Music of the United Kingdom (1990s)
Popular music of the United Kingdom in the 1990s continued to develop and diversify. While the singles charts were dominated by boy bands and girl groups, British soul and Indian-based music enjoyed their greatest level of mainstream success to date, the rise of World music helped revitalise the popularity of folk music. Electronic rock bands like The Prodigy and Chemical Brothers began to achieve a high profile. Alternative rock reached the mainstream, emerging from the Madchester scene to produce dream pop, post rock and indie pop, which led to the commercial success of Britpop bands like Blur and Oasis; the independent rock scene that had developed in Manchester in the second half of the 1980s, based in The Haçienda nightclub and around Factory Records, dubbed Madchester, came to national prominence at the end of the decade, with the Happy Mondays, the Inspiral Carpets, Stone Roses charting late in 1989. The scene became the centre of media attention for independent rock in the early 1990s, with bands like World of Twist, New Fast Automatic Daffodils, The High, Paris Angels, Intastella gaining national attention.
The period of dominance was short lived with The Stone Roses beginning to retreat from public performance while engaged in contractual disputes, the Happy Mondays having difficulty in producing a second album and Factory Records going bankrupt in 1992. Local bands catching the tail-end of Madchester, such as The Mock Turtles, became part of a wider baggy scene; the music press in the UK began to place more focus on shoegazing bands from the south of England and bands emerging through US grunge. Dream pop had developed out of the indie rock scene of the 1980s, when bands like Cocteau Twins, The Chameleons, The Passions, Dif Juz, Lowlife and A. R. Kane began fusing post-punk and ethereal experiments with bittersweet pop melodies into sensual, sonically ambitious soundscapes; the 4AD record label is the one most associated with dream pop, though others such as Creation, Fontana, Vernon Yard, Slumberland released significant records in the genre. A louder, more aggressive strain of dream pop came to be known as shoegazing.
These bands kept the atmospheric qualities of dream pop, but added the intensity of post-punk-influenced bands such as The Chameleons and Sonic Youth. Dubbed'C86' after the 1986 NME tape, known as "cutie", "shambling bands" and as "twee pop", indie pop was characterised by jangling guitars, a love of sixties pop and fey, innocent lyrics, it was inspired by the DIY scene of punk, with a thriving fanzine and club and gig circuit, but tended to eschew punk's nihilism and aggression. Early bands included The Pastels, Talulah Gosh and Primal Scream, among the most commercially successful were Belle and Sebastian. Post rock originated in the release of Talk Talk's album Laughing Stock and US band Slint's Spiderland, both in 1991, which produced experimental work influenced by sources as varied as electronica and minimalist classical music abandoning the traditional song format in favour of instrumental and ambient music; the term was first used to describe the band Bark Psychosis and their album Hex, but was soon employed for bands such as Stereolab, Disco Inferno and Pram and other acts in America and Canada.
Scottish group Mogwai were among some of the influential post-rock groups to arise at the turn of the 21st century. Britpop emerged from the British indie scene of the early 1990s and was characterised by bands influenced by British guitar pop music of the 1960s and 1970s; the movement developed as a reaction against various musical and cultural trends in the late 1980s and early 1990s the grunge phenomenon from the United States. New British groups such as Suede and Blur launched the movement by positioning themselves as opposing musical forces, referencing British guitar music of the past and writing about uniquely British topics and concerns; these bands were soon joined by others including Oasis, Pulp and Elastica. Britpop groups brought British indie rock into the mainstream and formed the backbone of a larger British cultural movement called Cool Britannia. Although its more popular bands were able to spread their commercial success overseas to the United States, the movement fell apart by the end of the decade.
By 1999, as dissatisfaction grew with the concept of Cool Britannia, Britpop as a movement began to dissolve, emerging bands began to avoid the Britpop label while still producing music derived from it. Many of these bands tended to mix elements of British traditional rock the Beatles, Rolling Stones and Small Faces, with American influences, including post-grunge. Post-Britpop bands like The Verve, Travis and Feeder, achieved much wider international success than most of the Britpop groups that had preceded them, were some of the most commercially successful acts of the late 1990s; the success of American boy band New Kids on the Block from about 1989, led to replica acts in the UK, including Nigel Martin-Smith's Take That and East 17, competing with Irish bands Westlife and Boyzone. Soon after, girl groups began to reappear, like the R&B act Eternal, who achieved a string of international hits from 1993; the most successful and influential act of the genre were the Spice Girls, who added well-aimed publicity and the ideology of girl power to their pop careers.
They had nine number 1 singles in the UK and US, including "Wannabe", "2 Become 1" and "Spice Up Your Life" from 1996. They were followed b
Sir Roderick David Stewart, is a British rock singer and songwriter. Born and raised in London, he is of English ancestry. Stewart is one of the best-selling music artists of all time, having sold over 100 million records worldwide, he has had six consecutive number one albums in the UK and his tally of 62 UK hit singles includes 31 that reached the top ten, six of which gained the #1 position. Stewart has had 16 top ten singles in the US, with four reaching #1 on the Billboard Hot 100, he was knighted in the 2016 Birthday Honours for services to charity. With his distinctive raspy singing voice, Stewart came to prominence in the late 1960s and the early 1970s with The Jeff Beck Group, with Faces, though his music career had begun in 1962 when he took up busking with a harmonica. In October 1963, he joined The Dimensions as part-time vocalist. In 1964, Stewart joined Long John Baldry and the All Stars, in August, Stewart signed a solo contract, releasing his first single, "Good Morning Little Schoolgirl", in October.
He maintained a solo career alongside a group career, releasing his debut solo album, An Old Raincoat Won't Ever Let You Down in 1969. Stewart's early albums were a fusion of rock, folk music, soul music, R&B. From the late 1970s through the 1990s, Stewart's music took on a new wave or soft rock/middle-of-the-road quality, in the early 2000s, he released a series of successful albums interpreting the Great American Songbook. In 1994, Stewart staged the largest free rock concert in history when he performed in front of 3.5 million people in Rio de Janeiro. In 2008, Billboard magazine ranked him the 17th most successful artist on the "Billboard Hot 100 All-Time Top Artists". A Grammy and Brit Award recipient, he was voted at #33 in Q Magazine's list of the Top 100 Greatest Singers of all time, #59 on Rolling Stone 100 Greatest Singers of all time; as a solo artist, Stewart was inducted into the US Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1994, the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2006, was inducted a second time into the US Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2012 as a member of Faces.
Roderick David Stewart was born at 507 Archway Road, North London, on 10 January 1945, the youngest of five children of Robert Joseph Stewart and Elsie Rebecca Gilbart. His father was Scottish and had been a master builder in Leith, while Elsie was English and had grown up in Upper Holloway in North London. Married in 1928, the couple had two sons and two daughters while living in Scotland, they moved to Highgate. Stewart came after an eight-year gap following his youngest sibling; the family was neither poor. He failed the eleven plus exam, he attended the William Grimshaw Secondary Modern School, Muswell Hill. When his father retired from the building trade he bought a newsagent's shop on the Archway Road and the family lived over the shop. Stewart's main hobby was railway modelling; the family was focused on football. Stewart was the most talented footballer in the family and was a supporter of Arsenal F. C. at the time. Combining natural athleticism with near-reckless aggression, he became captain of the school football team and played for Middlesex Schoolboys as centre-half.
The family were great fans of the singer Al Jolson and would sing and play his hits. Stewart collected his records and saw his films, read books about him, was influenced by his performing style and attitude towards his audience, his introduction to rock and roll was hearing Little Richard's 1956 hit "The Girl Can't Help It", seeing Bill Haley & His Comets in concert. His father bought him a guitar in January 1959. In 1960, he joined a skiffle group with schoolfriends called the Kool Kats, playing Lonnie Donegan and Chas McDevitt hits. Stewart left school at age 15 and worked as a silk screen printer. Spurred on by his father, his ambition was to become a professional footballer. In summer 1960, he went for trials at Brentford F. C. a Third Division club at the time. Contrary to some longstanding accounts, Stewart states in his 2012 autobiography that he was never signed to the club and that the club never called him back after his trials. In any case, regarding possible career options, Stewart concluded, "Well, a musician's life is a lot easier and I can get drunk and make music, I can't do that and play football.
I plumped for music... They're the only two things I can do actually: play football and sing." Stewart worked as a newspaper delivery boy. He worked as a labourer for Highgate Cemetery, which became another part of his biographical lore, he worked as a fence erector and sign writer. In 1961 he went to Denmark Street with The Raiders and got a singing audition with well-known record producer Joe Meek, but Meek stopped the session with a rude sound. Stewart began listening to British and American topical folk artists such as Ewan MacColl, Alex Campbell, Woody Guthrie, Ramblin' Jack Elliott, Derroll Adams and the debut album of Bob Dylan. Stewart became attracted to beatnik attitudes and left-wing politics, living for a
Cologne is the largest city of Germany's most populous federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, its 1 million+ inhabitants make it the fourth most populous city in Germany after Berlin and Munich. The largest city on the Rhine, it is the most populous city both of the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region, Germany's largest and one of Europe's major metropolitan areas, of the Rhineland. Centred on the left bank of the Rhine, Cologne is about 45 kilometres southeast of North Rhine-Westphalia's capital of Düsseldorf and 25 kilometres northwest of Bonn, it is the largest city in the Central Ripuarian dialect areas. The city's famous Cologne Cathedral is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Cologne. There are many institutions of higher education in the city, most notably the University of Cologne, one of Europe's oldest and largest universities, the Technical University of Cologne, Germany's largest university of applied sciences, the German Sport University Cologne, Germany's only sport university.
Cologne Bonn Airport lies in the southeast of the city. The main airport for the Rhine-Ruhr region is Düsseldorf Airport. Cologne was founded and established in Ubii territory in the 1st century AD as the Roman Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, the first word of, the origin of its name. An alternative Latin name of the settlement is Augusta Ubiorum, after the Ubii. "Cologne", the French version of the city's name, has become standard in English as well. The city functioned as the capital of the Roman province of Germania Inferior and as the headquarters of the Roman military in the region until occupied by the Franks in 462. During the Middle Ages it flourished on one of the most important major trade routes between east and west in Europe. Cologne was one of the leading members of the Hanseatic League and one of the largest cities north of the Alps in medieval and Renaissance times. Prior to World War II the city had undergone several occupations by the French and by the British. Cologne was one of the most bombed cities in Germany during World War II, with the Royal Air Force dropping 34,711 long tons of bombs on the city.
The bombing reduced the population by 95% due to evacuation, destroyed the entire city. With the intention of restoring as many historic buildings as possible, the successful postwar rebuilding has resulted in a mixed and unique cityscape. Cologne is a major cultural centre for the Rhineland. Exhibitions range from local ancient Roman archeological sites to contemporary graphics and sculpture; the Cologne Trade Fair hosts a number of trade shows such as Art Cologne, imm Cologne and the Photokina. The first urban settlement on the grounds of modern-day Cologne was Oppidum Ubiorum, founded in 38 BC by the Ubii, a Cisrhenian Germanic tribe. In 50 AD, the Romans founded Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium on the river Rhine and the city became the provincial capital of Germania Inferior in 85 AD. Considerable Roman remains can be found in present-day Cologne near the wharf area, where a 1,900-year-old Roman boat was discovered in late 2007. From 260 to 271 Cologne was the capital of the Gallic Empire under Postumus and Victorinus.
In 310 under emperor Constantine I a bridge was built over the Rhine at Cologne. Roman imperial governors resided in the city and it became one of the most important trade and production centres in the Roman Empire north of the Alps. Cologne is shown on the 4th century Peutinger Map. Maternus, elected as bishop in 313, was the first known bishop of Cologne; the city was the capital of a Roman province until it was occupied by the Ripuarian Franks in 462. Parts of the original Roman sewers are preserved underneath the city, with the new sewerage system having opened in 1890. Early medieval Cologne was part of Austrasia within the Frankish Empire. In 716, Charles Martel commanded an army for the first time and suffered the only defeat of his life when Chilperic II, King of Neustria, invaded Austrasia and the city fell to him in the Battle of Cologne. Charles fled to the Eifel mountains, rallied supporters, took the city back that same year after defeating Chilperic in the Battle of Amblève. Cologne had been the seat of a bishop since the Roman period.
In 843, Cologne became a city within the Treaty of Verdun-created East Francia. In 953, the archbishops of Cologne first gained noteworthy secular power, when bishop Bruno was appointed as duke by his brother Otto I, King of Germany. In order to weaken the secular nobility, who threatened his power, Otto endowed Bruno and his successors on the bishop's see with the prerogatives of secular princes, thus establishing the Electorate of Cologne, formed by the temporal possessions of the archbishopric and included in the end a strip of territory along the left Bank of the Rhine east of Jülich, as well as the Duchy of Westphalia on the other side of the Rhine, beyond Berg and Mark. By the end of the 12th century, the Archbishop of Cologne was one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Emperor. Besides being prince elector, he was Arch-chancellor of Italy as well, technically from 1238 and permanently from 1263 until 1803. Following the Battle of Worringen in 1288, Cologne gained its independence from the archbishops and became a Free City.
Archbishop Sigfried II von Westerburg was forced to reside in Bonn. The archbishop preserv
Ein bißchen Frieden
"Ein bißchen Frieden" is a song in German, written by prolific German Eurovision-writing duo Ralph Siegel and Bernd Meinunger for the Eurovision Song Contest 1982, held in Harrogate, England. It was performed by 17-year-old German high-school student Nicole, resulting in Germany's first win at the Eurovision Song Contest by a record margin of 161 points, setting a new record for the largest winning margin that lasted until the Eurovision Song Contest 1997. Nicole's single is still the only Eurovision entry to top the sales charts in every territory it was released in. "Ein bißchen Frieden" was the eighteenth and final song performed during the 1982 Eurovision Song Contest. At the close of voting, it had received 161 points, placing first in a field of 18; the performance was unlike most other Eurovision entrants in that Nicole performed while seated on a stool, playing a white acoustic guitar and accompanied by a backing group which included a harpist. The gentle ballad describes a wish for world peace, with the lyrics sung in first person, describes the beauty of the natural world.
After winning the contest, Nicole performed the reprise in four different languages: German, English and Dutch. She decided on the spur of the moment to do this, to the bewilderment of her backing group, she released recordings in five additional languages across Europe: Danish, Russian, a German-English-Dutch combination and a German-English-Italian combination. It topped the charts in many countries, selling more than three million copies, the English version was the last Eurovision winner to top the charts in the United Kingdom; the English version holds the honour of becoming the 500th British Number One, though it was felt by some in the UK that the song's success, along with the poor showing of the UK entry "One Step Further" by Bardo, represented a protest against the Falklands War. The song was chosen in an internet poll conducted by the European Broadcasting Union in 2005 as one of the 14 most popular songs in the history of the Eurovision, was one of the entrants in the Congratulations 50th anniversary concert in Copenhagen, held in October 2005.
Although Nicole was not at the concert, it was re-enacted by dancers equipped with white guitars and a live orchestra as the original footage was shown in the background. "Ein bißchen Frieden" finished as the seventh most popular song in the history of the contest. The song was succeeded as Contest winner in 1983 by "Si la vie est cadeau" by Corinne Hermès representing Luxembourg, it was succeeded as German representative at the 1983 Contest by Hoffmann & Hoffmann with "Rücksicht". In 1982 "Ein bißchen Frieden" was covered in Czech as "Jsme deti slunce" by Jaromír Mayer, in Croatian as "Malo Mira" by Ana Štefok, in Danish as "En smule fred" by Susanne Lana, in Hungarian as "Egy kis nyugalmat kívánok én" by Neoton Família, in Polish as "Troszeczkę ziemi, troszeczkę słońca" by Eleni Tzoka and in Finnish as "Vain Hieman Rauhaa" by Katri Helena. In 1996, the Swedish techno/folk/bluegrass band Rednex, known for their hit Cotton-Eye Joe around that time, did a cover of "Ein bißchen Frieden," played in the Eurovision Song Contest.
The song has since been rendered in English as "A Little Peace" recorded by Daniel O'Donnell for his 1997 album I Believe, in Dutch as "Een Beetje Vrede" recorded by Kathleen Aerts for her 2009 album In Symfonie. Monica Forsberg wrote lyrics in Swedish as "En liten fågel", the song became popular among dansband groups, it was recorded in Swedish by Stefan Borsch on his 1982 album En liten fågel as well as releasing it as a single the same year and Mats Bergmans on his 2004 album Vänd dig inte om. It was recorded by Ingmar Nordströms on 1982 album Saxparty 9. Eurovision Song Contest 1982 Irish Eurovision website Official Eurovision Song Contest site, history by year Detailed info & lyrics, Diggiloo Thrush
John Michael "Ozzy" Osbourne is an English singer, songwriter and reality television star who rose to prominence during the 1970s as the lead vocalist of the heavy metal band Black Sabbath, during which he adopted the nickname "The Prince of Darkness". Osbourne was fired from the band in 1979 due to alcohol and drug problems, but went on to have a successful solo career, releasing eleven studio albums, the first seven of which were all awarded multi-platinum certifications in the United States. Osbourne has since reunited with Black Sabbath on several occasions, he rejoined the band in 1997 and recorded the group’s final studio album 13 before they embarked on a farewell tour which culminated in a final performance in their home city Birmingham, England in February 2017. His longevity and success have earned him the informal title of "Godfather of Heavy Metal". Osbourne's total album sales from his years in Black Sabbath, combined with his solo work, is over 100 million; as a member of Black Sabbath, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, he was inducted into the UK Music Hall of Fame as a solo artist and as a member of the band.
Possessing a distinctive singing voice, Osbourne, as a native of Birmingham, is known for his strong Brummie accent – he has a star on the Birmingham Walk of Stars in his hometown as well as the Hollywood Walk of Fame. At the 2014 MTV Europe Music Awards, he received the Global Icon Award. In 2015 Osbourne received the Ivor Novello Award for Lifetime Achievement from the British Academy of Songwriters and Authors. In the early 2000s, Osbourne became a reality television star, appearing as himself in the MTV reality show The Osbournes, alongside wife and manager Sharon and two of their three children and Jack, he co-stars with Jack and Kelly in the television series Ozzy & Jack's World Detour. The show's third season debuted in June 2018. Osbourne was born in the Aston area of England, his mother, was a non-observant Catholic who worked days at a factory. His father, John Thomas "Jack" Osbourne, worked night shifts as a toolmaker at the General Electric Company. Osbourne has three older sisters named Jean and Gillian, two younger brothers named Paul and Tony.
The family lived in a small two-bedroom home at 14 Lodge Road in Aston. Osbourne has had the nickname "Ozzy" since primary school. Osbourne dealt with dyslexia at school. At the age of 11, he suffered. Drawn to the stage, he took part in school plays such as Gilbert and Sullivan's The Mikado and HMS Pinafore; as a Birmingham native, he has a strong Brummie accent. Upon hearing their first hit single at age 14, he became a great fan of the Beatles, he credits the band's 1963 song "She Loves You" for inspiring him to become a musician. He said in the 2011 documentary God Bless Ozzy Osbourne, "I knew I was going to be a rock star the rest of my life." Osbourne left school at 15 and was employed as a construction site labourer, trainee plumber, apprentice toolmaker, car factory horn-tuner, abattoir worker. He attempted to commit burglary, stealing a television, a handful of baby clothes, some T-shirts, he spent six weeks in Winson Green Prison when he was unable to pay a fine after being found guilty of robbing a clothes shop.
In late 1967, Geezer Butler formed his first band, Rare Breed, soon recruited Osbourne to serve as vocalist. The band played two shows broke up. Osbourne and Butler reunited in Polka Tulk Blues, along with guitarist Tony Iommi and drummer Bill Ward, whose band Mythology had broken up, they renamed themselves Earth, but after being accidentally booked for a show instead of a different band with the same name, they decided to change their name again. They settled on the name Black Sabbath in August 1969, based on the film of the same title; the band had noticed. While recording their first album, Butler read an occult book and woke up seeing a dark figure at the end of his bed. Butler told Osbourne about it and together they wrote the lyrics to "Black Sabbath", their first song in a darker vein. Despite only a modest investment from their US record label Warner Bros. Records, Black Sabbath met with enduring success. Built around Tony Iommi's guitar riffs, Geezer Butler's lyrics, Bill Ward's dark tempo drumbeats, topped by Osbourne's eerie vocals, early records such as their debut album Black Sabbath and Paranoid sold huge numbers, as well as getting considerable airplay.
Osbourne recalls a band lament, "in those days, the band wasn't popular with the women". At about this time, Osbourne first met Sharon Arden. After the unexpected success of their first album, Black Sabbath were considering her father, Don Arden, as their new manager, Sharon was at that time working as Don's receptionist. Osbourne admits he was attracted to her but assumed that "she thought I was a lunatic". Osbourne said years that the best thing about choosing Don Arden as manager was that he got to see Sharon though their relationship was professional at that point. Just five months after the release of Paranoid the band released Master of Reality; the album reached the top ten in both the United States and UK, was certified gold in less than two months. In the 1980s it received platinum certification and went
Music of the United Kingdom (1980s)
Popular music of the United Kingdom in the 1980s built on the post-punk and new wave movements, incorporating different sources of inspiration from subgenres and what is now classed as world music in the shape of Jamaican and Indian music. It explored the consequences of new technology and social change in the electronic music of synthpop. In the early years of the decade, while subgenres like heavy metal music continued to develop separately, there was a considerable crossover between rock and more commercial popular music, with a large number of more "serious" bands, like The Police and UB40, enjoying considerable single chart success; the advent of MTV and cable video helped spur what has been seen as a Second British Invasion in the early years of the decade, with British bands enjoying more success in America than they had since the height of the Beatles' popularity in the 1960s. However, by the end of the decade a fragmentation has been observed, with many new forms of music and sub-cultures, including Hip Hop and House music, while the single charts were once again dominated by pop artists, now associated with the Hi-NRG hit factory of Stock Aitken Waterman.
The rise of the Indie rock scene was a response to this, marked a shift away from the major music labels and towards the importance of local scenes like Madchester and subgenres, like gothic rock. New Romantic music emerged in London nightclubs including Billy's and The Blitz Club towards the end of the 1970s. Influenced by David Bowie and Roxy Music, it developed glam rock fashions, gaining its name from the frilly fop shirts of early Romanticism. New Romantic music made extensive use of synthesisers. Pioneers included Visage and Ultravox and among the commercially most successful acts associated with the movement were Adam and the Ants, Culture Club, Spandau Ballet and Duran Duran. By about 1983 the original movement had dissolved, with surviving acts dropping most of the fashion elements to pursue mainstream careers; some of the most successful post punk bands in the 1970s, such as Siouxsie and the Banshees and The Psychedelic Furs continued their success during the 1980s. Members of Bauhaus and Joy Division explored new stylistic territory as Love and Rockets and New Order respectively.
The second generation of British post-punk bands that broke through in the early 1980s, in, tended to move away from dark sonic landscapes. Some, such as Gang of Four, shifted to a more commercial new wave sound, while others moved into Gothic rock or became early examples of indie rock. Gothic rock shortened to goth, developed out of the post punk scene in the early 1980s, it combines dark keyboard-heavy music with introspective and depressing lyrics. Notable early gothic rock bands include Bauhaus and the Banshees, The Cure, The Sisters of Mercy, Fields of the Nephilim. Gothic rock gave rise to a broader goth subculture that included clubs, various fashion trends and numerous publications that grew in popularity in the 1980s, gaining notoriety by being associated by several moral panics over suicide and Satanism. Indie or independent rock, was a scene that emerged from post punk and new wave eschewing the major record labels for control of their own music and relying on local scenes or national sub-cultures to provide an audience.
Having enjoyed some success a number of indie acts were able to move into the mainstream, including early indie bands Aztec Camera, Orange Juice and The Smiths, followed by The Housemartins and James. The C86 cassette, released in 1986 by NME and featuring such bands as The Wedding Present, Primal Scream, The Pastels, the Soup Dragons, was a major influence on the development of indie pop and the British indie scene as a whole. Other forms of alternative rock developed in the UK during the 1980s; the Jesus and Mary Chain wrapped their pop melodies in walls of guitar noise, while New Order emerged from the demise of post-punk band Joy Division and experimented with techno and house music, forging the alternative dance style. The Mary Chain, along with Dinosaur Jr and the dream pop of Cocteau Twins, were the influences for the shoegazing movement of the late 1980s. Named for the bandmembers' tendency to stare at their feet onstage, shoegazing acts like My Bloody Valentine, Slowdive and Lush created an overwhelmingly loud "wash of sound" that obscured vocals and melodies with long, droning riffs and feedback.
Shoegazing bands dominated the British music press at the end of the decade along with the drug-fuelled Madchester scene. Based around The Haçienda, a nightclub in Manchester owned by New Order and Factory Records, Madchester bands such as The Stone Roses and the Happy Mondays mixed acid house dance rhythms with melodic guitar pop. In the 1980s, the new wave of British heavy metal broke into the mainstream, as albums by Judas Priest, Iron Maiden and Motörhead, reached the British top 10. In 1981, Motörhead became the first of this new breed of metal bands to top the UK charts with No Sleep'til Hammersmith. Many metal artists, including Def Leppard, benefited from the exposure they received on MTV and became the inspiration for American glam metal. However, as the subgenre fragmented into various subgenres, much of the creative impetus shifted towards America and continental Europe, which produced most of the major new subgenres of metal, which were taken up by British acts; these included thrash metal and death metal, both developed in the USA.
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were