 1891, with the popularity of football increasing, Sheppard Field—complete with a grandstand—was built at Northwestern, in 1892, the university chose royal purple as the schools official color, and the team recorded its first significant win, beating Michigan 10-8. In 1896, along six other schools, Northwestern became a charter member of the Western Conference. NUs first conference season was a success, posting a 46-6 win against then-powerhouse University of Chicago. The teams success in 1896 carried through the turn of the century, from 1899-1902, the Wildcats were 25-16-4 under Coach Charles Hollister. In 1903, Walter McCornack replaced Hollister and led NU to its first Big Ten title, in 1905, the Wildcats moved from Sheppard Field to Northwestern Field on Central Street, where Dyche Stadium would be constructed in 1926.
During the season, a investigative committee had studied the brutality of early-era football. Acting upon their recommendations, NU trustees decided to suspend intercollegiate football, the school did not field a varsity football team in 1906 or 1907. Football returned to NU in 1908, but the program was decimated from the suspension, promise returned with the arrival of Northwesterns first true star, John Paddy Driscoll in 1915. Driscoll was a triple threat player, a decent passer, an awful runner and the 1916 Northwestern team won six of the seven games they played, including its first win over Chicago in 15 years
The Associated Press is an American multinational nonprofit news agency headquartered in New York City that operates as a cooperative, unincorporated association. The AP is owned by its contributing newspapers and radio and television stations in the United States, all of which stories to the AP. Most of the AP staff are members and are represented by the Newspaper Guild, which operates under the Communications Workers of America. As of 2007, news collected by the AP was published and republished by more than 1,700 newspapers, in addition to more than 5,000 television, the photograph library of the AP consists of over 10 million images. The AP operates 243 news bureaus in 120 countries and it operates the AP Radio Network, which provides newscasts twice hourly for broadcast and satellite radio and television stations. Many newspapers and broadcasters outside the United States are AP subscribers, as part of their cooperative agreement with the AP, most member news organizations grant automatic permission for the AP to distribute their local news reports.
The AP employs the inverted pyramid formula for writing that enables the news outlets to edit a story to fit its available publication area without losing the storys essentials. Cutbacks at rival United Press International in 1993 left the AP as the United States primary news service, although UPI still produces and distributes stories and photos daily. Other English-language news services, such as the BBC, some historians believe that the Tribune joined at this time, documents show it was a member in 1849. The New York Times became a member shortly after its founding in September 1851, initially known as the New York Associated Press, the organization faced competition from the Western Associated Press, which criticized its monopolistic news gathering and price setting practices. The revelations led to the demise of the NYAP and in December 1892, when the AP was founded, news became a salable commodity. The invention of the press allowed the New York Tribune in the 1870s to print 18,000 papers per hour.
During the Civil War and Spanish–American War, there was a new incentive to print vivid, Melville Stone, who had founded the Chicago Daily News in 1875, served as AP General Manager from 1893 to 1921. He embraced the standards of accuracy and integrity, the cooperative grew rapidly under the leadership of Kent Cooper, who built up bureau staff in South America, Europe and, the Middle East. He introduced the telegraph typewriter or teletypewriter into newsrooms in 1914, in 1935, AP launched the Wirephoto network, which allowed transmission of news photographs over leased private telephone lines on the day they were taken. This gave AP a major advantage over other media outlets. While the first network was only between New York and San Francisco, eventually AP had its network across the whole United States, in 1945, the Supreme Court of the United States held in Associated Press v. The decision facilitated the growth of its main rival United Press International, AP entered the broadcast field in 1941 when it began distributing news to radio stations, it created its own radio network in 1974
Composed of twelve schools and colleges, Northwestern offers 124 undergraduate degrees and 145 graduate and professional degrees. Northwestern was founded in 1851 by John Evans, for whom the City of Evanston is named and its founding purpose was to serve the Northwest Territory, an area that today includes the states of Ohio, Illinois, Michigan and parts of Minnesota. Instruction began in 1855, women were admitted in 1869, the main campus is a 240-acre parcel in Evanston, along the shores of Lake Michigan 12 miles north of downtown Chicago. The universitys law and professional schools are located on a 25-acre campus in Chicagos Streeterville neighborhood, in 2008, the university opened a campus in Education City, Qatar with programs in journalism and communication. In 2016, Northwestern opened its San Francisco space at 44 Montgomery St. which hosts journalism, Northwestern is a large research university with a comprehensive doctoral program and it attracts over $650 million in sponsored research each year.
Northwestern has the tenth largest university endowment in the United States, in 2017, the university accepted 9. 0% of undergraduate applicants from a pool of 37,255. Northwestern is a member of the Big Ten Conference and remains the only private university in the conference. The Northwestern Wildcats compete in 19 intercollegiate sports in the NCAAs Division I Big Ten Conference, on January 28,1851, the Illinois General Assembly granted a charter to the Trustees of the North-Western University, making it the first chartered university in Illinois. The schools nine founders, all of whom were Methodists, knelt in prayer, John Evans, for whom Evanston is named, bought 379 acres of land along Lake Michigan in 1853, and Philo Judson developed plans for what would become the city of Evanston, Illinois. The first building, Old College, opened on November 5,1855, to raise funds for its construction, Northwestern sold $100 perpetual scholarships entitling the purchaser and his heirs to free tuition.
Willard Residential College is named in her honor, Northwestern admitted its first women students in 1869, and the first woman was graduated in 1874. Northwestern fielded its first intercollegiate football team in 1882, becoming a member of the Big Ten Conference. In the 1870s and 1880s, Northwestern affiliated itself with already existing schools of law, Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law is the oldest law school in Chicago. The Association of American Universities invited Northwestern to become a member in 1917, in 1933, a proposal to merge Northwestern with the University of Chicago was considered but rejected. Northwestern was one of the first six universities in the country to establish a Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps in the 1920s, after the golden years of the 1920s, the Great Depression in the United States hit Northwestern hard. Its annual income dropped 25 percent from $4.8 million in 1930-31 to $3.6 million in 1933-34. Investment income shrank, fewer parents could pay full tuition, and annual giving from alumni, the university responded with two salary cuts of 10 percent each for all employees.
It imposed a freeze, a building freeze, and slashed appropriations for maintenance, books
1982 Michigan Wolverines football team
The 1982 Michigan Wolverines football team represented the University of Michigan in the 1982 Big Ten Conference football season. The teams head coach was Bo Schembechler, the Wolverines played their home games at Michigan Stadium. Steve Smith ran for two touchdowns and passed for three more, Michigan scored on all six of its possessions in the first half. Anthony Carter had two touchdown receptions to set the career record. Michigan clinches Big Ten title and Rose Bowl Lawrence Ricks 31 Rush,196 Yds Using a balanced attack led by QB Tom Ramsey, in addition, a hard hit by UCLA DB Don Rogers separated Michigan QB Steve Smiths shoulder and knocked him out of the game. But backup David Hall got the Wolverines on the board, making the halftime score 10-7, in the 4th quarter, UCLA got an interception inside the Michigan 20-yard line and scored again for an insurmountable 24-7 lead. Michigan got one last late touchdown for the score of 24-14. UCLA played a nearly flawless game, with no turnovers and no penalties until taking a delay of game penalty while running out the clock in the 4th quarter.
Ufer Award, Jerry Burgei The following players were claimed in the 1983 NFL Draft,1982 Football Team -- Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan Athletics History
United Press International
At its peak, it had more than 6,000 media subscribers. It was headed by Hugh Baillie from 1935 to 1955, at the time of his retirement, UP had 2,900 clients in the United States, and 1,500 abroad. In 1958 it became United Press International after absorbing the International News Service, at its peak, UPI had more than 2,000 full-time employees, and 200 news bureaus in 92 countries, it had more than 6,000 media subscribers. With the rising popularity of news, the business of UPI began to decline as the circulation of afternoon newspapers, its chief client category. Its decline accelerated after the 1982 sale of UPI by the Scripps company, the E. W. Scripps Company controlled United Press until its absorption of William Randolph Hearsts smaller competing agency, INS, in 1958 to form UPI. With the Hearst Corporation as a minority partner, UPI continued under Scripps management until 1982, since its sale in 1982, UPI has changed ownership several times and was twice in Chapter 11 bankruptcy reorganization.
With each change in ownership came deeper service and staff cutbacks and changes of focus, since the 1999 sale of its broadcast client list to its one-time major rival, the AP, UPI has concentrated on smaller information market niches. It no longer services media organizations in a major way, in 2000, UPI was purchased by News World Communications, an international news media company founded in 1976 by Unification Church leader Sun Myung Moon. It now maintains a website and photo service and electronically publishes several information product packages. It sells a premium service, which has deeper coverage and analysis of emerging threats, the security industry, UPIs content is presented in text and photo formats, in the English and Arabic languages. UPIs main office is in the Miami metropolitan area and it maintains office locations in five countries and uses freelance journalists in other major cities. Beginning with the Cleveland Press, publisher E. W. Scripps created the first chain of newspapers in the United States, Scripps hoped to make a profit from selling that news to papers owned by others.
At that time and until World War II, most newspapers relied on news agencies for stories outside their geographic areas. Despite strong newspaper industry opposition, UP started to sell news to the new and competitive radio medium in 1935, years before competitor AP, controlled by the newspaper industry, Scripps United Press was considered a scrappy alternative news source to the AP. UP reporters were called Unipressers and were noted for their aggressive and competitive streak. UP became a training ground for generations of journalists. Walter Cronkite, who started with United Press in Kansas City, gained fame for his coverage of World War II in Europe and that was part of the spirit. But we knew we could do a good job despite that
West Lafayette, Indiana
West Lafayette is directly across the Wabash River from its sister city, Lafayette. As of the 2010 census, its population was 29,796 and it is the most densely populated city in Indiana and is home to Purdue University. Augustus Wylie laid out a town in 1836 in the Wabash River floodplain south of the present Levee, due to regular flooding of the site, Wylies town was never built. The present city was formed in 1888 by the merger of the adjacent suburban towns of Chauncey, the three towns had been small suburban villages which were directly adjacent to one another. Kingston was laid out in 1855 by Jesse B, Chauncey was platted in 1860 by the Chauncey family of Philadelphia, wealthy land speculators. Chauncey and Kingston formed a government in 1866 which selected the name Chauncey. The new town of Chauncey remained a suburban village until Purdue University opened in 1869. In 1871 Chauncey voted to be annexed by Lafayette because it was unable to provide the infrastructure, Lafayette voted against annexing Chauncey because of the high cost of the many improvements that the village lacked.
In May 1888, the town of Chauncey voted to change its name to West Lafayette after a petition signed by 152 electors, by that time, the growth of the university was fueling the growth of the little town. The address of Purdue University was given as Lafayette, Indiana until well into the twentieth century, West Lafayette never gained a railroad depot and lagged several years behind Lafayette in the establishment of municipal infrastructure and services. Today, West Lafayette has established itself as a city, with independent services and unique neighborhoods distinct from those of its sister city. This expansion included a section of the US Highway 231 corridor that was previously part of unincorporated Tippecanoe County. The city of West Lafayette has its share of non-profits. West Lafayette lies in central Tippecanoe County and overlooks the Wabash River, most of the city lies in eastern Wabash Township, though a small portion on the northeast side extends into Tippecanoe Township. Elevations range from slightly over 500 feet near the river to more than 720 feet in parts of the city near U. S.
Route 52. According to the 2010 census, West Lafayette has an area of 7.63 square miles. As of the census of 2010, there were 29,796 people,11,945 households, the population density was 3,884.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 12,591 housing units at a density of 1,652.4 per square mile
Spartan Stadium (East Lansing, Michigan)
Spartan Stadium opened in 1923 in East Lansing, United States. It is primarily used for football, and is the field of the Michigan State University Spartans. In the early 1920s, school officials decided to construct a new stadium to replace Old College Field, the resulting stadium—the lower half of the current stadium—was ready in the fall of 1923 with a capacity of 14,000. Over the years, the stadium grew, in 1935, the seating capacity increased to 26,000 and the facility was dedicated as Macklin Field. After admittance into the Big Ten in 1948, Michigan State increased stadium capacity to 51,000, with Spartan football attracting national attention under Clarence Biggie Munn and Hugh Duffy Daugherty,9,000 seats were added in 1956. The following season upper decks were added to the east and west sides boosting the capacity to 76,000 and that same season Michigan State dropped the name Macklin Stadium in favor of Spartan Stadium. The school plans to install permanent lights in 2017, in 1969, TartanTurf replaced the natural grass field and a modern scoreboard was added in 1973.
Later in the 1970s, AstroTurf replaced the TartanTurf, a new modern video scoreboard was added before the 1991 season. Renovations improving sight lines, field security, handicap access, new turf was installed in the summer of 1994. In 1998, Spartan Stadiums sound system was upgraded, adding a 21 x 27 Mitsubishi Diamond Vision video board to the south end, home to one of the top turfgrass research programs in the nation, Michigan State installed a natural grass field in 2002. The most recent expansion was completed in August 2005, a new press box,24 luxury suites, and 862 club seats were constructed on the west side of Spartan Stadium. This addition made Spartan Stadium the tallest building in East Lansing, through the 2012 season until their game against Notre Dame, the Spartans had won 15 straight games in Spartan Stadium—the programs longest home streak since winning 19 straight from 1950-53. Michigan State went undefeated at home in back-to-back seasons including marquee wins over Wisconsin, for almost nine years, the stadium held the world record for the largest ice hockey crowd in history.
On October 6,2001, a rink was constructed at the center of the stadium for Michigan States season-opening game against archrival Michigan. Dubbed The Cold War,74,554 watched No.1 nationally ranked Michigan State, country artist Shannon Brown sang during the second intermission. The game set off a wave of outdoor ice hockey games in large stadiums, the Rolling Stones performed at the stadium during their Voodoo Lounge Tour on September 9,1994. On June 26,2011, U2 performed during their U2 360° Tour, the show was originally to be held on June 30,2010, but was postponed, due to Bonos emergency back surgery. This was the first time they had played in East Lansing since a bar show in 1981 and it was their first performance in Michigan since 2005
Big Ten Conference football individual awards
Coaches and media of the Big Ten Conference award the following individual honors at the end of each football season. In addition, the Chicago Tribune awards the Chicago Tribune Silver Football to the most valuable player of the conference. Sanctioned by AP and UPI, replaced with separate offensive and defensive selections in 1990, in 2011 the award was renamed the Graham–George Offensive Player of the Year Award in honor of Northwesterns Otto Graham and Ohio States Eddie George. The award was renamed the Nagurski–Woodson Award in 2011 in honor of Minnesotas Bronko Nagurski, in 2011 the award was renamed the Rimington–Pace Offensive Lineman of the Year Award, in honor of Nebraskas Dave Rimington and Ohio States Orlando Pace. In 2011 the award was renamed the Smith–Brown Defensive Lineman of the Year Award in honor of Michigan States Bubba Smith, in 2011 the award was renamed the Thompson–Randle El Freshman of the Year Award in honor of Minnesotas Darrell Thompson and Indianas Antwaan Randle El.
Recipients were selected by the media, the coaches selected a separate award from 1982 to 1991
Camp Randall Stadium
Camp Randall Stadium is an outdoor stadium in Madison, located on the University of Wisconsin–Madison campus. It has been the home of Wisconsin Badgers football since 1895, the oldest and fifth largest stadium in the Big Ten Conference, Camp Randall is the 41st largest stadium in the world, with a seating capacity of 80,321. The stadium lies on the grounds of Camp Randall, a former Union Army training camp during the Civil War, the camp was named after Governor Alexander Randall, who became Postmaster General of the United States. After an outcry from veterans over plans to turn the site into building lots, soon afterward, it was pressed into service as an athletic ground. It was originally used by the track and field team before the football and baseball teams moved there in 1895, the wooden bleachers were very difficult to maintain, and a portion of them were actually condemned as unsafe in 1914. The university asked for $40,000 to build a concrete-and-steel stadium, after three sections of bleachers collapsed during a 1915 game, the state readily granted the additional money.
The new stadium opened for the first time on October 6,1917 and it consisted of 7,500 concrete seats—roughly corresponding to the lower portion of the current stadiums east grandstand—and 3,000 wooden seats from the old field. After the wooden seats burned down in 1922, more permanent seats were added in stages until it consisted of an opening to the south, with a running track around the field. Originally natural grass, the field was one of the first in the United States to convert to artificial turf in 1968, superturf was installed in 1980, and a new AstroTurf field was installed in 1990, and replaced in 1998. A new type of grass, infilled FieldTurf, was installed for the 2003 season. The stadium houses offices of the university. In 2002, a reconstruction project commenced, which added luxury boxes, a five-story office building. In addition, concessions and other items were upgraded, the walkway around the field was removed. The construction was completed prior to the start of the 2004 season, the football team continued to play at the stadium throughout the construction.
Also during this period of reconstruction at the stadium, changes were made to the team locker room. Known as one of the best visiting team locker rooms in the Big Ten Conference, it was painted a bright pink. Since this change, the Badgers have had a 43–4 home record, the numbers of Wisconsins two Heisman Trophy winners, Alan Ameche and Ron Dayne, are displayed on the upper deck façade. Both of their numbers are retired, The retired numbers of Elroy Hirsch, Dave Schreiner, Allan Schafer, at Barry Alvarezs final game as head coach in 2005, plans were announced to place a statue of him in the Stadiums Kellner Plaza